It is not easy to grow cucumbers in our climatic zone without shelter, they prefer a special microclimate, do not tolerate temperature extremes, morning fogs and cold rains. Thanks to a properly equipped greenhouse, it is possible to get an early harvest and increase the fruiting period. The shelter will protect vegetables from bad weather, certain types of pests and diseases.
Unlike a greenhouse, a greenhouse is no more than 1.5 meters high. This design is carried out without doors, it does not equip additional heating and lighting. The plants are heated by the sun's rays and the heat that is released when the compost is overheated. The greenhouse can be either stationary or portable.
You can equip a greenhouse in different ways - from a simple structure of willow rods to a capital structure on a glazed foundation. First of all, it is worth analyzing: what is the purpose of the greenhouse, calculate the budget. It is easier to purchase a ready-made structure, but it is not cheap, and its dimensions may not fit, and you will have to assemble a greenhouse yourself.
You can make a greenhouse from materials left over from the construction site, which allows you to reduce the cost of the structure. Such a greenhouse will perform the functions assigned to it and fit in size.
Conditionally, according to the type of construction, greenhouses are divided into the following groups:
Plants need protection from cold and rain
The structure is installed on an already formed bed, using flexible rods (willow, hazel), sticking them into the ground with an arc and covering the tunnel structure with a film or white agrofibre. The film or fiber is fixed on both sides with boards, stones. It is convenient to use ready-made arcs that are sold in stores. You can independently cut arcs from plastic, metal-plastic pipes, an old hose, thick steel wire. You can use such arcs for several seasons.
The greenhouse will protect young cucumber sprouts from cold weather, rain and fog. When the cucumbers grow up, the arcs are removed or replaced with others (larger). The advantages of a temporary film greenhouse are cheapness, the ability to cover the garden bed anywhere. The disadvantages are low stability, because in a strong wind, the structure may suffer.
It is better to install the greenhouse on a flat, sunny place, it should be oriented in the direction from north to south.
An arched greenhouse or tunnel (arc shelter) is the simplest design to protect cucumbers and other plants
A stable structure must be assembled in the following sequence:
A temporary greenhouse can be made from flexible arches or wooden slats, making a structure in the form of a hut
With minimal skills in working with wood, metal profiles, you can build a butterfly greenhouse. It is easy to use, lasts a long time, is stable in strong winds and thunderstorms. The design of the butterfly greenhouse is a gable structure in which both roof flaps open, which is very convenient when watering plants and ventilating. Cucumbers grow well in such a shelter.
Similar greenhouses, made of metal-plastic profiles with a polycarbonate coating, are sold in stores, but you can build a butterfly greenhouse yourself. A structure of a suitable size is made from a wooden bar or metal profiles, covered with plastic wrap, glass or polycarbonate.
It is not difficult to build a butterfly greenhouse from old window frames, it will make it cheaper and help save time. It is necessary to purchase wooden boards (from 25 cm wide) for the frame. And you will also need bars for the frame, fasteners, curtains. Wooden parts should be treated with anti-rotting liquid and then painted.
Such a greenhouse can be made in any size.
The sequence of work on assembling the greenhouse is as follows:
When preparing a detailed drawing according to the proposed scheme, the dimensions (A and D) are selected individually
The boards are laid out by folding them on a flat surface.
With the help of metal corners, it is convenient to connect frame parts to each other at right angles
In the frame of the greenhouse, it is worth making grooves for water drainage.
Before preparing the parts for the sashes, you need to make careful measurements in accordance with the diagram
Bevels are made at the upper ends, and folds for glass installation are made at the lower ends.
When installing the sashes to the frame, make sure that they protrude slightly beyond the edges of the structure
Depending on the design of the greenhouse, the optimal material for its cover is selected. The most commonly used are polyethylene film, non-woven fabric, glass and polycarbonate. For a temporary tunnel structure made of arcs, a plastic film or a white non-woven material - agrofibre is better suited; for a capital greenhouse, both film and glass, polycarbonate are used.
The polyethylene film will ideally protect against cold and rain. A smooth single layer film with a thickness of 80-200 microns is used. Thick film lasts longer and keeps the temperature better, but it is also more expensive.
The reinforced film, consisting of two layers 100 microns thick, between which a nylon line mesh is fused, is very durable. An air bubble film is also used (from 3 layers of polyethylene up to 150 microns thick), air bubbles keep heat well.
For greenhouses, a light-converting film with special additives (phosphors) is also used, they transform ultraviolet radiation into more useful plants. Under such a shelter, cucumbers grow faster, photosynthesis improves, while the film provides an ideal microclimate for plants not only in sunny but also cloudy weather.
For greenhouses, white agrofibre with a thickness of at least 60 microns is used. Gardeners appreciate it for its ability to protect not only from the cold, but also from the scorching rays of the sun, it allows moisture and air to pass through. Agrofibre can be used for several seasons.
Non-woven fabric, unlike plastic wrap, is ideal for weekend vegetable gardens, because the plants are protected from the cold, and at the same time receive moisture when it rains. The plastic wrap needs to be removed on hot days and the plants need regular watering.
It is convenient to combine covering materials: a plastic film is laid over the agrofibre, which is removed when warm weather sets in and the season of cold spring rains ends.
When arranging greenhouses, glass does not need special advertising - it is durable, well protects plants from cold, rain, winds. This is an expensive material, but modern gardeners successfully use old window frames not only for building a greenhouse, but also for a full-fledged greenhouse.
Polycarbonate is a synthetic material, most often it is used in the manufacture of greenhouses and greenhouses in an industrial environment. Such products cost a lot, but they serve for many years. Cellular polycarbonate provides a high transparency coefficient - 80-85%, it can withstand snow loads, hail, temperature drops. Sheets of cellular polycarbonate with a thickness of 4–6 mm are used, they have excellent heat transfer and cool slowly. The disadvantage of such a shelter lies in its advantages: in hot weather, the greenhouse must be often ventilated, the plants should be watered regularly.
When growing cucumbers, it is difficult to do without a greenhouse, since these plants are sensitive to temperature changes, cannot stand cold rains and are often sick. You can choose any design - a simple tunnel shelter using polyethylene film or agrofibre, lightweight and cheap. A capital structure made of wood or metal profiles, glass or polycarbonate requires more time and money, but will last for several years.
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The number of arcs that need to be taken for such a greenhouse depends on the length of the bed that the gardener wants to cover. Ready-made arcs can either be bought in hardware stores or made by yourself from bent polypropylene pipes.
When the arcs are ready, they are stuck in the ground or mounted on a wooden frame. The distance that must be maintained between each arc must be at least half a meter. Further, so that they do not move and do not bend, slats are attached to them, located horizontally. They help to firmly hold the structure under the onslaught of the elements and from the encroachments of pets.
If the gardener wants such a shelter to successfully last the entire summer season, then vertical supports are additionally attached to the initial arcs from one end and the other. But such a measure is not always necessary, the tunnel greenhouse may well stand without props.
When all the steps for creating the frame are taken, a film is thrown over it and spread on top of it, which is pressed to the ground by something heavy at the ends.
Basic requirements when choosing a location:
This method of growing allows you to get rid of many problems. But still, the plants need careful care:
Before planting, organic matter is poured into the holes to fertilize the seeds and give them their initial growth. Planting cucumbers in such conditions will be much easier.
In hybrids, the lateral shoots are pinched to stimulate the formation of ovaries. Lack of moisture makes the grown fruits bitter. Therefore, careful and regular watering is necessary.
To protect against drying out of the soil, mulch from fallen leaves or grass is used. It will keep out new weeds and insect pests. The effort for the gardener will be kept to a minimum. Fertilizers are applied 2-3 times during the harvest season. Mineral and organic fertilizing should be alternated every 15 days.
When the fruits are formed, they are harvested every two to three days. It depends on the variety of cucumbers. It is not recommended to retard their growth, as they can be large and lose their taste. Such fruits deplete the bush, taking away all the moisture and some of the nutrients. After picking cucumbers, the structure must be prepared for overwintering.
Remains of stems and leaves are collected from all structures. Use them for further compost if there are no diseases. The nets and twines are carefully inspected for leftovers, then carefully folded and stored until next spring. The entire land plot is dug up, weeded. Before winter or early spring, you can mulch the ground. Pre-winter preparations will allow the soil to be saturated with all the necessary nutrients. It will be much easier to plant a new batch of cucumbers in the spring.
The vertical method of growing cucumbers is well suited for summer cottages. It allows you to get a stable and high-quality harvest every year.For this, various materials at hand are used: buckets, bottles, wood, flower pots and more. The cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse is carried out using trellises. In this case, the scourges do not shade the entire greenhouse and allow the fruit to develop favorably.
Before disassembling the types of covering materials, you should understand what requirements they must meet. It is important that the material retains heat well inside the structure and does not allow cold winds to penetrate into it. Accordingly, the shelter must have a sufficiently high density. The sun's rays must certainly penetrate through the material, which are necessary for the growth of plants. A brief description of the most common types of covering material is shown in the table.
It can be seen from the table that the cheapest version of a greenhouse, created by one's own hands, will be obtained from spunbond and film. However, it should be noted that the indicated price refers to the simplest and most economical types of these materials. For example, there are types of more expensive but also better quality films. In some types of this material during production, substances are added that can reduce the negative effect of UV rays, increase resistance to temperature extremes, and others. The film comes in different densities, which affects its durability. Spunbond can also have a different density and structure, which affects its cost.
It is very expensive to purchase glass for homemade greenhouses. Old window frames are often used as a covering material. And from them with your own hands you can build not only a greenhouse, but also a spacious greenhouse. In the photo below you can see an example of such an execution.
A greenhouse made of window frames is an inexpensive and reliable option
Greenhouses and greenhouses made of polycarbonate. Sizes, prices of products from leading manufacturers, characteristics, varieties, pros and cons of different designs, assembly and use features, user reviews - read our publication.
Greenhouses for growing cucumbers should provide maximum heat, but at the same time be able to ventilate. It is advisable to purchase or build spacious structures with wide aisles that facilitate plant care.
Greenhouses for cucumbers should be high, not interfering with the development of long cucumber lashes.
The size of the structure can be different; for industrial cultivation, structures with an area of 100 sq. m and more, on small personal plots mini-greenhouses from 20 to 50 sq. m. For more details about making greenhouses with your own hands, read on our website.
Among the most common designs, the following types of greenhouses for cucumbers can be distinguished:
The simplest design that is easy to build with your own hands. Arcs from a thick metal rod are dug into the ground, then they are covered with a strong plastic wrap.
At the edges, the film is fixed with bricks. The structure is very mobile, it can be installed in any corner of the site. A greenhouse can have not only an arc frame, but also straight supports that create the appearance of a hut.
The design is very easy to use. You can ventilate the greenhouse by lifting one half of the film and fixing it with clothespins. The greenhouse has been used for several years in a row, the film is washed and dried every season, and, if necessary, replaced.
Photo greenhouses for cucumbers see below:
Uncomplicated and easy-to-use design. Such a greenhouse can be bought ready-made, it is easily assembled with your own hands. The butterfly has two folding doors, and the design itself resembles an elongated house.
For airing or caring for plants, one or both flaps can be folded back, fixing them with a support. There are designs of different sizes and heights on sale. These greenhouses can be used for cucumbers and tomatoes, as well as planting peppers, eggplants and flower seedlings.
A wall greenhouse for cucumbers is erected next to the house, summer kitchen, barn or other structure. It is best done on a wooden frame or metal frame. The wall of the building protects the greenhouse from gusts of wind, the plants do not need heating, developing well from early spring to late autumn.
In its finished form, the structure resembles a small house or closet, the depth can be different. It is better to make the roof of a wall-mounted greenhouse sloping so that snow does not linger on it.
The most comfortable and modern design. They can be arched or pitched; for their manufacture, industrial cellular polycarbonate with a thickness of at least 4 mm is used.
Polycarbonate structures are equipped with 1 or 2 doors, as well as vents for ventilation. In large structures, various crops can be grown, separating them with screens of film or other materials.
Ready-made polycarbonate structures have lightweight prefabricated metal frames with anti-corrosion coating. They are durable, do not suffer from weather fluctuations. A high-quality greenhouse does not need to be disassembled at the end of the season, snow or frost will not damage them. A winter greenhouse for cucumbers must be supplemented with a heating system, turning it into a full-fledged year-round greenhouse.