Often, quite healthy-looking seedlings wither and die after planting. There may be many reasons for this, and many of them are associated with mistakes made by the gardeners themselves.
Seedlings for planting must be stored in the garden soil, in a trench. This method allows you to preserve even those plants that were purchased in late autumn or not planted on time. If there is no way to dig in, then it is better to keep the plants in a dark, cool cellar or basement. The optimum air temperature is from 0 to +2 degrees. Small cuttings can be kept in the lower part of the refrigerator.
When stored on the balcony, the roots of the plant are wrapped in a film, in which several holes are made for air exchange. Then the bottom of the seedling is packed with a layer of newspapers, placed in a container of a suitable size and covered with a thick cloth from light.
With any storage option, it is better not to disturb the seedlings once again. Before landing, it is enough to check their condition several times.
Some gardeners are in a hurry to plant seedlings on the site immediately after the snow melts. The soil at this time is still cold, at night the temperature drops to minus marks. As a result, plants cannot take root. It is not surprising that many do not withstand temperature extremes and die.
It is better to plant seedlings only after stable warm weather is established. This usually happens in April.
Divide the rhizomes, if necessary, you need to be extremely careful. Each half must have a developed part of the root and renewal bud, otherwise the plant will not take root. At the same time, it is also not worth dividing into large components, otherwise you will have to repeat the procedure for the next year.
Divide the rhizome by hand. Cutting it is permissible only if the roots are very strong. Sprinkle the place of division with crushed coal - this will save the plant from diseases.
When planting seedlings, special attention should be paid to deepening the root collar. For plants that do not propagate by cuttings, place it strictly above the soil level; for others, add it in. Much depends on the variety, therefore, when buying a seedling, it is better to clarify all the necessary information from the seller.
If you cannot find accurate information, then it is better not to risk it and not to deepen the neck. This often leads to the death of the culture.
The planting hole should be twice the size of the plant's rhizome. If you make a deepening under the root and cover it with the dug earth, the seedling will not develop and bear fruit - it will not have enough strength to penetrate the dense layers of soil from below to gain a foothold, get to the water and get the nutrients necessary for growth.
Dig a hole for the plant deep. At its bottom, if necessary, drainage, fertilizers, and a loose layer of removed earth are laid. Then a seedling is placed on the resulting pillow and sprinkled with a nutritious substrate. It is prepared from black soil, sand and organic matter.
The planting site must be chosen taking into account its neighbors. If the species are incompatible, then it is better not to risk it - they can get sick or die together. For example, apple trees will not survive next to a walnut: the leaves of the latter contain a natural herbicide, which over time accumulates in the soil and destroys all vegetation nearby. Even ordinary potatoes have a bad effect on the apple tree: its yield decreases, and the taste of the fruit becomes worse.
It is optimal to plant side by side crops of the same species or with similar growing conditions and lack of competition.
It is better to buy seedlings from trusted producers or in specialized stores and nurseries. Purchasing from hands is unreliable. Even if the plant takes root, there is a high probability that its variety or characteristics will be different. Non-acclimatized seedlings grown in warmer regions are often displayed in spontaneous horticultural markets. They look attractive, but after landing, most of them die due to unusual weather conditions.
When buying, you need to pay attention to the appearance of the plants. They should be strong, the trunk, branches and leaves - elastic, roots - intact, not dry. It is not recommended to take seedlings with an open root system. Thin root ends, providing water absorption and survival, die off very quickly outside the soil.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the soil - whether it is suitable for new plants. Weeds are a clue here. For example, horsetail grows on acidic soils, field mustard grows on alkaline soils, and clover grows on neutral soils. If the soil is suitable for the culture, you can prepare a pit for planting, no - you need to change the acidity of the soil.
There must be enough light for the growth and development of seedlings. Here again, you need to orient yourself by the type of culture: some feel good in the direct rays of the sun, others need shading.
If the garden plot is located in a low place or the groundwater passes close to the surface of the earth, then you should take care of protecting the plants from waterlogging in advance. Landing on hills is a good option. In this case, an earthen hill with a height of up to 1.5 meters is formed at the selected place. A tree is planted on its top and tied to the supports.
The soil is also waterlogged due to improper watering. Let the soil dry and then water based on growing conditions and crop type.
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There are several effective ways to avoid pulling out seedlings.
Growing seedlings, need to carefully monitor that it does not stretch, since thin tall stems weaken young roots.
Lack of lighting, non-compliance with the temperature regime and excess moisture, thickening - these are the main reasons for pulling out seedlings... Thin stems are not a tragedy like black leg. But such a seedling will not be able to reveal its full potential and please with the harvest.
An ordinary plastic bottle is taken, but not colored, but transparent, and cut lengthwise. Toilet paper is placed in 8 layers on the cut-off half of the container. Then it needs to be moistened, but not much. Seeds are placed on top and pressed strongly.
A tightly plastic bag is put on the container. It looks like an ordinary small greenhouse. Seeds can germinate in it for up to a month.
Only two leaves grow, but the roots develop well. Watering is not required, as condensation flows from the bag onto the seedlings. At the right time, seedlings are planted in open ground. Thus, summer residents are advised to plant the seeds of many vegetable and berry crops, as well as flowers.
It is noticed that the seedlings are tall, strong, with strongly developed roots. When planted in the soil, it soon begins to vigorously release leaves and roots.
The process is quite laborious and consists of several important stages. Let's get acquainted with the features of each of them.
Much attention is paid to the selection of a suitable site - the relief, soil type, depth of groundwater, the degree of protection from wind and other important conditions are assessed. Thanks to agrochemical analyzes, it is possible to determine the level of soil acidity and the concentration of nutrients, which will further help with watering, fertilizing, and liming. Determination of the depth of the groundwater will allow determining the measures to minimize their negative impact. In a word, the laying of a garden should be carried out only after preliminary preparation, and gardeners are obliged to know about some points of land assessment.
The garden should be laid out after assessing the soil and topography
Note! A number of additional measures will help make land even unsuitable for trees suitable (for example, drainage).
Gardens grow best on slopes with a steepness of no more than 8 degrees. The direction of the slope is also important - it should be southern, which means it should be warm and well lit. Do not set up a garden in a depression, as water accumulates there and cold air stagnates.
But the relief of most of the suburban areas is flat, without depressions and slopes, so there is no need to choose.
Fruit trees, as you know, have a fairly powerful root system that goes deep vertically and spreads widely on the sides. This means that the nutrient medium is required in large volumes. It is for this reason that horticultural crops develop better on strong soil, which contains the required supply of elements, and is sufficiently (but not too) moistened. Swampy, rocky, highly podzolized and clayey terrain is completely unsuitable in this case.
As for the subsoil, it must be moisture and air permeable.
An area with a high level of groundwater is dangerous for garden trees, since plants do not live in such places for a long time. The roots, reaching the water, die due to the lack of oxygen, then the ends of the branches in the crown dry out, and later the twigs. Plants grow very slowly and soon die.
If you plan to plant apple trees, then groundwater should be no closer than 2 m.For stone fruit varieties (cherries, sweet cherries, apricots), which have deep roots, this figure is 1.5 m. water can be even less.
Some forest trees grow in the same conditions as fruit trees. It has been proven that if an oak, linden or maple grows well on or near the site, then fruit crops will develop quite successfully. But alder and horsetails testify to the boggy area, which means that it needs to be cultivated first. Thanks to all these signs, you can find out if the land is suitable for a garden.
Neighborhood of fruit and forest trees
Many gardeners know that the wind has a detrimental effect on the garden. In winter, it blows snow off the ground, increasing the risk of freezing the root system. Large drifts around the perimeter destroy the crowns. As for the hot summer winds, they dry out the soil and prevent normal insect pollination. Young plantings are swayed by the wind, which is why the roots of the seedlings take root more slowly. Finally, in a strong gusty wind, not only leaves and branches break, but the trees themselves fall.
An example of effective wind protection
Sharp winds are especially dangerous in productive years, when in just a day most of the fruits can crumble to the ground. Avoiding all of this requires windscreens - a great way to preserve crops and protect plants from damage. Fast-growing trees and shrubs are best for protective plantings, but they will only be effective a few years after planting. Therefore, wind protection should be taken care of at least two to three years before laying the garden. Also, the role of wind protection can be played by outbuildings, natural heights and the forest nearby. More than others, such tree species as oak, poplar, birch, linden are suitable for wind protection. If shrubs are used, it is better to give preference to yellow acacia, mountain ash, hazel and rose hips.
Note! There are clear distances at which protective trees and shrubs should be placed. For trees, this is about 1-1.2 m (within a row) and 1.5-2 m (between rows), for shrubs - 0.5-0.7 m and 0.7-1 m, respectively.
The land should be used rationally, and there should be no room for weeds and various pests. In other words, the site must be densely planted. Fruit crops need light, and their roots need soil nutrition. Moreover, with proper placement, the garden itself will be more attractive.
Before starting development, you need to plan everything. As a rule, gardeners use the same placement schemes, which may differ depending on the relief features, climate and the preferences of the gardeners themselves. One of these schemes is shown below.
Of the eight to ten apple trees, five should be of the winter variety, two - of the summer and two more - of the autumn. It also provides for the creation of a gazebo and recreation area, planting flower crops.
Note! Pears, apple trees need to be planted 5-6x4 m apart, while plums and cherries - somewhere 3x2.5 m. You can plant low-growing representatives of the same varieties between the rows of tall crops.
These undersized plants are less durable, their fruiting will end by twenty years. At the same time, the crowns will reach full development, they will become too crowded, and you can get rid of the trees.
In the central regions, it is better to plant the garden in early spring, that is, before the buds swell (this is especially important for cherries). In the south, gardens are usually planted in the fall. What is more important, in the spring, planting should be carried out before the seedlings begin to grow, and in the fall - during the leaf fall.
Also note that leaves must be removed before digging out the seedlings. The fact is that moisture entering the plant evaporates through the leaves, and if they are not removed, then the probability of successful survival will decrease. The leaves are removed carefully, while taking care not to damage the buds.
To obtain a good harvest, a deep arable layer of soil is required. As a rule, the root systems of fruit crops go into the ground to a depth of 0.8 m, which means that the same amount of treatment and fertilization must be carried out. For this, it is more advisable to use a small plantation plow.
The planter plow can have double shares at different depths, soil deepeners and other working bodies that deeply loosen the soil
They need to be purchased in a nursery located in the same region as the future garden, otherwise there will be a risk that the plants will not take root. The roots should be branched, long (more than 30 cm), not frosted, white in the cut. Quality seedlings have straight trunks, smooth bark and no visible defects. Finally, the crown should consist of at least three to four well-developed branches, which are directed in different directions, and without fail with a guide (i.e. leading shoot).
Gardeners have different opinions about the age at which trees should be planted. Some plant mature plants (eight or nine years old), which bear fruit quickly, but are quite expensive, and it is quite difficult to plant them. Others buy two- and three-year-olds, which are slightly behind in terms of fruiting, but are cheaper.
The procedure consists of two simple steps. Let's consider them.
The largest roots are cut so that the cut area "looks" at the bottom of the pit. To do this, you need to use a garden knife (not a pruner, since it kneads the wood and does not give an even cut). If the seedlings were obtained in the fall, but will be planted in the spring, then after pruning they are immersed in a clay solution and buried in the ground for a while (this will prevent drying out).
The length of the roots of the dug out seedlings does not exceed 35-40 cm, while most of them (roots), and this is about 70%, remains in the ground. But the above-ground part remains the same, which is why the stripped-down root system can no longer properly "feed" it. Therefore, the branches in the crown should be cut to about a third of the length.
Note! It is more convenient to cut the branches after planting - so a person can not only see their placement relative to each other, but also do the work with both hands.
During the first two years after planting, the roots are located within the planting pit, which means that they use moisture and nutrients from there. Therefore, at first, young plants should be provided with the best conditions for development.
The diameter and shape of the planting pits can be different, but in order to uniform and correct development of the roots, it is advisable to make round pits tapering downward.
Table. Recommended parameters of planting holes
|Trees||Depth cm||Diameter, cm|
|Pears, apple trees||50 to 60||100 to 125|
|Plums, cherries||30 to 40||60 to 80|
Note! There is an opinion that on clay soils the bottom of the pit should be covered with a sandy "pillow", and on sandy soils - with clay. This is supposedly necessary for water retention. In reality, this is not so
Pits for spring planting should be prepared in autumn, while for autumn planting - in about a month. Moreover, in the first case, before freezing, the pits should be covered with fertilized soil, but not tamped.
Let's make a reservation right away that it is not worth filling the root collars - when the soil settles, they should be flush with its surface. In principle, planting is the most important stage, it is on it that the yield, survival rate and life expectancy of trees depend. The mistakes made here are difficult to eliminate in the future, and sometimes even impossible.
The most common mistake is considered to be a deep landing, which can only be detected after a few years. It is difficult to lift a deep-planted tree, and a novice gardener will definitely not cope with this, moreover, he may even ruin the plant.
Note! If the groundwater is too close to the surface, then you cannot plant the plants in the pits - instead, mounds of soil are created. For this, the landing sites are first dug up, then mounds of fertilized soil are poured on them (width - 100 cm, height - 45-50 cm). Seedlings are planted on such mounds and tied to wooden pegs.
Planting scheme for seedlings without holes
When the landing sites are marked, and the stakes are ready, you can proceed directly to digging. In order to avoid violating the straightness, a stake must be driven in the center of each pit.
Diagram for preparing a pit and driving in a stake
It is not easy to do this "by eye", so you can resort to one simple device - the so-called landing board. For its manufacture, a board with approximate dimensions of 200x15x2 cm is used. A triangular cutout is made in the middle of one side of this board. Similar cuts are made at the edges, 75 cm from the center, as shown in the images.
Such a board will allow you to set the pegs to which the seedlings will be tied, exactly in the center of the pits. Next, the plants are tied to the stakes as shown below.
After planting, the trees need to be looked after, fertilized and watered, but here it all depends on the specific tree species.
Hawthorn can rightfully be called one of the most interesting wild fruit plants. Its botanical name "crategus" means "strong" in Greek. Indeed, hawthorn has the strongest wood, not inferior in strength to yew and boxwood. In terms of geography of distribution, it is ubiquitous - about a thousand of its species inhabit the Earth from the tropics to northern latitudes.
Some types of hawthorn - scarlet, semi-soft, dotted, Dulians - have very large (up to 2 cm or more) fruits with tasty edible pulp. Scarlet hawthorn fruits taste like pineapple. They are used to prepare jam, marmalade [contain a lot of pectins], liqueurs.
The medicinal properties of this plant are well known: it is a part of medicinal preparations, has a beneficial effect in diseases of the biliary tract, the cardiovascular system. The most valuable from this point of view is the five-footed blackberry hawthorn.
A hawthorn hedge can reliably protect an estate or a summer cottage for decades. After all, it is unusually decorative, and the crown of this small tree up to 4 m high is easily formed in any combination: spherical, flat, ornamental. That is why hawthorns are also planted in parks and gardens.
It is very often planted in protective forest belts, since this unpretentious, drought-resistant plant can grow on poor soils, steep slopes, forms a powerful root system, which strengthens the soil and prevents erosion. The hawthorn blooms in May. At this time, there is no longer a threat of frost, so it bears fruit annually. The fruits ripen in September and October.
However, I want to dwell on another valuable property of this plant. Hawthorn is an excellent rootstock for pears.
Pears grafted on it are distinguished by good development and early maturity, as well as on a quince stock. But, like quince, hawthorn is not compatible with all varieties of pears. The varieties Talgarskaya Krasavitsa, Zolotovorotskaya, Prikarpatskaya, Bere Kievskaya, Podarok Krasnokutskiy, Hoverla, Nikolai Kruger take root well on such a rootstock. True, in the second half of the growing season, the last variety has a strong anthocyanin coloration of the foliage (redness), which, according to some experts, is a sign of incompatibility of the variety with the stock. These varieties of pears, grafted on hawthorn, give good growth, are crowned and the next year they form flower buds and bear fruit (which is not typical for the same varieties grafted on pear seedlings). Moreover, the laying of flower buds on annual growths is clearly visible already this year.
Some varieties (Sonatina, Bessemyanka Dricha, 56-25 Vyzhnitsa) did not take root in our experiments on hawthorn.
How to get hawthorn seedlings - rootstock material for pears? This is where the fun begins. The fact is that biological maturation of seeds in fruits occurs before their economic ripeness.
That is why it is necessary to harvest and sow hawthorn seeds (or start stratification) in the second half of August, when the fruits are just beginning to turn brown. Then (next spring, shoots will appear. Seeds, collected and sown in September-October, will sprout only in the third year. True, if they are soaked for 1 hour in concentrated sulfuric acid, and then a two-stage stratification is carried out, that is, at first, they are kept for 4 months in wet sand at a temperature of 25 ° C, and then 6 months in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ° C, they will germinate next spring.But how much fuss is there! Isn't it better to prepare the seeds on time.
Stratification is keeping the seeds of difficult-to-germinate rocks in wet sand, peat or sawdust at a temperature of 1-5 ° C or under snow to accelerate germination. Usually 1 part of seeds and 4 parts of sand are placed in a container, mixed and moistened. Then they put it in a cellar, refrigerator or under the snow. Seeds of apple and pear in a cyx form can be stored for 1-2 years. Stone fruit seeds are stratified freshly harvested.
After stratification, hawthorn seeds are embedded in prepared and fertilized soil at a depth of 2-2.5 cm. With careful care of the seedlings, by August, the thickness of the boles above the root collar reaches 5-6 mm and they can be inoculated. In order for the bark to lag well behind during budding, the hawthorn seedlings must be watered abundantly two days before the operation. Spring grafting also succeeds well with improved copulation and for the bark.
In literary sources, there are data that apple and quince trees take root well and bear fruit on hawthorns. But this requires testing in practice. After all, the information that henomeles (the so-called Japanese quince) can be used as a rootstock for pears was not confirmed in our experiments. The growth turned out to be negligible, the fruits are small, the pulp with strong granulation is tasteless.
The study of hawthorn as a rootstock, of course, requires a lot of work and time. But this is within the power of any amateur gardener. There would be a desire.
There are gardeners who are convinced that pear grafting on irga will not work. It is perfectly grafted and begins to bear fruit at 3 - 4 years. Good supports are needed not only because it can break at the grafting site, but because the harvest is such - you have to strengthen each branch. Otherwise, it will break off under the weight of the fruit. Below is an irga, and above a pear. What vaccinations do you know that are considered as if unusual, incompatible?
One enchanted Siberian gardener wrote that he did not believe in pear grafting on chokeberry (chokeberry) Send at least one photo he writes. I am sending. The branch with chokeberry fruits is circled in red.
Pear on irga, though in spring.
Many people consider such an inoculation - apricot on a turn - also unusual incompatible. And in the book "Apricot in Moscow and the Moscow Region" it is directly written that apricot cannot be grafted onto a thorn. Apparently they never tried - why then write. This apricot grafted on a thorn began to bear fruit in the second year.
We give real examples of unusual grafting of horticultural crops, which give one or another effect and which the gardener himself can do (table).
Unusual grafting of fruit and berry crops
Early maturity, decrease in tree height
Early maturity, the ability to bend branches and protect from frost
Increasing winter hardiness, reducing gum flow
Autumn planting in different climatic zones has its own characteristics. The most comfortable conditions for growing raspberries have been created in the Moscow region and central regions. The central part of Russia is located in a zone of moderate continental climate, which is characterized by a rather warm (+ 8–12 ° C) autumn with frequent rains. This weather is favorable for the rooting of seedlings. Raspberries feel comfortable here in the spring and summer without the drying southern heat and in winter without too severe Siberian frosts.
Regional varieties should be chosen for each region. Raspberries for the Urals must meet the highest yield standards and have excellent adaptability to cope with the harsh local climate.
Dry autumn without precipitation in this region leads to a moisture deficit, therefore, after planting, the seedlings should be watered abundantly, and moisture-charging watering should be done before frost. In addition, at the beginning of winter, the thermometer here can drop to -31 ° C, and there is practically no snow. As a result, plants without snow cover often freeze and die. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare the planted plants for wintering, cover them with agrofibre.
After all, winters here are very harsh, frosts can reach -50 ° C, and in the Polar Urals, they can drop to -60 ° C. There are often snowstorms blowing snow from open high places. To increase the thickness of the snow cover, shields are installed near the bushes, and shafts are made.
It is better to place raspberries in the back of the garden. Fruit trees, outbuildings will become an obstacle to the wind. A high fence will also help protect the berry bushes from gusts of wind, and so that it does not cast a shadow on the plantings, it can be made of transparent polycarbonate.
The varieties Zorenka Altai, Vysokaya, Novost Kuzmina, Seyanets Rubinovoy, Kichinovskaya, Kirzhach, Kolokolchik are distinguished by their high winter hardiness.
For the Siberian climate, frost-resistant varieties should be selected that can withstand cold temperatures down to -40 ° C. In Siberia, 44 varieties of raspberries are bred, adapted to low winter temperatures. These are red-fruited varieties Novost Kuzmina, Vislukha, Altayskaya Vkusnaya, Barnaulskaya, Dobraya, Shine, Archnaya, Prelest, with black berries Coal, Rotation, with yellow ones - Gift of Siberia, Good Luck.
In regions with a cold climate in a short summer, it is advisable to grow raspberries near summer cottages, in that part of the garden that is well lit and where the snow begins to melt early. It is better to place raspberry bushes on hills or bulk ridges: the soil on them warms up faster, water does not stagnate, and good air exchange is ensured. In the northern regions, where even in summer there is little heat and sun, it is very important to correctly arrange the ridge with raspberries - from north to south. With this orientation, the bushes will be well lit all day.
In the harsh conditions of Siberia, it is necessary to take care of the winterization of young plantings. The bushes are covered with non-woven material or an air-dry shelter is installed above them.
If the autumn is rainy or early frosts come, it is better to postpone the planting of raspberries in the zone of risky farming until spring, and dig in the seedlings in the garden.
Recently, many gardeners have chosen to grow raspberries on logs. For this, rotting wood waste is used, which is laid at the bottom of the trench. Having spilled them with water, fertile soil is poured on top and plants are planted. Planting on logs provides the bushes with good drainage with a simultaneous supply of water. Raspberries bear fruit well and produce less growth than traditional planting.
The specificity of planting raspberries in Ukraine and in the south of Russia is due to the peculiarity of the climate - warm winters with little snow and early hot springs. In the winter months, with an insignificant snow cover, the plants suffer from frequent thaws, when the aboveground part wakes up, and the frozen root cannot supply water to it. Also, during the snowless period, strong winds dry up the stems and the root layer of the soil. In the spring, under the scorching sun, the branches become dry and brittle, the foliage withers and turns yellow. Therefore, in the southern regions, special requirements are imposed on the placement of landings.
The climatic conditions of Ukraine are not favorable enough to obtain high yields of raspberries due to a lack of moisture in the soil and air drought. The lack of precipitation violates the optimal regime of moisture supply for plants, therefore, before planting, you should consider the irrigation system. For planting, you should select drought-resistant varieties Lyachka, Brusvyana, Syaivo, Kosmicheskaya, Knyaginya.
The raspberry tree should be placed in a secluded corner of the garden, closed from the wind by a fence, sheds. It is advisable to locate industrial plantings under the protection of a forest belt.
In the conditions of Ukraine, a well-lit area should be allocated for berry bushes, but which was in the shade for at least several hours a day, otherwise the berries will bake in the sun, and the shoots and leaves will wither. Or create an artificial shade for the raspberry tree by stretching a light non-woven material over it.
In arid regions, it is recommended to plant raspberries in deep furrows (40 cm), which are partially preserved even after the seedlings are covered with earth. Snow accumulates in these furrows in winter, and moisture is better retained in summer. Gradually, after 2–3 seasons, as a result of processing row-spacing, the surface of the plot is leveled.
When laying a raspberry tree in the garden in the fall, it is necessary to have time to complete planting work before the onset of cold weather. When planting, one should take into account the climatic features of the region to create the most favorable conditions for plants. Timely autumn planting in compliance with all the rules of agricultural technology and a successful wintering are the key to the fact that in the next season you can get a harvest of fragrant berries.