In the literature, it is recommended to cut the covering grape varieties twice: in the fall, before sheltering for the winter, and in the spring.
I prefer pruning the vine do it only in the fall, before sheltering for the winter, as I believe that by making the pruning, I provide myself in the spring with more free time for other important work. And in the spring I make a "dry garter" of vines.
I get to work as soon as the buds begin to bloom. Readers can see this in the photo I took on May 13th (as opposed to the "green garter" I take later as the shoots grow).
I have ten fruit-bearing vines in my greenhouse. Along with the greenhouse cultivation of grapes, for the second year I have been trying to master the wall method of growing this southern culture. There are already four vines growing on this near-wall area near the house (there is no room for more). These are Dvietsky, Sharova's Riddle, Russian Karinka and Aleshenkin.
I would like to share my joy with the readers: the grape seedling of the Zagadka Sharov variety, purchased by me in the fall from the wine grower Mikhail Viktorovich Solovyov, successfully overwintered in the cellar. Then I temporarily moved him to the greenhouse for the period when I was doing the "dry garter" there. This variety gave buds, and then I transplanted it from the greenhouse into the open ground on the wall area, which was laid two years ago. The seedling Sharov's Riddle has taken root, three inflorescences have already appeared on it.
And in the greenhouse many vines after June 1, including the Violet Augustov, Rusbol, Krasa Severa varieties grew by 1.7 meters by the middle of the month.
Grapes in the wall culture
The grapes grow near the wall of the house
Vines after dry spring garter
This is what grapes look like in a greenhouse at the end of the season.
resident of besieged Leningrad,
gardening "Voskhod" of the Kirovsky district of the Leningrad region
Hello dear friends!
The cultivation of grapes begins with the correct choice of a permanent place, on which the further development, yield and fate of the entire plantation depend.
The grapes love the sun and freedom, the presence of vegetable beds, berry bushes and fruit trees around it is excluded. The first, infect the grapes with diseases, fungi and pests, the second - set off from the hot rays of the sun.
For the full development and high productivity of grape bushes, all garden plantings should be located no closer than two meters from the seedlings.
The soil around the trunks and above the root should be open, without turf, lawn and flower beds.
The place for planting grape cuttings is chosen with a "margin", taking into account the distances in decimeters for the installation of trellises and structures for the future (see the article "How to tie up grapes"), with the possibility of covering the bushes with an insulating non-woven material.
The planting of seedlings in the ridge is carried out closer to the end of May, when the threat of freezing has passed, or earlier, with the use of improvised protective equipment against cold temperature extremes. By the way, along the way I suggest you read about frost-resistant grape varieties.
Rooted cuttings are planted in a ridge 20 cm between themselves and in rows.
In open ground, seedlings are planted at a distance of 2.5-2.8 m between themselves and the same amount is left in the aisle. With a denser planting scheme, for the next season it will be necessary to form bushes for vertical cultivation, as is common in the south of the country. Fruiting with this method is good, but the care and winter shelter of the bushes are difficult.
It is better to plant two seedlings of the same variety in a planting hole, so it is faster to form the required number of branches as they grow.
At the time of planting, the roots of the cuttings are slightly pruned to stimulate their development and better survival. A mound is poured in the middle of the hole, a seedling is placed on it, the roots are straightened and smoothly sprinkled with soil from the edges. Then water is poured, the soil is tamped and the top is covered with a cap made from a cut PET bottle (if the threat of cold weather has not yet passed). The cap is covered with gauze or newspaper so that the seedling does not get sunburn.
Grape seedlings are planted in pits or trenches, depending on the number of cuttings and plans for the size of the future vineyard. The usual size of the pit is 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm, the trench is dug 30 cm deep and cuttings are planted at this level.
Planting seedlings in ditches is convenient for watering, fertilizing, shelter for the winter and under a greenhouse. For the period of survival of the cuttings, a timber 10 cm high is placed along the ditch and the entire trench is covered with plastic wrap. This method eliminates the formation of an excess of moisture under the film, and retains the heat necessary for development for a long time.
Before planting, 150 grams are introduced into the pits. potassium-phosphorus fertilizer and 2 glasses of ash, mixes well with the soil and is watered abundantly with water.
If, before planting grapes, vegetables, root crops or bulbous plants were grown on this site - a week before the day when planting grape cuttings into the ground, you need to abundantly shed the planting pits with a pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate).
Poorly developing shoots on seedlings must be pinched, allowing stronger shoots to develop well. The goal of a beginner grower is to grow one or two high-quality vines with 3-4 eyes (buds) per season.
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There are several simple rules, observing which, even the most inexperienced summer resident will successfully cope with pruning grapes:
Below we will consider two types of forming a bush by pruning.
The pruning procedure must be appropriate for each grape age.
Spring of the 1st year: to obtain two shoots, cut the seedling to 2 eyes, removing the rest.
Spring of the 2nd year. The main shoot, which will act as a trunk, should be shortened to the desired height (usually up to 50-90 cm). It will serve as the basis for the trunk. Just in case, you can save another shoot by cutting it to 2 eyes.
Spring of the 3rd year. On the main shoot (trunk), remove all vines except the top two. Cut each of them to 2 eyes and tie it to the trellis, pointing in different directions. Cut 4 shoots that have grown over the summer in the fall as follows: cut the lower shoots on each side to 2 eyes (these will be replacement knots), and the upper ones - up to 5-15 eyes (these will be the fruiting arrows).
Spring 4th year... Cut out the fruiting branches, and from the shoots that have grown on the replacement knots, form new fruit links (on each side of the bush, cut one shoot to 5-15 eyes, and the other to 2 eyes).
More detailed information on stamping is waiting for you in the following video:
This type of shaping also has its own subtleties.
Spring of the 1st year. Remove all dry, diseased and damaged parts of the bush. Leave 10% of all young shoots, cut them 2-3 cm above the second bud.
Spring of the 2nd year. Remove 60% of the young growth, leaving 2-3 of the strongest sleeves (cut to 2 buds).
Spring of the 3rd year. This is the age at which the fruit links are formed. Shorten the lower vine (replacement knot) to 2 eyes, the upper part (fruit arrow) to 7-14 eyes. There should be 2 vines left on each arm, the rest can be removed.
To cut off a grape bush that has already begun to produce a crop, it is necessary to remove all fruiting, damaged, weak, thin or, conversely, too thick ("fattening") shoots, leaving mature mature vines of medium thickness (6-10 mm).
Spring and autumn pruning together represent a single set of procedures. Autumn pruning is a pre-treatment before the grapes are sheltered for the winter. It involves removing unripe parts of the shoots to minimize damage and help the bush survive the winter safely. In the fall, the grape bushes are pruned so that there are more eyes than the planned shoots (in case some of them do not survive the winter).