It is extremely rare in mid-latitude gardens to meet a wild orchid, which is scientifically called the orchis. Not so long ago, whole thickets of orchis could be found in the forests, but today they are very rare.
Such an unusual perennial plant is listed in the Red Book. However, the orchis has become widespread in culture, and all thanks to its lace inflorescences, the shape of which resembles a candle. It is grown both as an ornamental crop and to obtain medicinal raw materials. The orchis is quite picky about care, but despite this, it is very popular with gardeners.
The orchis plant is also popularly called wild orchid, orchis, or cuckoo tears. This Red Book plant can be a real highlight of any garden plot. During the flowering period, such a culture compares favorably with all other garden plants for its unusual beauty.
If you decide to decorate your garden with a wild orchid, then remember that in no case should you look for a seedling in the wild. The fact is that this endangered plant is under the protection of the state. Even if you unexpectedly come across an orchis in the wild, the only thing you can do is admire its beauty.
But in your garden you can freely grow orchards. They were bred by breeders for industrial cultivation, as well as for cultivation as an ornamental plant. Of course, it is not easy to buy a seedling or orchis seeds, but it is quite possible. Most often, it is enough to place an order from the catalog. When buying seedlings at the market or from a gardener you know, try to find out where this orchis was grown. The fact is that you can be punished by law for participating in the reduction of the population of such a plant in the Red Data Book.
The bush reaches a height of about 50 centimeters. The thickened rhizome has an ovoid shape, due to which the plant was called orchis. The bush has many upright shoots that adorn long lanceolate leaf plates. They taper towards the petiole and seem to "hug" the stem. The foliage shape of orchis and cereals is very similar. However, the wild orchid stands out from many other horticultural crops with its bright green foliage.
For this plant, the Latin name Orchis comes from the ancient Greek ὄρχις, which means "egg". The fact is that a pair of orchis tubers are very similar to testicles. There are several versions of how exactly the Russian name of this plant came about. In etymological dictionaries, there are at least 3 versions of the origin of the name of the orchis:
In common people this plant is often called "tears" or "cuckoo tears".
Such a plant is most decorative during the flowering period. At this time, tall peduncles grow, on the tops of which spike-shaped inflorescences are formed, their length varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. In each inflorescence, several complex flowers, distinguished by high decorativeness, sit tightly. Despite the fact that the size of the flowers is only about 20 mm, their beauty is often compared to orchid flowers. The petals of the inner and outer circle are connected to each other, forming a kind of "helmet". The flower's lip is tripartite, and the petals located below and above can have different sizes and shapes. Often there are specks on the surface of the lip, and the flower looks incredibly elegant because it has a spur, which is equal in size to the ovary.
The duration of flowering depends on the species of orchis and can last from 15 days to several months. In low-growing varieties and species, the beginning of flowering occurs in April-May, and in vigorous ones - in June. In most of the species, the inflorescences cannot be called fragrant, however, a subtle pleasant smell of vanilla emanates from them.
Orchis I Benefits and application I This will not tell you at the pharmacy
Orchis seed can be sown whenever it is convenient for you (regardless of the season). The first seedlings may appear in one or three months, or it may take longer. In this regard, sowing wild orchids for seedlings can be done even in summer.
Fill the container with moist, nutritious and loose soil. It takes very little to deepen the seeds into the substrate. Crops are harvested in a well-lit place, while always providing them with a suitable temperature (18-24 degrees).
As a rule, the appearance of seedlings is uneven, while they also differ in the pace of development. When the plant has formed several true leaf plates, it is very carefully transplanted into an individual container. When digging up a seedling, try not to injure nearby plants and seeds that have not sprouted. Planting seedlings in the garden is carried out in the spring after age-related frosts are left behind and warm weather sets in. Orchis seedlings are planted in such a way that there is a distance of at least 10-15 centimeters between the bushes.
Orchis can be propagated by separating the replacing tuber. This method is most popular among gardeners, as it is distinguished by its simplicity and reliability.
In the autumn, after the aboveground part of the bush is cut off, remove the rhizome from the ground and separate the replacing root tuber from it. When planting a cut in a new hole, do not forget to pour soil from the old hole into it. The fact is that in this soil there are special fungi, without which the division may not take root. And for the plant it will be the better, the more soil you take from the old hole.
Growing Orchis as a business idea
Orchis, which is also called the wild orchid, grows well in the open field. At the same time, the flowering of garden varieties is more spectacular than that of wild plants. However, in order for the bushes to bloom magnificently and for a long time, optimal conditions for their growth should be created.
Best of all, such a flower grows in light partial shade, while the lighting should be diffused. Unlike wild species, garden varieties grow well in sunny areas, the only thing they cannot be planted in the shade. But at the same time remember, the more sunlight on the site, the more difficult it is to care for such a plant.
Orchis will grow well only on nutritious and moist soil, and it must be very loose. Also, it must be well-drained. Pay particular attention to soil moisture. Wild orchid reacts extremely negatively to the stagnation of liquid in its roots, but it prefers to grow in moist cool soil, and it should remain so even on hot summer days. Worst of all, such a flower grows in dense soil, as well as in soil fertilized with fresh manure. When preparing a hole for planting a plant, it is recommended to mix the soil pulled out of it with peat (1 part) and with sand (0.5 parts).
The orchis grown in a well-lit area needs systematic, timely watering. If the plant is rarely watered, then the flowering will be poor and short-lived. And it is also necessary to water regularly those bushes that are grown in an area with depleted soil.
In the event that moist loose soil was chosen for planting such a flower, then it will need to be watered only if necessary. During periods of prolonged drought, be sure to water the wild orchid, preventing the soil from drying out and overheating.
Watering such a crop is necessary in such a way that the soil on the site is constantly slightly moist. The plant is equally harmed by overdrying of the earth and stagnation of liquid in the root system.
It is highly undesirable to feed the garden orchis with mineral fertilizers. For a spectacular and lush flowering, it is recommended to feed the bushes with organic fertilizers. They not only make up for the lack of nutrients in the soil, but also improve its structure.
Needles and compost are great for feeding such a plant. They are recommended to be introduced into the ground during the preparation of the site for planting the orchis. They are also used as mulch; for this, the soil surface around the bushes is covered 2 times during the season with a thick mulch layer (at least 50 mm). It is recommended to mulch the bushes in the middle of spring and in the first days of September.
The wild orchid is not a thermophilic plant. It is characterized by a fairly high resistance to frost and is able to survive the winter without shelter, even in mid-latitudes.
Despite this, the plant must be prepared for wintering, as it can suffer from stagnant moisture in the soil, as well as from sudden temperature changes during a thaw.
Orchis preparation should be done in the fall. When you notice that the above-ground part of the bush has begun to dry out, it must be completely cut off to the very base. At the same time, it is highly undesirable to wait until the stems are completely dry and die off themselves. All experienced gardeners recommend that it is imperative to carry out a cardinal pruning, without fear of harming the plant. After pruning, the root system will be well prepared and will not be intimidated by any winter.
Orchis are incredibly resistant to various diseases. They are not affected by fungal diseases, and they are not afraid of most of the pests.
The only thing that can harm a wild orchid is various leaf-eating pests, for example: slugs, snails, etc. That is why it is recommended to install special traps next to flowers or spread straw circles.
The genus Yartyshnik unites about 100 different species, which are similar in type of flowering. Most of the species and varieties are highly decorative and are grown outdoors.
This type is most popular among gardeners. However, experts to this day argue about which species this plant belongs to. The fact is that its roots are finger-separate, and in almost all other species of orchis they are ovoid.
Most experts today attribute this plant to the species dactylorhiza maculata. However, there are no special differences between these plants, only leaf plates of greater width and a wider palette of colors. You need to take care of such plants in the same way. Today this plant is included in one and another genus at the same time.
It does not matter how the given plant is called, and what genus it belongs to, because it has a very high decorative effect. The roots of this herbaceous perennial plant are finger-shaped and thickened. The height of its stems can vary from 0.15 to 0.6 m. This flower looks very impressive and graceful. The slender curtain consists of upright stems and lanceolate-ovate leaf plates, tapering into a petiole and covering the shoots.
At the tops of leafy stems there are peduncles, on which inflorescences are formed, having the shape of an ear. In highly decorative flowers, the lip is three-lobed, and the spur is conical. They have a rather unusual color: white, lavender or bright purple with small spots of a dark shade. Often, the leaf plates of such a plant are decorated with an unusual pattern. Flowering begins in mid to late May. Its duration depends on the growing conditions of the plant and can be equal to 15–30 days.
Of the basic species of orchis, those described below are cultivated in the open field.
This type is one of the most highly decorative. The surface of its foliage and shoots is adorned with spectacular specks of a purple hue. The inflorescences consist of lovely flowers of a pink-purple hue, in which a deeply incised lip is clearly visible, while at its base there is a spectacular white blurred spot. Also, the flowers are decorated with small specks of a dark shade. Flowering begins in April or May. This species is often used by breeders to develop new varieties and hybrids.
Its peduncles are brown in color, wide lily-of-the-valley leaf plates are painted in a deep green color. The dense spike-shaped inflorescence looks more like a fringe. In snow-white flowers, the large lip has a flattened shape, while it is deeply dissected. The flowers are decorated with many small dots of a dark shade.
Dense inflorescences have a pyramidal shape, and they look lacy. The bush reaches a height of about 50 cm, its leaf plates are long, and the flowers smell like honey. They consist of elongated petals of a faded, almost white color. The flowers are decorated with spectacular specks, and they have stripes along the edge. Outwardly, the flower is very similar to a monkey's face.
The bush is decorated with rich green foliage, as well as spectacular inflorescences of a light green hue.
This species differs from the rest in that it is the tallest: the height of the bush is about 0.7 meters. Fragrant, strong inflorescences consist of flowers, the lip and helmet of which are decorated with small specks. There is a deep indentation on the lip, while the color of the flowers is unusual: it differs in watercolor transitions from pale white to purple. Today, such a plant is not considered a separate species, it is a type of purple orchis (Orchis purpurea).
A short bush, as a rule, reaches no more than 0.3 m in height. Quite wide leaf plates of an obovate shape are about 11 centimeters long. Lush spike-shaped inflorescences consist of large flowers of light orange, rich yellow or purple color. Bracts are lanceolate, and their smell is very unusual, somewhat similar to elderberry.
The foliage of this species is decorated with dark spots. Loose inflorescences consist of large whitish-yellow flowers, the surface of which is covered with dark specks.
This plant is a subspecies of Orchis spitzelii. The bush reaches a height of about 0.3 m, its wide leaf plates are painted in a marsh shade. Narrow elongated spike-shaped inflorescences consist of purple flowers with greenish color, which have a large lip and a spectacular helmet. This also includes the greenish-yellow Orchis (Orchis chlorotica, or Anacamptis collina), which is a fellow of the green-brown Orchis, their inflorescences are light green-yellow.
This species is able to compete with violets. Its height varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. Pale-gray leafy plates grow in the lower part of the stems. During flowering, short spike-shaped inflorescences with spectacular purple-lilac flowers are formed. The flowers are very similar in shape to the muzzle of a bull terrier. The peculiarity of this species is also in the fact that for the first two years the flower lives underground. Only in the third year of growth, flower stalks and foliage grow above the ground.
The flowers are decorated with a variegated purple-white lip, it has very thin lobes. The pinkish helmet is much larger than the lip.
Some of the species cultivated by gardeners as orchis actually belong to the genera Neotinea and Anacamptis, which are also part of the Orchidaceae family. In the literature, such plants can often be found both under the new and under the old name, for example: Neotinea tridentata, or Three-toothed orchis (Neotinea tridentata).
The height of the bush can vary from 0.2 to 0.4 m. The narrow leaf plates are lanceolate. Cylindrical elongated inflorescences consist of flowers, the lip of which is deeply dissected, and there is also a pointed helmet. The color has complex transitions from brownish-purple with purple specks at the top of the petals to white and pale green at the base.
It is very similar to the previous species, but its flowers smell more pleasant, and on the surface of the narrow leaf plates there is a pattern of dark veins.
The height of the bush is about 50 cm. Its purple flowers are collected in delicate inflorescences. They smell pleasantly of vanilla, and are adorned with a spectacular helmet and a rather long median lobe on the lip.
Its inflorescences are sparse, almost double-sided. They are composed of purple flowers.
It is a subspecies of loose-flowered orchis. It blooms very early. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m, high inflorescences are formed in it, which consist of widely spaced flowers of a deep purple color.
Outwardly similar to the previous view. Its height is about 0.7 m, while its leaves are graceful and long. Lacy loose inflorescences include lilac flowers, which are decorated with a large lip, similar to a skirt. Flowering begins in May – June.
Such a miniature plant during flowering is decorated with a loose, elongated inflorescence, consisting of dark purple flowers.
The bush reaches a height of about 0.3 m, it is distinguished by flowers of a dark purple hue.
On the bush, dense inflorescences are formed with an almost spherical shape. The flowers are pale lilac in color.
Dense, spike-shaped inflorescences look like a mace and consist of pale pink flowers. The height of the bush is about 0.3 m.
Orchis medicinal properties
Annual plants are a great way to diversify perennial flower beds and decorate balconies. The nemesia flower is popular. These are adorable annuals, the very name of which indicates the charm and gratifying appearance of the flower. Her small flowers, collected in a bunch, delight in variety. The natural habitat of the plant is South Africa. This article describes the technology of growing from nemesia seeds, planting and care in the open field and on the balcony.
Liatrix (also called Deertongue) occurs naturally in North America. The plants have been grown in gardens since the 18th century. Liatris belongs to the Asteraceae family and is a flowering plant. Bushes form a rosette of leaves, from which tough shoots with inflorescences grow, reaching 60-100 cm in height.
Liatris leaves are dark green, forming dense, herbaceous clusters. The individual leaves are narrow and are characteristic of this perennial. It is worth noting that liatris flowers are not an evergreen plant, but are popular in gardens.
Their main decoration is flowers that form dense ears of 15-30 cm long, blooming from top to bottom.
It is thanks to flowers that gardeners grow the Deer Tongue in their gardens. Liatris bloom from July to October, depending on the species and variety. Flowers come in different colors:
They are beautiful and honey-bearing, attract butterflies, bees, bumblebees. Variations of this perennial plant usually differ in the color of the flowers. Small flowers form inflorescences-baskets. Baskets are collected in long and cylindrical ears, reaching 15-30 cm in length. Tubular flowers stand out in baskets. A characteristic feature of a perennial is the order in which the baskets develop: the first to bloom are the baskets at the top of the shoot and successively go down. Liatris blooms from July to October. Old inflorescences curl up, making them unsightly.
Photo. Inflorescences before flowering and begin to bloom from above
The underground part of the plant is tubers. They store water and nutrients. With the help of tubers, Liatris is propagated.
Rudbeckia belongs to the Asteraceae family of more than 30 species, including annuals, biennials and perennials. In Russia, 2 types are quite common in the wild:
A popular variety is Rudbeckia fulgida. In the wild, the species grows in southern North America. The perennial has a simple shape, depending on the variety, the height of the shoots reaches 30-70 cm. The species owes its name to the brilliance of flowers, which are also "standard", albeit yellow in color. The species is very stable, blooms continuously from late June - early July to October.
Shiny is especially appreciated for its spectacular yellow flowers, long flowering. The species has long petals, and the diameter of the flower basket is about 12 cm. After the end of the flowering period, attractive seed heads appear, which continue to serve as a decoration in the garden.
Shiny rudbeckia has tough stems. Better to plant it in the depths of the flower bed, it will be an excellent background for low plants. The most popular varieties are:
This honey plant is often visited by bees, colorful butterflies.
Shiny rudbeckia grows best in full sun, although it tolerates light partial shade. It can be planted in any garden soil, is undemanding, easy to care for, and can grow in one place for many years. It blooms less in drought, completely frost-resistant.
In addition to the shiny rudbeckia, other species can be grown in the garden, which differ slightly in the height and shape of the bush. For example, hairy rudbeckia (Rudbeckia hirta) - grows up to 80 cm, very popular.
In its natural habitat, the species grows on the prairies of North America. In our weather conditions it is grown as an annual plant. Hairy rudbeckia well tolerates heat, drought, and a temporary lack of moisture in the soil. Propagated by sowing seeds in the spring after the spring frosts have subsided.
Its main advantage is that the varieties are very diverse, differing in height within the range of 30-100 cm.
This species blooms from summer to mid-October. The bicolor flowers are composed of golden yellow petals and contrasting dark "heads". There are varieties with yellow, orange and rusty flowers. Some varieties are two-colored (for example, the cultivar "Рulcherrima").
Photo. Rustic Dwarfs are also very attractive, with petals changing throughout a cascade of warm shades from yellow to red.
You can also choose lower grades:
Photo. An interesting high variety with golden inflorescences ("Golden Glow").
There are beautiful purple varieties, for example, burgundy with a chocolate heart "Cherry Brandy".
Photo. Beautiful double variety with orange flowers "Cherokee Sunset".
Very beautiful varieties of sunny yellow color:
The last two varieties differ mainly in height. They have a dense shape, Sophia is slightly shorter (45 cm) than Goldstrum (80 cm).
Rudbeckia purpurea has a typical chamomile shape, consisting of an inner dark "eye" surrounded by long petals. The flowers grow on the tops of the stems and are ideal for any garden. Honey plant.
Rudbeckia dissected reaches a height of up to two meters, has shoots devoid of characteristic hairs. The leaves are feathery, smooth. The species is famous for the large number of flowers that appear in July and last until the end of summer. The flowers reach a diameter of 8-12 cm and are yellow. Blooms from July to August. An excellent plant for planting under fences, walls.
Varieties with double flower baskets:
A lesser known species is the western rudbeckia (R. occidentalis) and the Green Wizard cultivar.
Photo. Very original variety "Green Wizard"
The plant does not form bright yellow petals, but only green sepals and an elongated brown center of tubular flowers. It blooms from July to September and reaches a maximum height of 150 cm. The Black Beauty variety is much shorter than the previous one (60 cm).
In gardening, many types and varieties of swimwear are used. Spectacular bright plants look great against the backdrop of green spaces, rocky ground, as well as the blue sky or pond. They are often planted near garden ponds, in flower beds in the zone of medium-sized plants, or as solo plantings in sunny areas. Dwarf varieties can decorate rockeries. Due to the fact that after the formation of the fruits, the stems of the swimsuit lose their decorative appearance and are cut off, they are often combined with neighbors, distinguished by lush foliage, which can hide the absence of the stems of the swimsuits, and during the flowering period - to shade the brightness of its flowers. Among the most popular plant varieties:
The most frost-resistant type of swimsuit. It can form bushes of one meter height. In their natural environment, such flowers can be found in Siberia, as well as in the Far East. They also grow in the countries of East Asia. The leaves of such a swimsuit are heavily dissected and are located on petioles. The stems have foliage only in the upper third part. The flowers reach 6 cm in diameter. The palette of their colors consists of shades of orange. The pointed petals of this species are longer than the stamens and rise slightly above them. Some of the varieties bloom only in July. The most common:
It is this type that is popularly known as "lights" or "frying". In addition to Russia, it is also found in the vastness of Mongolia and the countries of Central Asia. Herbaceous perennial with five-part, finger-like leaves about 30 cm long. Stems with peduncles grow up to 50 cm. The flowers resemble a ball up to 5 cm in size and have reddish sepals and orange petals. This type of plant is considered one of the most attractive. Its varieties are distinguished by varying degrees of leaf dissection, shades of flower color and the level of their doubleness.
You can meet such a swimsuit not only in Europe, but also in the Scandinavian countries and in Western Siberia. The plant lives in meadows, is found in glades and forest edges. The flowering period is in June. The appearance of Trollius europaeus is largely dependent on the growing area. So in the middle lane the bush can grow up to 80 cm, but in the tundra areas its size barely reaches 30 cm. The rosette is made up of five-part leaves on petioles. In this case, the foliage shares have a patterned shape, and the plates themselves resemble rhombuses. The stem is simple or can be branched. Shoots of peduncles are leafy only in the upper part. The flowers are only slightly open, have a faint aroma and are colored in tones of yellow or golden colors. The size of each is about 5 cm. The petals have a rich orange color and are almost equal in size to the sepals. But, like other parts of the flower located in the inner part, they are almost completely hidden from view. The species has been known in horticulture for several centuries, it has two main variations: garden with light yellow flowers and large-flowered, with a more pronounced color.
A species common in Western Europe. Most often it grows in meadows, but it can also be found in the mountains - in the Carpathians. The rosette is made up of deeply dissected dark green leaves with long petioles, reaching up to 60 cm in length. The foliage has jagged edges and well-defined veins. The dimensions of the branched stem can reach up to 1.5 m.In the leaf axils there can be about seven lateral stems, on which are located greenish-yellow flowers up to 6 cm in size.
The species is found both in Altai and in the regions of Western Siberia. In addition, it also lives in the northern regions of China, Mongolia and the states of Central Asia. Finger leaves form a rosette about 30 cm tall. A simple or branching stem growing from it reaches 90 cm, sessile leaf blades are located on it. The flowers are spherical and 5 cm in size. Each has about 2 dozen golden or orange sepals, sometimes reddish on the outside, as well as orange petals. The pistils of this species are black, and the stigma anthers have a purple hue.
The species combines a large number of hybrid garden varieties of the swimsuit, created on the basis of several of the aforementioned varieties at once. It differs from the parent species in large flowers with a rich and more varied color. Varieties can differ not only in their decorative characteristics, but also in flowering periods. Among the most famous hybrids: