Alstroemeria (lat.Alstroemeria), or Alstroemeria, or Alstroemeria is a genus of rhizome tuberous South American herbaceous plants of the Alstroemeria family, distinguished by very beautiful flowers and also called Peruvian lilies or Inca lilies. Both the genus and the family were named in honor of a student of Karl Linnaeus, Baron Klas Alström, a Swedish botanist, philanthropist and industrialist of the eighteenth century, who brought Linnaeus the seeds of two types of alstroemeria.
Herring fish (Clupeiformes) have a body strongly compressed from the sides and covered with easily falling scales. There is no lateral line. Teeth small or absent. The caudal fin is homocercal. The vertebral bodies, as a rule, in a significant part of the spine, ossified vertebral bodies in the middle are usually perforated with a hole, sometimes quite large. There is no Weber's apparatus. There is a urostyle (hypuralia). There are intermuscular bones. Usually, both the intermaxillary and jaw bones border the upper jaw. In the lower jaw, the articulare may consist of cutaneous and endochondral parts. There is an endochondral supraoccipitale. The coulter is usually unpaired. The mesocoracoid is usually there. Only fossils have traces of ganoin. Usually open-bubble. Bones and scales usually contain bone cells, but tubules are absent. The scales are usually cycloidal. The pelvic fins are located in the middle of the belly, with one dorsal fin above them. On the ventral side there is a sharp keel of scales. Schooling fish.
Most of schooling pelagic fish, inhabiting the seas of the entire globe a wide variety of species are typical of the tropics. There are anadromous forms (live in the sea, go into rivers for reproduction), few freshwater species. More than 300 species in 4 families.
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)
They feed on planktonic animals using a filtering apparatus made of gill stamens. Some of them, such as ocean herring, sprat, sprats, sardines, etc., spend their whole life in the sea. Others (most of the herring of the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas) rise to spawn in rivers.
Have great commercial value.
In the North Atlantic and adjacent seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian herring Clupea harengus is widespread, the length reaches 36-40 cm. They live up to 20-25 years, becoming sexually mature at 5-7 years. The female spawns 14-70 thousand eggs annually. Reproduction takes place near the shores of Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada. Spawning flocks go to sea for fattening, passing 10 km or more per day, penetrate far to the north. The Baltic form of this herring, known as herring, becomes sexually mature at the age of 2-3 years with a length of 13-15 cm. It gives about half of the catch in the Baltic Sea. European sprat - Sprattus sprattus is found in large flocks from Norway and the Baltic to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In the fourth year of life, the fish reaches a length of 12-15 cm. In autumn, fat makes up 12-15% of body weight. It is mined in large quantities. Essential food for many large fish species.
Black Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus)
In the Black and Caspian Seas, anadromous black-backed herring - Caspiotosa kessleri - up to 50 cm long lives. They become sexually mature at 3-4 g. Before spawning, fat can make up 6-18% of body weight. They go to the rivers for spawning, sometimes passing up to 30-70 km per day before the construction of dams, they ascended along the Volga by 2-3 thousand km. After spawning, some of the producers die, others slide into the sea and, after feeding the next year, breed again. The female spawns 135-310 thousand eggs. Eggs and hatched larvae are gradually carried away by the current and the juveniles eventually end up in the sea. In the Azov, Black and Caspian seas live 4 species of tulle (kilka) p. Clupeonella. They are numerous and serve as food for many valuable fish, including herring. Can store large amounts of fat (6-19% of body weight). They are intensively hunted. Light fishing is widely used: flocks of tulles at night are attracted to the vessel by a powerful lamp lowered into the water and are sucked in by pumps through hoses.
Herring-like species have been known since the Middle Triassic.
Systematics of the Herring order:
1.L.S. Berg. Fish of fresh waters of the USSR and neighboring countries. Part 1. Edition 4. Moscow, 1948
2. N.P. Naumov, N.N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "High School", 1979
3. The course of zoology. B. A. Kuznetsov, A. 3. Chernov, L. N. Katonova. Moscow, 1989