About strawberries without secrets (part 1)


The experience of growing everyone's favorite strawberries in a risky farming environment

Without a doubt, the collection strawberries - this is a real fabulous madness. Therefore, strawberries are considered the generally recognized queen among summer berries.

Its advantages are countless: it is unusually beautiful, tasty, and useful in addition. Therefore, there is nothing surprising in the fact that it was she who became one of the first berries that came to a person's taste in very distant times. However, strawberries are not only a tasty treat, they also have other virtues.

Decorative strawberry

It would seem that everyone has long known that strawberries are grown because of their wonderful berries. However, this is not quite true.

Now in the West, this plant is increasingly beginning to be used as a ground cover plant. In terms of decorativeness, the first place is occupied by the variety Pink panda (hybrid of garden strawberry with marsh cinquefoil). It forms a mass of whiskers and grows on any garden land, in the sun and in partial shade, quickly covering the ground (it is enough to plant only 5 plants per 1 m2). This plant is ideal, for example, to revitalize the rock garden. It blooms for a long time, from spring to autumn (like small-fruited strawberry varieties, however, in winter some of our plants, in the Urals, freeze out). Very few berries are formed, but they are quite edible. Western breeders continue to actively work on replenishing the assortment of strawberry ground covers. There are already varieties with flowers of red, white and pink colors. True, all of them are not frost-resistant enough. But this is a problem for many small-fruited remontant strawberries. However, we grow them quite successfully.

Strawberry preferences

  1. The strawberry origin is, of course, a forest plant. But in the forest, the ancestors of modern strawberries did not grow in the thicket, but on the edges and sunny glades. This is why it can tolerate a little shading, however, it requires a lot of light to get a high yield. In strong shade (for example, under the dense crowns of trees), it grows well, forming powerful leaves and many mustaches. There is even a belief among some gardeners that strawberries grow better in grass. However, the number of berries in the shade is small, and they themselves are not at all sweet, and in our conditions they are much more affected by gray rot. That is why open sunny areas are preferable for strawberries.
  2. The roots of strawberries are located mainly in the arable horizon, at a depth of 15-25 cm. Therefore, it does not tolerate drought well and is considered a moisture-loving crop. The need for water increases during the flowering, fruiting and post-harvest phases. However, high humidity is practically destructive: strawberries grow poorly, and berries are affected by gray rot (which, in fact, is observed in our country almost every summer). Therefore, in the Urals, watering strawberries, despite all their hygrophilia, has to be insignificant. And a thick layer of mulching material saves from overdrying.
  3. This plant can grow in a variety of soils, but prefers light to medium loamy, slightly acidic soils, rich in organic matter. Strongly depleted, swampy or heavy clay soils are completely unsuitable for its culture. When grown on sandy ones, their preliminary cultivation is required by introducing a large amount of organic matter. When planting strawberries in low wetlands, the winter hardiness of plants is greatly reduced, they grow poorly, and in winter they most often get wet.
  4. Strawberries generally do not have good winter hardiness. On the one hand, the plant hibernates well only under a snow cover (under snow it can tolerate a drop in temperature to -20 ...- 30 ° C). And at the same time, it can freeze out if frosts hit before the moment the snow falls (in the absence of snow cover, the plants completely die at -18 ° C). On the other hand, with significant snow cover and high winter-spring temperatures, many plants vomit. Especially significant are the attacks of bushes in our region on strawberries in the last 2-3 years.

Strawberry agrotechnics

Spring chores. Spring, as a rule, is in no hurry with us: at least in my garden and in mid-April there is still plenty of snow. But the closer to the city, the faster the snow melts and the strawberry plantations are freed up. And, as far as I know, in the gardens near the city of snow, it happens, there is already at the end of March - early April. What do gardeners do? Immediately rush to the site and try to put everything in order, let's say: "to put the outer gloss." And overwintered strawberries look, frankly, not very aesthetically pleasing: some of the leaves are green (after all, strawberries are an evergreen plant, and its green leaves hibernate under the snow), and the other part are brown and withered. In addition, it seems that it will not hurt to loosen the strawberries.

The quieter you go, the further you'll get! Honestly, I do not advise starting the first thing to tidy up the strawberries. Remember how low our night temperature sometimes drops at this time. A heap of strawberry leaves creates a kind of tent around the plants and, at least slightly, increases the temperature. In addition, strawberries, as everyone knows, is very responsive to loosening. Once you loosen it up, and in a week you will not be able to recognize it: new leaves will appear and flower stalks will begin to prepare for release. And the weather is still very suspicious, and you can expect everything from it. So is it worth the risk? Yes, of course, and I want everything on the site to be beautiful, but for some reason I don't strive to lose part of the harvest purely because of an aesthetic desire to put things in order early.

Therefore, once again I urge gardeners not to rush into processing strawberries, because there are plenty of other things: the preparation of greenhouses, greenhouses, and early spring spraying of trees, shrubs and the same strawberries, and planting carrots, parsley, turnips, all kinds of green crops.

But when it warms up reliably by about mid-May - quickly and take up strawberries. And she will not miss her. If you want to get early berries, then after processing the plantings, you must immediately hide them under a reliable covering material.

Early spring strawberry work

  1. Early spring spraying of plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid to combat gray mold.
  2. Cleansing plantings from old leaves and other debris. Trimming the leaves should be done very carefully: without cutting off the entire bush to the base (this can damage the rudiments of new leaves in the center of the rosette), but carefully cutting out the old, dried leaves with scissors (without jerking with your hands).
  3. Application of nitrogen and complex fertilizers (preferably with microelements).
  4. Loosening the soil around the bushes.
  5. Mulching the soil around the bushes with semi-rotten manure. This will protect the roots exposed after spring from drying out and will provide the necessary nutrition for the development of plants.

And if the frost?

During the flowering of strawberries, frosts sometimes occur (especially if you were in a hurry to harvest the strawberry plot). Naturally, lowering the temperature to -1 ...- 1.5 ° C can lead to the death of flowers and ovaries. In this case, I consider the only reasonable means for plant protection to be a covering material that attacks plants in advance when the temperature drops.

In addition, there is a high probability that the pollen from frozen strawberries will become sterile. Therefore, in order not to risk it, at the slightest suspicion, it is better to spray the plants during flowering with fruit-forming stimulants. It is preferable to do this on the first day of the opening of flowers. This technique promotes the formation of a normal ovary even in cold weather. As a result, the yield increases markedly, and the berry becomes larger.

To be continued →

Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg


Fertilizers

Seedlings very intensively absorb nutrients from the substrate, but painfully tolerate the increased salt content in the soil. Therefore, for young plants it is necessary to use high-quality fertilizers with a minimum amount of ballast salts. This amount can be easily calculated from the NPK composition indicated on the package.

For example, the composition is designated NPK 12:12:12, which means that the fertilizer contains these elements in equal amounts, the total content of which is 36%. That is, the remaining 64% are ballast salts, which is not very good.

Fertilizers with a long-term effect and hardly soluble are also not suitable for seedlings, because young plants need nutrients in a very short time and fertilizer should work right away.

Complex, fully soluble fertilizers with microelements are best suited. I stopped at the blue Kristalon (denoted in the same way as Kristalon Start). Unfortunately, on the shelves for private traders, dressings are often sold at incredibly expensive prices in small packages and in homeopathic doses. Therefore, for me it is better to buy a 25 kg bag cheaply and provide myself with a suitable fertilizer for several years.

All of the above should help you when choosing a ready-made substrate for seedlings or preparing your own soil for young plants from the components available to you.


Botanical description

Herbaceous perennial plant. Refers to Pink. The stem is erect. Height varies from 15 to 40 cm depending on growing conditions. The basal leaves are long enough to form a rosette. Creeping shoots. They are often called mustaches. There are specimens in which they are absent. The stem part and petioles are pubescent in the form of dense protruding hairs, which are located horizontally to the ground surface. These hairs are glandular.

The leaves are compound, in three parts. They are large, ovoid or diamond-shaped. Their petioles are shortened. The denticles are large and widely spaced. The upper part has hairs. The lower part is equipped with silky thick hairs. The leaves are green with a bluish tinge. Sinewiness is strongly expressed.

Inflorescences are corymbose. It includes 5 to 12 colors. Pedicels are shortened with a large number of protruding hairs. During the flowering period, they remain the same length, and after they begin to lengthen greatly. This helps keep the berries from touching the ground, which leads to decay.

The flowers are large and reach 2.5 cm in diameter. They are often same-sex, dioecious. The litter sepals are spaced apart. Outwardly located sepals are linear, lanceolate. In male flowers, the stamens reach 15 mm. There are a large number of them.

Fruits reach a minimum of 3 g, and their maximum weight is 5 g. The shape varies from spherical to oval. Their base is freed from fruits and narrowed. The fruits are white or with a green tint. Blush on one side only. The color is often pale pink or light red. In rare cases, they turn deep red. It is difficult to detach from the receptacle. Nuts are bare and deeply set. Pollination is produced by insects. The flowering period falls in May. The fruits ripen fully in July.

Reproduction occurs both vegetatively (by dividing the mother bush or by removing the antennae), and by seeds.


Fruit garden

If the trees are strewn with fruits, there is no need to get annoyed with the topic: “Where to put all this. ", First you need to put supports under the bending branches so that they do not break. The best supports are spears, they, as a rule, do not damage the bark on the branches, and the branches do not jump off them.

In August, most of the fruit not only give us a harvest, but also lay fruit buds of the next year, it would be good to help them. Help is expressed in feeding and dispersing pests. You need to feed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, nitrogen is not an assistant in this matter. You can spray the crown with ash infusion (very useful!) And pour ash around the crown perimeter at the rate of 3 cups per square meter. Organics in the form of grass will not be superfluous either. Just in case, I remind you that ash cannot be mixed with mineral fertilizers!

After digging up the onion and garlic, the remaining fragments of the stems, the trimmed roots, are useful to fold in a near-trunk circle, closer to the trunk - pests will not go to winter in such a smelly place. Small substandard onions can be planted in the trunk circle - and the green onion will be in the fall, and it is unpleasant for the pests. Healthy tomato leaves and broken stepchildren are no less appropriate as part of organic matter.

Fallout is an August duty. It is dreary to collect, and it is undesirable to leave, because the caterpillars that have got out will climb up the tree again for a new portion. If you have children / grandchildren at hand, you can organize a competition to collect the volunteers - the one who collects more gets a prize.

The fight against the moth must not be stopped - in the hot summer, butterflies show high demographic activity and even a third generation may hatch, which, with a fresh appetite, will pounce on late fruits. However, summer is rather strange than hot. But even the second generation of pests is quite capable of spoiling half of the crop. That is, light traps, containers with beer or kvass in the crown do not need to be removed, but they must be regularly cleaned and updated. The nights are getting longer, the time for sabotage in nocturnal insects (and they are mostly nocturnal) is longer.

Cherries, sweet cherries and apricots, as a rule, have picked up fungal diseases, it's time to treat them with fungicides, the fruits have been collected, now you can.

If you have not yet begun budding (kidney grafting), there is time: until the third decade of August in regions with a short summer, until the end of August - where half of September is still summer. I highly recommend everyone to master this simple operation - it greatly expands the possibilities.

If the trees are strewn with fruits, you need to put supports under the bending branches so that they do not break.


Anna Zorina: Calendar of a smart gardener and gardener

Here you can read online "Anna Zorina: Calendar of a smart gardener and gardener" - an introductory excerpt from an e-book, and after reading the excerpt, buy the full version. In some cases, there is a summary. City: Moscow, year of issue: 2016, ISBN: 978-5-227-06669-5, publishing house: Publishing house Tsentrpoligraf, category: Garden and vegetable garden / in Russian. Description of the work, (preface) as well as reviews of visitors are available on the portal. Library "Lib Kat" - LibCat.ru was created for those who like to look through a good book and offers a wide range of genres:

By choosing a category to your liking, you can find really worthwhile books and enjoy the immersion in the world of imagination, feel the experiences of the heroes or learn something new for yourself, make an inner discovery. Detailed information for review on the current request is presented below:


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The berry season has just begun. Planting is mainly in autumn 2012, it is still too early to judge the harvest. In the second year, high yield at Borovitskaya, Urozhainaya CHL.

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Message from Katie2 » 20.06.2013, 00:19

For identification. at least what varieties do they look like? Yes, guessing is unrealistic and frivolous.
what sort can? Strawberry flavor. Not large.

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Message from Archimedes » 22.06.2013, 13:49

150), Tago (52), Redgontled (34), Tenira (29), Rusich (26), Talisman (18), Zenit (15), Festivalnaya (10), Pavlovchanka (6).
Less than 5 bushes of the variety:
Gigantella (4), Surprise to the Olympics (2), Daryonka (3), First grader (2), Laura (1). Repaired: Lvovskaya early (1), Moscow delicacy (1) and an unknown small-growing variety with sour round berries (5).

If anyone is interested, I can express my subjective opinions on these varieties.
Idun - if not for his mediocre yield, there would be no better variety.
Maryshka is very unstable to fungal diseases. After each season, I literally save with the eradicating treatment of Bordeaux.
Tago is a new medium-fruiting variety. Everything is great except the taste, which is just good.
Redgauntled (I saw several spellings, I don't know which one is correct) - I haven't figured it out yet. Last year, the berries were shapeless due to a lack of trace elements (presumably boron). This year I fed up ahead of time. The variety is late ripening, so I haven't seen any red berries yet.
Tenira is a new medium-late variety. Everyone is very good, but the taste and aroma are too rustic.
Rusich is a relatively new medium-term variety. The berry is elongated. Not a bad variety. The berry may be a little too small. Requires additional feeding.
Talisman - medium-late. Quite large first berries, but not brightly colored. A peculiar taste that I personally like (somewhat reminiscent of the notes of marshmallow).
Zenith - medium ripening. The first berries are large, the secondary ones are small. Dark-colored, with a bright wine flavor.
Festivalnaya - the taste of childhood. The yield is mediocre, the resistance to diseases is average.
Pavlovchanka is a medium-early variety. The first berries are large, the secondary ones are small. A good variety for eating and jam, it makes no sense to keep more than 20 bushes.
Gigantella is not resistant to diseases, requires intensive feeding. The berry is large, but sour. I'll leave a couple of bushes for tasting.
The surprise of the Olympics is softly colored, but very fragrant berries. Not resistant to disease. Requires intensive feeding. Can be left as a variety to indulge in fragrant strawberries.
Daryonka is the most average grade in all characteristics. Only the density of the berries is high. Its only use is for sale.
The first grader is a descendant of the "Fairy" variety. Keeping quality is slightly improved, color saturation of berries is slightly lost. Large berries to eat from the bush.
Laura - I don't understand yet, I have 1 bush for the first year.
Lviv early - a good aroma. Maybe I will replace her with the area under Maryshka. If it is also repaired, as stated, then it has no price at all. But let's see.
Moscow delicacy is very disease-resistant. The only bush planted last year came out with difficulty. Let's see what happens in this. Berries are normal.
unknown remontant variety with sour round berries - for jam only. Bears fruit without interruption from June to October. Productivity is about 300 kg / weave. But the palatability is 3-.

I will try to get several promising varieties this year (agreed with a local supplier). I will write about the results.


Description of the book "Calendar of a smart gardener and gardener"

Description and summary of the "Calendar of the smart gardener and gardener" read for free online.

In this book, Anna Zorina, an unsurpassed gardener and gardener, will share the secrets of seasonal work on the ground without concealment. Detailed advice and recommendations are given for each month of the year, because land troubles do not stop even in winter! Armed with his knowledge and rich experience, even a novice gardener will learn to competently, and most importantly, to sow and reap in a timely manner, loosen and water, fertilize and cover. How to save the harvest, how to win the war against diseases and pests without using chemistry, and what to cook from the fruits of your labor - all the answers are under this cover!

Smart gardener calendar

© ZAO "Publishing House Centerpoligraph", 2016

© Artistic design, CJSC "Publishing house Tsentrpoligraf", 2016

January is usually the coldest month of the year. The main concern of gardeners is to protect plants from frost and rodent damage. If there is a lot of snow, then the roots of fruit and berry crops are reliably covered. Snow can be very troublesome if it falls profusely during thaws: under its weight, branches can break off. Therefore, it is necessary to shake off wet snow from the branches in a timely manner. All wintering nests of the hawthorn and goldtail should be removed from the trees and burned if this work was not done in the fall. Mummified fruits should not be left on the branches either.

If there is a danger of severe frosts (-35 ° C), the trunks and bases of young trees should be piled up with snow. It is better to take the latter from the aisles so as not to expose the soil above the roots. We need to accumulate more snow on strawberry plantings.

Wherever possible, manure should be collected and stored in compacted piles. When stacking, add superphosphate (2–2.5 kg per 100 kg of manure). In winter, it is necessary to collect ash, bird droppings and store them indoors. It is necessary to purchase mineral fertilizers, lime and pesticides that are allowed for use in the personal plot (store them in locked rooms).

It is necessary to take care of the birds: arrange feeders for insectivorous birds in the gardens and systematically feed them, especially during heavy snowfalls and icy conditions. Regularly check the condition of the cuttings if they are stored in the basement or cellar for spring grafting and grafting. The store should be ventilated periodically.

Winter is not a hindrance to grafting fruit trees. To do this, from the fall, you need to stock up and store in the basement (cellar) seedlings or vegetatively propagated rootstock of fruit and cuttings of the desired varieties. Winter grafting should be carried out in a warm room using improved copulation. Tie the vaccination site with foil. Put the vaccinations in boxes, sprinkle with sawdust and keep (stratify) in a warm room for two to three weeks. Store at 0 to –2 ° C in a basement or in the snow (until planting).

It is necessary to repair stairs, boxes, gardening tools and tools, buy the missing ones, make supports for installation under abundantly fruiting trees, old supports and containers - disinfect.

It is necessary to carry out snow retention in the garden with the help of swathing, placing shields, etc. Carry out and fix the strapping around the trunks (against mice and hares). Summarize the results of the past year and draw up a plan for the new year. January is a good time for agricultural studies - you can attend circles, lectures, read special literature.

It's time to buy fertilizers for growing seedlings and for the site.

For 6 acres, there are enough minerals: nitrophoska - 2 kg, superphosphate or nitroammophoska - 2 kg, potassium sulfate - 1 kg, urea or crystallin - 1 kg, calcium nitrate - 0.5 kg, magnesium sulfate - 0.5 kg. In addition to minerals: copper sulfate - 0.5 kg, iron sulfate - 0.5 kg, potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) - 5-10 g, wood ash - up to 10 kg, mustard - 1 kg, ground black or red pepper - 200 g ...

Protective agents against pests and diseases: 5% "Kinmix and Fury" - from the Colorado potato beetle, moth, leafworm, caterpillar and other pests; "Entovir" - from the Colorado potato beetle "Ronilan" - from fungal diseases of vegetable crops, from gray and white rotting on cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, sunflowers and strawberries "Topaz" (fungicide) - to combat powdery mildew and other diseases on cucumbers, tomatoes, roses, phlox, strawberries, gooseberries, currants and apple trees "Skor" (fungicide) - for fight against apple scab.

"Neoron" (acaricide) - from spider mites, strawberry and other ticks on cucumbers and other crops. The drug is environmentally safe, non-toxic, its use does not harm either bees or birds. The spider mite, as a rule, hibernates on weeds and especially on hop plantations, therefore, these plants are first sprayed in early spring. Roundup is one of the safest herbicides; any crop can be sown one week after the introduction of this preparation. It destroys all weeds - perennial and annual, both above ground and underground (roots). "Oxyhom" (fungicide) is used to combat late blight on tomatoes and potatoes.

Prepare the soil for growing seedlings. A good peat soil mixture in briquettes "Violet" or "Microparnik", live earth, sapropel, etc. All acquired soil must be moistened with hot water, loosened, mixed thoroughly, sprinkled on a baking sheet with a layer of 5 cm and put in the oven for 25-30 minutes at high temperature (the soil must be well moistened). After that, the soil is folded into a cloth bag and taken out onto the balcony (for 6-10 days) for freezing. This is good disinfection.

"Terra-Cottem" is a healthier of the earth. For 6 acres, this mixture is 0.8–1 kg. "Terra-Cottem" increases yields, this mixture consists of water-absorbing polymers, mineral and organic fertilizers and growth stimulants. Sown seeds or planted seedlings with Terra Cottem can grow without additional watering for a month and do not require additional fertilizing during the summer. This drug is completely safe and non-toxic.

A full tablespoon of Terra Cottem is sufficient for growing seedlings on a bucket of potting soil. Stir the soil mixture well, pour it into boxes or cups, sprinkle with hot water (70–80 ° C) and after 20–30 minutes sow seeds or plant seedlings for growing seedlings. Seedlings grown with Terra Cottem are fast growing and well developed.

When growing seedlings, do not use soil from the beds or compost, otherwise the plants may die!

Prepare a container for sowing seeds for seedlings (for further picking). It is better to sow seeds in tin cans from under canned food. Jars should be 6–7 cm high. Wooden boxes no more than 8 cm high. For picking (plant transplanting), cups, boxes, pots 10–12 cm high are required. All containers for seedlings must be absolutely clean, and there must be holes at the bottom so that the water does not stagnate, otherwise the seedlings can get sick with a black leg and die.

You must have a hand sprayer.

In January, gardeners should revise stale seeds, sort, check for germination and germination. Take care of purchasing fresh seeds.

January 20-30 sow cucumbers to grow them on the windowsill. The seeds of self-pollinated hybrids Stella, TSKHA-422, Aprelsky, TSKHA-805, Claudia, Marinda, Darin, the best hybrids of short-fruited cucumbers breeder L.V. Suchkova: Emerald, Korolek, Golden Cockerel. First, the seedlings are grown in cups up to 10 cm high. After 25-30 days, the seedlings are planted in a box 15-20 cm high, at least 30 cm wide, up to 100 cm long. 2-3 plants are planted in such a box. January, February, March are cold months, if the seedlings are on the windowsill, all the cracks in the window frame must be sealed with a thin film.

This month has the lowest soil temperature at root depth. To accumulate snow in the garden, you should continue the work begun, but not finished: arrange snow shafts in the middle of the rows, install shields from brushwood or scatter branches. On thaw days, trample snow around young apple trees, if they are not tied with spruce branches and other material to protect the bark from mice. At the end of the month, on thaw days, whitewash or renew whitewashing of the trunks and bases of branches of young trees, or shade the trunks to protect them from sunburn.

If there is a lot of snow, be sure to shake it off the branches of fruit trees and berry bushes. Check the condition of the buried seedlings, paying special attention to their protection from rodents and frost.

To determine the state of fruit buds after overwintering, it is necessary to selectively cut off the branches and put them in a vessel with water for growing.

It is necessary to stockpile manure and repair old containers for collecting, storing, canning fruits and berries, purchase seeds of vegetable and ornamental crops, plastic wrap, prefabricated greenhouses and greenhouses.

From 1 to 20 February sow celery root seeds on seedlings to a depth of 0.5 cm. Varieties: Yudin-ka, Root mushroom, Apple. 35 days after germination, dive (sow) into cups measuring 8 × 8 cm. Seedlings are grown at a temperature of 16-17 ° C.

February 10-25 - sowing seeds of pepper and eggplant for seedlings. Tall hybrids of pepper and eggplant are sown earlier - from 1 to 15 February. Pepper varieties: ТСХА-25, ТСХА-78, Health, Medal, Winnie the Pooh, California miracle, Funtik, Gift of Moldova, etc. Eggplant varieties:


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