Chestnut - Castanea sativa


The Chestnut

The chestnut, common name for castanea, belonging to the Fagaceae family, is a tree well known for its tasty fruits, tasted fresh, cooked in various ways, processed for the production of flour, or even used with different techniques for the creation of delicious sweets.

The chestnut, especially if it grows in the wild, can reach heights of 30 meters. It is a very long-lived tree which, in good health conditions, often reaches a hundred years of life. Its diffusion extends over a vast area ranging from the Mediterranean areas to the Balkan countries. The privileged location for its growth is however that of the foothills, but also mountainous areas, at altitudes ranging from 500 to 1000 meters. In Italy, chestnut is widespread in the Center - South in the less cold parts, characterized by abundant rainfall in the winter season and present to a lesser extent during the year.


Fruits and use

Chestnut has always been appreciated for its fruits, which are also produced industrially. In recent years there has been a noticeable decrease in the production of chestnuts for fresh consumption or reduced to flour. A decisive role in this sense was played by the confectionery industry which focuses much more on large and regular fruits, aimed at the production of the typical marron glaces. The most economically “lucky” fruits are therefore the Marrone, which boasts large dimensions and very sweet pulp, the Bracalla which has the same qualities as the previous one but has red skin and the Fragonese, particularly loved for its flavor. As for the smaller fruits, such as Salvaschina, Carpinese and Pistolese, their use is instead focused on the preparation of roasted chestnuts or chestnut flour.


Cultivation

For the development of new plants it is advisable to prepare a small nursery, with a deep and fertile soil, with good exposure. In the autumn season, the more rustic fruits should be planted at a distance of about 10 centimeters in each row. Subsequently sowing is to be carried out inside furrows placed about 60 centimeters away, well fertilized with wood ash and good mature fertilizer. During the first year, the plants must be watered every two weeks, with plenty if the season is particularly hot and drought. Subsequently, after the first year, the plants will have to be thinned: only the most rustic will be kept. Later, these will be grafted in the nursery, at the end of the winter of the third year.


Planting and fertilization

It is advisable to carry out planting in the autumn season, when the vegetative rest of the plants begins. The grafting must be done in deep grooves at least one meter by one, fertilized as before with good manure and wood ash. Fertilizations recommended for the first year are also those of the "green" type, ie with the use of legumes such as violet clover or vetch.

Every year, fertilization must then include mature manure, alternated with a supplementary preparation of phosphorus and potassium.


Ground

The chestnut's preferred soil is fresh and deep, particularly equipped with organic substances. On the contrary, the tree does not like more compact or calcareous soils, where its growth is hindered and tiring. Acid or subacid soils with a pH of 6.5 are right for you, as well as more neutral soils with a pH of 7.0.


Watering

If in mountain and alpine climates the plants have a sufficient supply of water - thanks to the rains that fall well distributed during the course of the year, therefore not requiring watering - in the case of more drought environments, irrigation must be carried out in the warmer seasons , especially on young plants, with a time interval of two weeks, maximum twenty days.


Parasites

One of the most serious parasitic diseases that can affect the chestnut, often with a fatal outcome, is the cancer of the bark, caused by the fungus Endothia Parasitica. This leads to a very serious drying of the branches. To defend the tree, the affected branches must be cut and then healed with a fungicidal and fungistatic mastic. Another harmful fungus is Phitophthora Cambivora which causes dark spots on the bark, roots and base of the tree. To avoid these attacks, mineral additions to the soil and the preparation of wood ash around the trunk are recommended. Finally, one of the most harmful insects is the Curculio Elephas, or balanino, which leads to the growth of larvae in the chestnut, which is no longer edible for humans. To prevent its attack it is necessary a regular thinning of the branches and a good fertilization.


Species

The most common species are Castanea sativa, very common because it grows luxuriantly in very rainy environments. It has different varieties with different fruits both in size and in flavor: among these the best known are the aforementioned “marroni”. And the castanea crenata, or Japanese chestnut, with fruit larger than the European chestnut.




The chestnut, the autumn tree

They are an inevitable component of the autumn season.

The chestnuts they are, perhaps, the fruit that, together with mushrooms, best represent an entire season.

A season that brings us back to the cold and staying more at home.

There is no better way to spend an autumn afternoon with friends: go for chestnuts, cook them and enjoy them perhaps with a good bottle of new wine.

That the chestnut is known as edible plant it is well known: they have been found fossils which date back to more than eight million years ago and in the paleontological museum of Voulte there is even a specimen dated around the end of the third century.

Also known by the name of Castanea sativa, the chestnut, is a tree with fcaducous olives, of the family of Fagaceae.
It is a plant that, in its accompanying human life, has marked the evolution of the customs and conformation of our mountains.

His high nutritional value made it a very important source of survival for many populations so much so that the emperor Caesar He used burn the chestnut woods around the besieged cities in order to reduce the inhabitants to starvation.

In nature they are found approx 10 different chestnut species, which are widespread in all hilly / mountainous areas, mostly sunny and characterized by a mild climate, that is, with hot summers, long and not too cold autumns and springs that tend to be without sudden frosts.

With these characteristics the chestnut develops on a regular basis, giving life to a very beautiful plant that can reach even i thirty meters high and which is characterized by a marked longevity.

Specimens of chestnut trees over 500 years old and it even seems that there are trees over a thousand years old.

As for the plant, there are also different variants for the fruit.

To differentiate the different types of chestnuts, generally they are the color, shape and size.

Chestnuts known by the name of browns, they are one of the most popular types, because they are bigger and tastier.

It is the chestnut that has made the plant so popular in the turn of evolution.

This comes to ripening from mid-September until late October and it must be collected daily since it rots very quickly.

However, they can be stored in the fridge for more than a year without problems.

Chestnut is a achene, it is not a real dry fruit and it doesn't have the same calorie level.
Has very little fat and, for this reason, it is used in weight loss diets where it is also appreciated for easy digestibility and for the high nutritional value.

In addition to the fruit, however, of the chestnut is a lot also loved the wood which is normally used in carpentry, architecture and industry, for the realization of the most varied artifacts: from parquet, to furniture, passing through beams and decorative objects.

Also there chestnut leaf is exploited: in antiquity it was used as coagulant, since it contains a lot of vitamin K, while today we find it a lot in the herbal sector, where it is used for the realization of drinks and infusions.

One is even pulled out syrup for the treatment of various symptoms ofgastrointestinal system.

There flowering chestnut, which develops in the month of June, with his intense aroma, makes the stay in the surroundings of the plant very pleasant, so much so that even the bees they appreciate, producing a very widespread and renowned honey.


Chestnut Technical Sheet

Chestnut (Castanea Sativa)
by Sergio Acconcia

Chestnut Castanea Sativa
Deciduous tree with large serrated leaves and upright white or red racemes in spring.
Exposure: Full sun.
Watering: Daily during the growing season.
Fertilization: Every 2-3 weeks during the vegetative season.
Repotting: Every other year in spring, using basic soil.
Pruning: Regularly shorten new growth.
Propagation: Seed.
Style Random upright, inclined, prostrate, 2 trunks, common stump, group.
Sizes from large to giants.

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Chestnut - Castanea sativa - garden

At the PRANDINI NURSERIES you can find the chestnut, belonging to the castanea sativa species, it is a tree that can reach 20-25 meters in height, generally this shrub does not find a place in the gardens as its size tends to become impressive in fact it finds its place in the areas wooded.

GROUND

Chestnut needs acidic soil for good growth. Calcareous and very compact soils are to be avoided. Flat terrain and slightly sloping terrain are preferred, where you can have a very facilitated harvest.

FLOWERS AND FRUITS

Chestnuts are monoecious trees, i.e. on the same tree both male and female flowers bloom, the male flowers are gathered in long yellow catkins while the female flowers sprout at the base of the male catkins. Many chestnut varieties tend to be self-fertile, and therefore, it is good that there are more chestnut trees in the same area. The fruits are achenes, and are produced inside a semi-woody shell, equipped with thorns on the outside, commonly called hedgehog, which opens when the fruit ripens, which takes place in autumn. Inside each hedgehog we can find two or three chestnuts.

USE AND HEALTHCARE CONTENT

Chestnuts are satiating fruits, rich in fibers and minerals, useful in case of anemia, psychophysical fatigue, thanks to their high caloric intake (about 287 calories in 100 grams), and still pregnant, by virtue of their intake of folic acid. which prevents fetal malformations.
The richness in complex carbohydrates makes them similar in nutritional value to cereals: they are a valid alternative in case of intolerance and completely cover the carbohydrate part of the meal.
Chestnuts reduce cholesterol, rebalance the bacterial flora. Among the vitamins contained in chestnuts we find: vitamin A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5, B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, C and D. Among the amino acids present in chestnuts we mention the aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, serine and threonine.
Chestnuts also contain potassium (antiseptic, strengthens muscles and glands), phosphorus (calcifying, contributes to the formation of the nerve cell), sulfur (antiseptic, disinfectant, contributes to ossification), sodium (useful for digestion and assimilation), magnesium (assists in the formation of the skeleton and acts as a regenerator of the nerves), calcium (bones, blood, nerves), chlorine (bones, teeth and tendons).

PRUNING AND CULTURAL CARE

Before thinking about the actual cuts, the training system for the young trees must be foreseen. In reality, the choice is almost always aimed at the natural form. In the first years, therefore, we will focus on the formation of a good basic structure, providing the plants with a support if necessary in order to help their vertical growth. Subsequently, and as the plant grows, the crown will be set with the cutting of piled up branches.


Buy online Common Chestnut Plant, botanical name Castanea Sativa. High and constant productivity. The fruit it's a wot covered with a thorny shell called hedgehog. Thin peel and hard brown in color, stands out good flavor. Engaged for 2 years in phytocell, with Maturation from 01-09 to 31-10, Height of the chestnut plant about 120cm.

Buy now Common Chestnut Plant (Castanea Sativa) in phytocell. Ancient Fruit Plants for sale online

Online sale of Common Chestnut Plant, botanical name Castanea Sativa. High and constant productivity. The fruit it's a wot covered with a thorny shell called hedgehog. Thin peel and hard brown in color, stands out good flavor. Engaged for 2 years in phytocell, with Maturation from 01-09 to 31-10, Height of the chestnut plant about 120cm.

- TECHNICAL FEATURES -

Common name Chestnut
Botanical name Castanea Sativa
Variety Common Chestnut
Height 120-150 cm
Engaged For 2 years
Jar In Fitocella
Maturation 01 September - 31 October

There Chestnut plant belongs to Fagaceae family and is native to the southern European basin. Long-lived tree, of medium-large development, with expanded and very branched foliage, deciduous leaves, elliptical-elongated in shape, with serrated edge, leathery, bright green, shiny and lighter on the underside. The chestnut prefer deep soils, light, draining, rich in nutrients.

Every flower is whitish in color, inconspicuous, are elongated and yellowish and fragrant and have the two sexes in the same plant. The fruit it's a wot covered with a thorny shell called hedgehog. Thin peel and hard brown in color.

To plant a plant, that is fruit tree, olive Tree or citrus tree first of all you have to dig the hole that will have to receive the transplant. If the ground it is very difficult or compacted, it is advisable to dig a bigger hole to loosen the soil around the perimeter to make it easier for the roots to spread when they begin to grow. Normally on a transplanted tree you should avoid fertilizing until the tree has stabilized. Then you have to place the sapling in hole dug in the new location. Make sure thesapling is placed at the same depth as when it was removed. To put loose earth around to support him, water normally, for delete voids or air pockets, but not so much as to remove the soil from the roots. Fill the hole level with earth close. Water the tree again after the initial watering has impregnated the soil. This should help the soil to stabilize and help you fill the hole with adding more potting soil. If necessary stake the sapling in the presence of areas with very strong winds.

N.B. Ripening is indicative, it can vary according to the type of soil, climate, climatic conditions, so it can slip from 10 to 15 days.

There Chestnut plant belongs to the Fagaceae family and is native to the southern European basin. Long-lived tree, of medium-large development, with expanded and very branched crown, deciduous leaves, elliptical-elongated in shape, with serrated edge, leathery, bright green, shiny and lighter on the underside. chestnut prefers deep, light, draining soils, rich in nutrients. n

Every flower is whitish in color, not very conspicuous, they are elongated and yellowish and fragrant and have both sexes in the same plant. The u00a0fruit u00a0 u00e8 a u00a0walnut is covered with a thorny shell called hedgehogThin skin is hard brown in color. n

To plant a plant, whatever fruit tree, olive tree o citrus tree first of all you need to dig the hole you will need receive the transplant. If the soil is very difficult or compacted, it is advisable to dig a larger hole to loosen the soil around the perimeter to make it easier for the roots to spread when they begin to grow. Normally on a transplanted tree one should avoid fertilizing until the tree has stabilized. Then you have to place the sapling in the hole dug in the new location. Make sure thesapling is placed at the same depth as when it was removed. To put earth moved around to support it, water normally, for delete voids or air pockets, but not so much as to remove the soil from the rootsFill the hole level with the nearby earth. U00a0Water the tree again after the initial watering has soaked the soil. This should help the soil settle and help you fill the hole with adding more soil. If necessary stake the sapling in areas with very strong winds. n

N.B. Ripening is indicative, it can vary according to the type of soil, climate, climatic conditions, so it can slip from 10 to 15 days. "," description_short ":"

Buy online Common Chestnut Plant, botanical name Castanea Sativa. High and constant productivity. The fruit is one walnut covered with a thorny shell called hedgehog. Thin and hard skin of brown color, u00a0stands out good flavor. Grafted for 2 years in phytocell, with Ripening from 01-09 to 31-10, Height of the chestnut plant about 120cm. n


Castanea sativa: genotype-dependent recovery from chestnut blight

In Lovran (coastal Croatia), a unique forest / orchard of evenly mixed grafted marrons and naturally growing nongrafted sweet chestnut trees exists. This old chestnut population has been devastated by chestnut blight, caused by an aggressive introduced pathogenic fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. However, initial observations indicated recovery of naturally growing chestnut trees in that area, mediated by Cryphonectria-associated hypovirus (Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1)). Such recovery was not observed on grafted trees. Genotyping both, we confirmed the clonal origin of the grafted ones — marrons. No significant difference was observed between fungal strains isolated from naturally growing trees and the ones from marrons regarding fungal vegetative compatibility types or the prevalence of CHV-1. A strong correlation was observed between the types of canker: active / deep-expanding versus healing callus or superficial necrosis and the absence or presence of CHV-1 in the fungal isolates, sampled from naturally growing trees (Spearman rho 0.686, p value 7.81 × 10 −5, Kendall tau 0.686, p value 5.18 × 10 −7). Such correlation was not observed on marrons (Spearman rho 0.236, p value 0.235, Kendall tau 0.236, p value 0.084), because, unexpectedly, active / deep-expanding cankers were often associated with hypovirulent fungal isolates. These data indicate that the lack or unequal distribution of naturally occurring hypovirulence were not the cause of substantial marron decay in Lovran. Ecological and age-dependant differences were ruled out because all sampled trees are growing in close proximity and are of similar age. The results imply that the marron genotype is especially vulnerable and its ability to recover is limited even when the hypovirulent strain of the fungus is present in the canker.

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Video: Wild Edibles with Sergei: Chestnuts Castanea Sativa vs. Horse Chestnut Aesculus Hippocastanum


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