Alstroemeria


Alstroemeria (lat.Alstroemeria), or Alstroemeria, or Alstroemeria is a genus of rhizome tuberous South American herbaceous plants of the Alstroemeria family, distinguished by very beautiful flowers and also called Peruvian lilies or Inca lilies. Both the genus and the family were named in honor of a student of Karl Linnaeus, Baron Klas Alström, a Swedish botanist, philanthropist and industrialist of the eighteenth century, who brought Linnaeus the seeds of two types of alstroemeria.


Herring fish (Clupeiformes)

Herring fish (Clupeiformes) have a body strongly compressed from the sides and covered with easily falling scales. There is no lateral line. Teeth small or absent. The caudal fin is homocercal. The vertebral bodies, as a rule, in a significant part of the spine, ossified vertebral bodies in the middle are usually perforated with a hole, sometimes quite large. There is no Weber's apparatus. There is a urostyle (hypuralia). There are intermuscular bones. Usually, both the intermaxillary and jaw bones border the upper jaw. In the lower jaw, the articulare may consist of cutaneous and endochondral parts. There is an endochondral supraoccipitale. The coulter is usually unpaired. The mesocoracoid is usually there. Only fossils have traces of ganoin. Usually open-bubble. Bones and scales usually contain bone cells, but tubules are absent. The scales are usually cycloidal. The pelvic fins are located in the middle of the belly, with one dorsal fin above them. On the ventral side there is a sharp keel of scales. Schooling fish.

Most of schooling pelagic fish, inhabiting the seas of the entire globe a wide variety of species are typical of the tropics. There are anadromous forms (live in the sea, go into rivers for reproduction), few freshwater species. More than 300 species in 4 families.


Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

They feed on planktonic animals using a filtering apparatus made of gill stamens. Some of them, such as ocean herring, sprat, sprats, sardines, etc., spend their whole life in the sea. Others (most of the herring of the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas) rise to spawn in rivers.

Have great commercial value.

In the North Atlantic and adjacent seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian herring Clupea harengus is widespread, the length reaches 36-40 cm. They live up to 20-25 years, becoming sexually mature at 5-7 years. The female spawns 14-70 thousand eggs annually. Reproduction takes place near the shores of Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada. Spawning flocks go to sea for fattening, passing 10 km or more per day, penetrate far to the north. The Baltic form of this herring, known as herring, becomes sexually mature at the age of 2-3 years with a length of 13-15 cm. It gives about half of the catch in the Baltic Sea. European sprat - Sprattus sprattus is found in large flocks from Norway and the Baltic to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In the fourth year of life, the fish reaches a length of 12-15 cm. In autumn, fat makes up 12-15% of body weight. It is mined in large quantities. Essential food for many large fish species.


Black Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

In the Black and Caspian Seas, anadromous black-backed herring - Caspiotosa kessleri - up to 50 cm long lives. They become sexually mature at 3-4 g. Before spawning, fat can make up 6-18% of body weight. They go to the rivers for spawning, sometimes passing up to 30-70 km per day before the construction of dams, they ascended along the Volga by 2-3 thousand km. After spawning, some of the producers die, others slide into the sea and, after feeding the next year, breed again. The female spawns 135-310 thousand eggs. Eggs and hatched larvae are gradually carried away by the current and the juveniles eventually end up in the sea. In the Azov, Black and Caspian seas live 4 species of tulle (kilka) p. Clupeonella. They are numerous and serve as food for many valuable fish, including herring. Can store large amounts of fat (6-19% of body weight). They are intensively hunted. Light fishing is widely used: flocks of tulles at night are attracted to the vessel by a powerful lamp lowered into the water and are sucked in by pumps through hoses.

Herring-like species have been known since the Middle Triassic.

Systematics of the Herring order:

  • Family: Chirocentridae Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1846 = Pre-work
    • Genus: Chirocentrus Cuvier, 1816 =
      • Species: Chirocentrus dorab Forsskal, 1775 = Dorab
  • Family: Clupeidae Bonaparte = Herring
    • Subfamily: Alosinae =
      • Genus: Alosa Cuvier, 1829 = Shaloses
        • Species: Alosa alosa Linnaeus, 1758 = shad
          • Subspecies: Alosa alosa bulgarica Drensky, 1934 = Black Sea shallow
        • Species: Alosa brashnikovi Borodin, 1904 = Dolginskaya herring, or Brazhnikovskaya
          • Subspecies: Alosa braschnikowi autumnalis Berg, 1915 = Big-eyed herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi agrachanica Miehailowskaja, 1941 = Agrakhan herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi grimmi Borodin, 1904 = Astrabad herring, or white-headed
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi kisselewitschi Bulgakov = Hasan-Kulinskaya herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi maeotica Grimm, 1901 = Kerch herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi nivchi = Krasnovodsk herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi orientalis Mikhailowskaja, 1941 = Eastern herring
          • Subspecies: Alosa brashnikovi sarensis Miehailowskaja, 1941 = Sarin herring
        • Species: Alosa caspia Eichwald, 1838 = Caspian Puzanok
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia caspia Eichwald, 1838 = North Caspian Buzzard
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia knipowitschi Iljin, 1927 = Enzelian Buzzard
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia palaeostomi Sadowsky, 1934 = Pusanok paliostomi
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia persica Iljin = Astrabad pusan
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia salina Svetovidov, 1936 = Northeastern Caspian Buzzard
          • Subspecies: Alosa caspia tanaica Grimm, 1901 = Azov Puzanok
        • Species: Alosa fallax Lacepede, 1800 = Finta
          • Subspecies: Alosa fallax nilotica Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1808 = Mediterranean Finta
        • Species: Alosa kessleri Grimm, 1887 = Kessler herring, or black back
          • Subspecies: Alosa kessleri pontica Eichwald, 1838 = Black Sea-Azov herring, or Danube
          • Subspecies: Alosa kessleri volgensis Berg, 1913 = Volga herring
        • Species: Alosa maeotica Grimm, 1901 = Black Sea-Azov sea herring
        • Species: Alosa nordmanni Antipa, 1906 = Black Sea Puzanok
        • Species: Alosa sapidissima Wilson, 1811 = Shed Herring
        • Species: Alosa saposchnikowii Grimm, 1887 = Big-eyed pusanok
        • Species: Alosa sphaerocephala Berg, 1913 = Round-headed Belly
      • Genus: Brevoortia Gill, 1861 = Menhaden
        • Species: Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, 1802 = Atlantic Menhaden
      • Genus: Caspialosa Berg, 1913 = Ponto-Caspian herring
        • Species: Caspialosa curensis Suworow, 1901 = Kizilagach herring
        • Species: Caspialosa pontica Eichwald, 1838 = Black Sea or Don herring
        • Species: Caspialosa sphaerocephala Berg, 1915
        • Species: Caspialosa suworowi Berg, 1913 = Suvorov pusanok
      • Genus: Ethmalosa =
      • Genus: Ethmidium =
      • Genus: Gudusia =
      • Genus: Hilsa =
      • Genus: Tenualosa = Tenualose
        • Tenualosa ilisha Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 = Indian tenualose
    • Subfamily: Clupeinae =
      • Genus: Amblygaster Bleeker = Amblygaster Sardinella
        • Species: Amblygaster sirm Walbaum, 1792 = Spotted sardinella
      • Genus: Clupea Linnaeus, 1758 = Sea herring, or oceanic
        • Species: Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758 = Atlantic herring
          • Subspecies: Clupea harengus harengus = Murmansk herring
          • Subspecies: Clupea harengus membras Linnaeus, 1761 = Baltic herring
          • Subspecies: Clupea harengus pallasi Valenciennes = Eastern herring
        • Species: Clupea pallasi Valenciennes, 1847 = Pacific Herring
          • Subspecies: Clupea pallasi marisalba Berg, 1928 = White Sea Herring
          • Subspecies: Clupea pallasii suworowi Rabinerson, 1927 = Czech Pechora herring
      • Genus: Clupeonella Kessler, 1877 = Tulle
        • Species: Clupeonella abrau Maljatskij, 1930 = Sprat, or Abrau sprat
        • Species: Clupeonella caspia Svetovidov, 1941 = Caspian sprat
        • Species: Clupeonella cultriventris Nordmann, 1840 = Sprat, or Caspian sprat
        • Species: Clupeonella engrauliformis Borodin, 1904 = Anchovy sprat
        • Species: Clupeonella grimmi Kessler, 1877 = Big-eyed Tulle
        • Species: Clupeonella macrophthalma Kessler, 1877 = Big-eyed sprat
      • Genus: Escualosa =
      • Genus: Harengula Valenciennes, 1847 = Harengula
        • Species: Harengula humeralis Cuvier, 1829 = Striped Sardine
        • Species: Harengula zunasi Вleker, 1854 = Zunasi
      • Genus: Herklotsichthys =
      • Genus: Lile =
      • Genus: Opisthonema =
        • Species: Opisthonema oglinum Lesueur, 1818 = Atlantic Machuela
      • Genus: Sardinops Hubbs, 1929 = Sardinops
        • Species: Sardinops melanostictus Temminck et Schlegel, 1846 = Far Eastern sardine, or Iwashi
        • Species: Sardinops neopilchardus Steindachner, 1879 = Australian sardine
        • Species: Sardinops ocellata Pappe, 1853 = South African sardine
        • Species: Sardinops sagax Jenyns, 1842 = Pacific Sardine
          • Subspecies: Sardinops sagax melanosticta Schlegel, 1846 = Far Eastern sardine, Iwashi
    • Subfamily: Dorosomatinae =
      • Genus: Anodontostoma =
      • Genus: Clupanodon Lacepede, 1803 = Clupanodon
        • Species: Clupanodon punctatus Schlegel, 1846 = Spotted herring, or spotted conosir
      • Genus: Dorosoma =
      • Genus: Gonialosa =
      • Genus: Konosirus Jordan & Snyder, 1900 = Konosir
        • Species: Konosirus punctatus Temminck et Schlegel, 1846 = Spotted conosir, or imperial herring
      • Genus: Nematalosa =
    • Subfamily: Dussumieriinae =
      • Genus: Dayella =
      • Genus: Dussumieria = Dussumieria
        • Species: Dussumieria acuta Valenciennes, 1847 = Common dussumieria
      • Genus: Etrumeus Bleker, 1853 = Urum-Iwashi
        • Species: Etrumeus micropus Sсhlegel, 1846 = Urum-Iwashi
        • Species: Etrumeus teres DeKay, 1842 = Common round-belly herring
      • Genus: Gilchristella =
      • Gender: Jenkinsia =
      • Genus: Luisiella =
      • Genus: Sauvagella =
      • Genus: Spratelloides =
      • Genus: Spratellomorpha =
    • Genus: Nannothrissa =
    • Genus: Neoopisthopterus =
    • Subfamily: Pellonulinae =
      • Genus: Clupeichthys =
      • Genus: Clupeoides =
      • Genus: Congothrissa =
      • Genus: Corica =
      • Genus: Cynothrissa =
      • Genus: Ehirava =
      • Genus: Hyperlophus =
      • Genus: Knightia =
      • Genus: Laeviscutella =
      • Genus: Limnothrissa =
      • Genus: Microthrissa =
      • Genus: Minyclupeoides =
      • Genus: Odaxothrissa =
      • Genus: Pellonula =
      • Genus: Poecilothrissa =
      • Genus: Potamalosa =
      • Genus: Potamothrissa =
      • Genus: Stolothrissa =
      • Genus: Thrattidion =
    • Genus: Platanichthys =
    • Genus: Ramnogaster =
    • Genus: Rhinosardinia =
    • Genus: Sardina Antipa, 1906 = Sardines
      • Species: Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 = Sardine
        • Subspecies: Sardina pilchardus sardina Risso, 1827 = European sardine
    • Genus: Sardinella Valenciennes, 1847 = Sardinella
      • Species: Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 = Sardinella
      • Species: Sardinella eba = Flat sardinella
      • Species: Sardinella fimbriata Valenciennes, 1847 = Gathered scaled sardinella
      • Species: Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes, 1847 = Large-headed sardinella
      • Species: Sardinella zunasi Bleeker, 1854 = Japanese sardinella
    • Genus: Sierrathrissa =
    • Genus: Sprattus Girgensohn, 1846 = Sprats, or sprats
      • Species: Sprattus balticus Schneider, 1904 = Baltic sprat
      • Species: Sprattus fuegensis Jenyns, 1842 = South American sprat
      • Species: Sprattus sprattus Linnaeus, 1758 = Sprat
        • Subspecies: Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider, 1908 = Baltic sprat
        • Subspecies: Sprattus sprattus phalericus Risso, 1826 = Black Sea sprat
  • Family: Denticipitidae Clausen, 1959 = Denticeps
    • Genus: Denticeps Clausen, 1959 =
    • Genus: Paleodenticeps =
  • Family: Engraulidae Gill, 1861 = Anchovy
    • Genus: Amazonsprattus =
    • Genus: Anchoa = Anchoa
      • Species: Anchoa cubana Poey, 1868 = Cuban Anchoa
    • Genus: Anchovia =
    • Genus: Anchoviella Fowler, 1911 = Anchoviella
      • Species: Anchoviella lepidentostole Fowler, 1911 = Striped Anchoviella
    • Genus: Cetengraulis =
    • Genus: Coilia =
    • Genus: Encrasicholina =
    • Genus: Engraulis Cuvier, 1816 = Anchovies
      • Species: Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758 = Anchovy, or anchovy
        • Subspecies: Engraulis encrasicolus maeoticus = Azov hamsa, or anchovy
        • Subspecies: Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus Aleksandrov, 1927 = Black Sea anchovy, or anchovy
      • Species: Engraulis japonicus Temminck et Schlegel = Japanese anchovy
      • Species: Engraulis mordax Girard, 1854 = California anchovy
      • Species: Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 = Peruvian anchovy
    • Genus: Jurengraulis =
    • Genus: Lycengraulis =
    • Genus: Lycothrissa =
    • Genus: Papuengraulis =
    • Genus: Pterengraulis =
    • Genus: Setipinna =
    • Genus: Stolephorus Lacepède, 1803 = Stolephorus
      • Species: Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepede, 1803 = Commerson's Stolephorus
      • Species: Stolephorus indicus van Hasselt, 1823 = Indian tabletop
    • Genus: Thryssa = Trissa
      • Species: Thryssa dussumieri Valenciennes, 1848 = Golden Trissa
  • Family: Pristigasteridae = Pristigasteridae
    • Genus: Ilisha Gray, 1846 = Ilisha
      • Species: Ilisha africana Bloch = Oriental Ilisha
      • Species: Ilisha elongata Bennett, 1830 = Ilisha
    • Genus: Pellona =
    • Genus: Pristigaster =
  • Family: Sundasalangidae T. R. Roberts, 1981 = Sundasalangidae
    • Genus: Sundasalanx T. R. Roberts, 1981 =

Literature:
1.L.S. Berg. Fish of fresh waters of the USSR and neighboring countries. Part 1. Edition 4. Moscow, 1948
2. N.P. Naumov, N.N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "High School", 1979
3. The course of zoology. B. A. Kuznetsov, A. 3. Chernov, L. N. Katonova. Moscow, 1989


Watch the video: 東方Touhou: Best of Alstroemeria Records PART 2


Previous Article

Indoor trees

Next Article

Matrona's party or Night violet