Peppers grow in a greenhouse
In our harsh Ural climate, the season begins in greenhouses and hotbeds, where the most enthusiastic gardeners carry out sowing and planting in early spring, when there is still snow on the entire territory of the site. This is not easy, because the real heat is still far away, and the soil has not thawed normally even in greenhouses (there is no question of greenhouses), but it is quite real. True, it will take some effort to prepare greenhouses for the new season.
Of course, preparations should have begun in the fall. And the point is not only in the excessive workload in the spring. There are a number of other reasons to consider.
Firstly, the presence in the greenhouse soil of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms and pests that invariably appear during the growing season. It is now possible to find greenhouses free from such problems only in very remote and practically abandoned villages - throughout the rest of the territory. diseases and pests are developing at an increasingly frightening speed. Therefore, mandatory disinfection of greenhouse areas is required. It is advisable to carry it out in the fall, but if you did not have time to do this, then you can disinfect it in the spring, but in this case, about early crops in greenhouses have to forget.
Secondly, it is in the fall that it is easier to carry out a number of works on the preliminary formation of a new greenhouse soil. Indeed, it is at the end of the season that there are many different organic residues on the site. They need to be stored somewhere - so why not in a greenhouse? And in the spring, the final laying of the soil is carried out. At the same time, if necessary, additional fertilizers are introduced and the ridges are prepared. This is a diagram of the preparation of greenhouses in general terms, details are below ...
At the very first application of the soil, it usually does not contain pathogens (if this soil was not brought from a nearby state farm, with a profit for itself getting rid of the used soil from its own greenhouses). This is especially true for peat-based soils, since fresh peat is sterile. Repeated use of the same soil will already be dangerous, except in cases where the plants in the first year were not affected by diseases and pests. Unfortunately, this situation is not common due to the high prevalence of both. Here, only residents of remote villages can be lucky, who, due to isolation from civilization, have not yet been able to get the entire list of pathogens in full. Everyone else has to partially or even completely replace the soil and disinfect the greenhouses.
If the degree of spread of diseases and pests in the past season turned out to be small, and among them there were no particularly dangerous (for example, phytophthora), then you can limit yourself to a partial replacement of the soil - remove its surface layer (up to 10 cm). Otherwise, complete soil replacement is indispensable. The soil extracted from the greenhouse is piled up, sprinkled with dry bleach layer by layer (250 g of bleach per 1 square meter of the stack with a layer of 20 cm) and left for disinfection for 3-4 years. If desired, this soil, if there are no late blight pathogens in it and black legand also, for example, nematodes and ticks, can be used even in spring - in the open field for crops that do not suffer from pests present in this soil.
Since the spores of pathogens and some pests, in particular, spider mites, quietly winter in hotbeds and greenhouses, it is additionally necessary to disinfect the structures themselves. The safest and easiest way of such disinfection is the use of bleach. To do this, after partial or complete removal of the soil, the inner and outer surfaces of the heifer (including frames) are sprayed with bleach infusion. The solution is prepared 2-4 hours before use by stirring 400 g of bleach in 10 liters of water. After insisting, the settled liquid is carefully drained and used for spraying? and the sediment is used for brushing the wooden parts of the greenhouse with a brush. In this case, you need to try to ensure that the solution penetrates as deeply as possible into all the cracks in the structure.
In addition to chemical treatment of greenhouses, moss and lichens on the logs at the base of the greenhouse must be mechanically destroyed and all wooden surfaces in the greenhouse must be treated to destroy their spores with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate.
Of course, you can leave the greenhouse soil completely intact and plant your usual crops on it again next season. By the way, this is exactly what my observations show, the overwhelming majority of ordinary gardeners do. In principle, in the absence of various pathogenic microorganisms and pests in the greenhouse soil (which is completely unbelievable), this approach is quite acceptable, however, provided that nightshade crops are transferred (tomato, eggplant and peppers) to the greenhouse occupied in the previous season cucumbers and vice versa, which easily solves the problem of soil fatigue. True, there can be no question of any early sowing and planting in this case, since in the absence of specially stored organic matter in the soil, it will not warm up soon. Therefore, we will go the other way.
Since in our case it is assumed that the disinfection of greenhouses is a mandatory condition, and it was carried out back in the fall (which means that part of the soil was removed), it will be necessary to form a new soil, preferably on the basis of organic residues, in order to achieve its warming up to one degree or another. ... Of course, there are other types of greenhouse heating, but they are expensive and more difficult to implement technically, so most gardeners are forced to resort to the use of biofuels.
The constituent components of such a greenhouse soil may be different, but the resulting soil should be breathable, retain moisture well and be optimally filled with nutrients.
There are many options for such soils. Which one to choose depends on the available organic materials. Pre-prepared organic-mineral compost is best suited for refueling.
If such compost is not available, then you can, for example, take a mixture of four parts loamy soil, three parts of manure or vegetable humus and three parts peat or six parts of loamy soil and four parts of humus. It is useful to additionally introduce into the soil composition such loosening materials as bark, straw cutting or sawdust, the share of which can be up to 10-30%. However, you should be aware that adding straw to the soil entails an increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied, required for its decomposition. For example, when adding 100 kg of straw, 800-1000 g of urea are additionally introduced. A similar picture is observed when using fresh sawdust, to which you will have to add urea at the rate of 200 g of fertilizer for three buckets of sawdust, so it is better to give preference to stale sawdust.
After the formation of ridges for 1 square meter of area, an additional glass is added wood ash and complex mineral fertilizer, for example, the Kemirs in accordance with the norms recommended by the manufacturer, and carefully loosen the soil.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by E. Valentinov
Impatient summer residents always get their very first harvest in a greenhouse. But few people think about the fact that before starting planting it is necessary to take care of the greenhouse itself. Tidy up, wash and disinfect. Let's take a look at how the greenhouse is being prepared for the new season in spring.
First, you need to remove all the remnants of last year's plants in the greenhouse. Not only tops and spoiled fruits, but also weeds and roots. A greenhouse is a closed ecosystem.
Even if there were no outbreaks of diseases in the past year, some of the pathogens are still present in the greenhouse. Therefore, it is necessary to collect and burn all residues of wooden stakes, garters and other auxiliary materials used in the greenhouse.
It is imperative to clean and disinfect the racks, containers and equipment used in the greenhouse. Boiling water can help with this procedure.
The racks and wooden supports in the greenhouse should be treated with limestone.
Over the winter, polycarbonate has become dirty and cloudy. He needs to return the original transparency. For this, the greenhouse cover can be washed with soapy water without the use of abrasive cleaning agents. The carbonate is washed with soft sponges, brushes or rags.
If during the last season an outbreak of any disease has occurred in the garden, it is recommended to dissolve the drug that affects the pathogen in the water for washing.
Disinfection of soil in a greenhouse is one of the most time consuming and troublesome activities. If we are talking about a small greenhouse, the issue is resolved quickly. A few buckets of boiling water and most of the plant pathogens will be destroyed.
Experienced gardeners know that it is almost impossible to disinfect the soil in a large greenhouse. The earth is the easiest to replace. Not all, but the top layer of 5–8 cm is quite possible. After removing the top layer, it is recommended to dig up the soil with organic fertilizers in the form of manure or "ripened" compost.
The easiest way to treat a greenhouse without much difficulty is fumigation. Sometimes just a smoky fire is enough, but disinfecting a polycarbonate greenhouse requires a different approach. For this, the following are suitable:
For greater effect, a small amount of kerosene is added to the sulfur. The doors and vents of the greenhouse are carefully caulked. The preparations are laid out on a metal surface. Fumigation with sulfur is carried out for 4–5 days. Then the greenhouse is intensively ventilated.
As you can see, preparing the greenhouse for the new season is a necessary procedure for growing healthy plants and getting a good harvest.
Night frosts and spring weather will not be an obstacle to please your loved ones with an early harvest grown in a greenhouse, which you will properly prepare for the new summer cottage season.
Tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers that you grew this year are often affected by various diseases in greenhouse conditions. Remember how long you struggled with late blight and root rot? It's time to stop the reproduction of pathogenic microflora! For this, we have prepared a clear plan for how to cultivate the land in the greenhouse in the fall.
When using chemicals for soil in greenhouses in autumn, be sure to use personal protective equipment: respirators, goggles, rubber gloves, aprons, etc. After processing, wash your hands and face thoroughly, rinse your mouth. It is not recommended to stay in a closed cultivated greenhouse for more than 10 minutes. After processing, the greenhouse should be ventilated.
The preparation of the soil in the greenhouse in the fall should be started in late September - early October and completed before the onset of stable frosts. If all the work is carried out on time, then by the spring the building will be free of parasites, mold and mildew. In addition, the structure will last longer, and it is much more pleasant to work in a clean and well-kept greenhouse.
How to treat a greenhouse from late blight in the fall. Copper oxychloride (40 g per 10 l of water) and a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid have proven themselves well. You can also use Abiga-Peak, Consento, Revus, Fitosporin or other fungicidal preparations.
How to treat a greenhouse from powdery mildew. The fungicides Gamair, Topaz, Fitosporin, Quadris, Tiovit Jet and others will cope with the hidden fungus.
How to treat a greenhouse from fusarium... Fusarium wilting of plants is difficult to treat, and the disease causing fungus itself is also difficult to cope with. The following drugs will come to the rescue: Trichophyte, Gamair, Previkur Energy, Oksikhom, etc.
How to treat a greenhouse for cladosporia (brown spot). Use Pseudobacterin-2, Fitosporin, Poliram, Hom.
How to treat a greenhouse from root rot... The biological products Baktofit, Pseudobacterin-2, Gamair, Planriz, Trichodermin will help.
Copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water) can be used as a universal disinfectant in a greenhouse in autumn. It will also serve as an excellent fertilizer. But you need to make it no more than 1 time in 5 years, because the substance increases the acidity of the soil. The soil can be spilled with a ready-made solution or sprayed. A sulfur checker will also help to clear the greenhouse of all types of diseases and pests.
If during the season there were no manifestations of diseases, then it is enough to improve the soil in the greenhouse in the fall. Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Baktofit, Baikal EM-5, Planzir, and other similar drugs will cope with this.
For the best effect, the processing of the greenhouse should be repeated 2 weeks after the first procedure or after the interval specified in the instructions for the preparation.
In greenhouse conditions, the soil is under increased stress. Firstly, due to intensive use (it is difficult to find a greenhouse where there are empty areas) and high yield from 1 m 2, and, secondly, due to the lack of environmental impact (precipitation, wind, animals, sharp fluctuations temperature). As a result, the soil is severely depleted and needs to be replaced or enriched. You cannot start a new season on old soil.
During the winter, the soil in the greenhouse dries out a lot, in order to eliminate this problem, it is enough to sow green manure in the beds in the middle of autumn, which will cover the ground and reduce evaporation. In addition, green manures enrich the soil with nutrients, cleanse it of pathogens and serve as an excellent fertilizer in the spring. Also, green manures cleanse the soil of toxic substances emitted by tomatoes and serve as an excellent alternative to crop rotation. It is better to sow winter rye, vetch and mustard in greenhouses. But these recommendations will come in handy for the future, and now we have dry frozen soil that needs to be reanimated.
Soil preparation in a greenhouse includes the following work:
The soil prepared in this way will ripen faster and "wake up" for sowing greens and planting seedlings. The commencement of soil preparation works depends on the conditions of the region.In the Moscow region, it is possible to prepare a greenhouse already in mid-March, and for the Far East and Siberia, the dates are shifted to April - May.
A greenhouse in early spring needs your attention no less than the rest of the buildings or plantings on the site. To protect your future crops from starvation, diseases and pests, carry out all seasonal treatments in advance.
In the spring, we spend a lot of time and energy growing vegetable seedlings. But what will happen to these plants that we have cherished and cherished when they move to the greenhouse? Will they grow big and strong and will delight you with an abundance of fruits? Of course, but only if you correctly processed the greenhouse in the spring before planting.
A polycarbonate greenhouse in our conditions has one significant drawback - under a load of snow without supports, its roof can fold into the structure.
This will mean not only the replacement of polycarbonate, but also bent metal elements, that is, large-scale repairs or a complete replacement.
To prevent this from happening, you need to properly prepare the greenhouse for winter, as well as regularly come to the dacha after snowfalls and clean off excess snow from the roof.
After the snow melts, the greenhouse will need to be inspected for minor breakages and leaks. Spring repairs are reduced to cleaning rusted surfaces, straightening rickety elements and replacing damaged polycarbonate sheets.
After renovation in the greenhouse, you need to do seasonal cleaning, especially if you did not do it in the fall. First, all plant debris, props, water containers and removable track elements must be removed. Secondly, thoroughly rinse the walls and supporting structures. They begin to do this in April, when it is already warm enough.
For processing cellular polycarbonate, you can use a light pink solution of potassium permanganate (it is more convenient to wash with a sponge). You can also use a mild soapy solution. It is enough to wash metal and plastic parts of the frame with hot water and vinegar. The wood is washed with plain water. Please note that you need to process the greenhouse both inside and outside.
You can disinfect the soil immediately after washing the greenhouse. There are two ways to treat soil against diseases and pests: chemical and biological.
For the disinfection of wooden greenhouses and greenhouses made of plastic pipes, a sulfur checker is most often used.
How to carry out processing with its help? It is better to install the checker not in the ground, but on some non-combustible material. Next, you need to set fire to the wick and leave the greenhouse, tightly closing the door and transoms.
When the checker burns out, let the smoke stay in the greenhouse for a couple of hours, and then open it and leave it to ventilate for a few days.
Greenhouses made of metal profiles are best treated with a solution of slaked lime (dissolve 3 kg of slaked lime and 500 g of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water).
If you do decide to use a sulfur checker, pre-paint the frame or grease it with grease, otherwise the surface will quickly rust.
Dilute Fitosporin, Phytocide, Stubble Biodestructor or any other preparation of your choice for disinfecting the soil according to the instructions on the package, and spray it on the ground and walls of the greenhouse.
And remember, chemical treatment of the greenhouse in the spring from diseases and pests should be carried out if they were definitely noticed last season. If there are no problems, use biologics.
The land in the greenhouse in the spring is warmed up in April (in the middle lane), in March in the south of the country and not earlier than the first half of May in the northern regions, so it is rather difficult to name the exact dates for the start of land work. However, if the ground has thawed with a bayonet, and the air remains warmer than zero around the clock, you can start preparing the greenhouse for the new season in the spring.
After all the procedures carried out, it remains only to dig up the ground and form beds in the greenhouse. You can immediately add fertilizers to them: compost, manure or humus at the rate of 4-5 kg per 1 sq. M.
The soil in the greenhouse should be fertile, because the future harvest depends on this. If you are a proponent of chemical fertilizers, focus on nitrogen fertilizers.
In the spring, all plants need this very element to gain green mass, which means that organic matter can be replaced with urea (10-20 g per 1 sq. M.), Ammonium nitrate (10-15 g per 1 sq. M.), Etc. ...
So that the ground in the greenhouse warms up faster, in the spring you can put covering material on the beds or cover them with black film.
By the way, some summer residents leave it for the whole season, making cross-shaped cuts in the film and planting seedlings in the holes. Black color contributes to better soil warming and more active development of greenhouse crops.
True, with this method of cultivation, you have to install a drip irrigation system and shade the greenhouse in hot weather so that the plants do not "burn out".
You can also increase the fertility of the soil, as well as improve its structure with the help of green manure, for example, mustard or oats. They must be sown about 3-4 weeks before the main planting of crops. By the time when it will be necessary to transplant seedlings into the greenhouse, the siderates will have time to grow up a little. The soil is dug up with them. The benefits of such an agrotechnical technique are colossal.
As you understand, it is not worth delaying the processing of a polycarbonate greenhouse in the spring. After all, the sooner you do all the necessary procedures, the sooner you can plant the first unpretentious crops in the greenhouse.
With the permanent cultivation of the same crops in the greenhouse every year, harmful organisms accumulate in the soil and on structures, which do not die even in severe frosts. It is possible to reduce their harmfulness by fairly simple preventive measures, the main of which is general cleaning.
It is very important not to postpone it until late, and even more so until spring. The most convenient way to tidy up your greenhouse is in October or November. At this time, the main work in the garden has already been completed, and it is still relatively warm in the greenhouse.
The first step in spring cleaning is to remove the fertile plants. Plant residues are carefully collected and burned or sent to compost if they have not been affected by diseases and pests.
Then, all the aids that were used during the growing season (twine, stakes, all kinds of supports ...) are removed from the greenhouse.
Stationary glazed greenhouses covered with polycarbonate or perennial foil are washed inside and out with warm soapy water (you can use dishwashing detergent). In order not to damage the carbonate surface, only soft materials should be used when washing: rags, napkins, foam sponges.
If diseases were raging in the greenhouse, all its internal surfaces are disinfected by spraying with a solution of the drug Pharmayod disinfectant (100-300 ml of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water and evenly sprayed or applied with a sponge over the surface: for 10 square meters of surface, 1-3 liters of the finished solution are required ) or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. Processing is carried out at an air temperature of at least 0 ° C, after having closed all the vents and doors.
Beginning the processing of the greenhouse with disinfection. It is performed in several stages:
A smoke bomb is a great way to get rid of most parasites.