To obtain new varieties of apple, gardeners resort to such an operation as grafting. There are many ways to pinch the variety you want. The choice of method depends on the time of year and experience. Vaccination is not as difficult as it requires attention and accuracy. The success of the event depends to a large extent on the correctly selected rootstock and the preparation of the scion.
Many gardeners have heard of the concept of grafting. However, not everyone knows what it is, why and how to perform it. One of the popular horticultural crops, which is quite often grafted and re-grafted, is the apple tree. In simple terms, this procedure is the fusion of two plants with different properties. The apple tree has been cultivated by humans for many years in order to improve the taste and size of the fruit. Such a situation, when a tree is prone to frost, disease and drought, is not uncommon.
If we consider the wild apple tree, then it is much better adapted to the environment. The root system of the wild is located quite deep, which contributes to good tree retention, resistance to winds and stress under the crop. At the same time, the taste of the fruit of such an apple tree does not suit a person. However, with the help of grafting, the properties of a cultivated and a wild plant can be combined. As a result of such crossing, it is possible to get a tree that will have tasty fruits, higher resistance to diseases, a root system that allows you to extract moisture and nutrition from the depths. All of the above is the primary and main task.
Grafting an apple tree improves the quality and size of the fruit and, in general, the tree's resistance to diseases and climatic influences
However, vaccination is also used to achieve the following goals:
Vaccination activities can actually be carried out at any time of the year. However, each season has its own nuances. If the procedure is performed properly, but at the wrong time, then the scion will simply not take root, and the tree may hurt or even die.
A graft is a stalk (shoot) that is fused with the stock. The rootstock is the lower part of the grafted tree.
In the spring, grafting work is carried out at the beginning of sap flow, that is, when the tree is at rest and the buds have not yet woken up. This is explained by the fact that at this time the processes that occur in the tree are aimed only at maintaining vital activity. If the growing season has not started, then the cutting will simply not be able to take root. Determining the timing of spring grafting is quite simple:
Cambium is a green tissue located under the bark.
During the grafting of the cutting, it is necessary to combine the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock.
Depending on the region and climatic conditions, spring grafting occurs at the end of March or beginning of April. At a later date, the grafted material will most likely be rejected.
As for the summer period, most gardeners do not carry out such procedures at this time. It is generally accepted that the scion takes root very poorly, and the tree itself can only suffer from such an operation. However, it is far from always possible to vaccinate in the spring, because there may simply not be enough time. If you approach the issue under consideration more seriously, you can find out that grafting an apple tree in the summer is possible, but at a certain time:
In summer, the best time to vaccinate is at the end of July.
Cleavage in autumn is not suitable for every region. So, in areas that are characterized by early frosts, all work can go down the drain. If for some reason it was not possible to plant an apple tree in spring or summer, then it is permissible to carry it out in early autumn, and more specifically, in early September. In regions with warm winters and late frosts, work can be carried out until mid-October.
Winter vaccination is carried out indoors, so all materials are harvested in advance:
The stock is brought into the heat 7 days before the work, and the cuttings for 2-3 days. In terms of timing, winter grafting is carried out in mid-December, and the grafted seedlings are planted around the second half of March. The planting material is stored at a temperature of 0 ... -4˚С.
Before proceeding with the procedure, you need to know how to prepare cuttings for scion. The tree from which it is planned to cut the shoot must be fruitful and be characterized by stable fruiting. You need to choose ripe annual twigs from the southern part of the tree.
Cuttings are recommended to be cut from the middle tier of the crown.
When harvesting cuttings, annual branches are cut from the southern part of the crown
As for the timing of harvesting cuttings, the opinions of gardeners differ. Some believe that it is better to carry out the procedure at the beginning of winter, others - at the end of winter and early spring. Alternatively, the shoots can be harvested just before grafting. The main thing is that they do not have blooming buds. The stalk that is best suited for the scion must meet the following requirements:
The crop in question, depending on the season, can be grafted in many ways. Therefore, it is worth dwelling on each of them in more detail.
Such grafting differs from other methods in that it is not intended to produce new varieties. The main task of this method is to restore a tree from one or another damage. Quite often, rodents, severe frosts or the sun cause considerable harm to apple trees. When a wound appears, an obstacle arises to normal sap flow, which must be restored. It is worth considering that this procedure is not easy and not every gardener will cope with it.
For grafting with a bridge, apple trees with a trunk diameter of at least 30 mm are suitable.
The operation in question should be carried out at the beginning of sap flow. Dates may vary depending on the climatic zone. It is worth focusing on the following criterion: if the bark separates well, then it's time to start vaccination. But first you need to prepare everything you need. From tools and materials you will need:
The knife is the gardener's main tool for grafting.
Cuttings for scion should be selected 10 cm longer than the width of the damaged area. As a rule, shoots with a thickness of 4–5 mm are chosen. If the tree is severely damaged, the cuttings should be thicker. For the bridge, you can use shoots even from a wild apple tree. They can be harvested from autumn to mid-winter.
Grafting with a bridge is used to restore sap flow in case of damage to the bark
Bridging vaccination consists of the following step-by-step actions:
One of the simpler grafting methods that can be recommended for beginners is the bark graft. The procedure is carried out during sap flow and is used to graft adult apple trees or simply thick branches. In terms of timing, such an inoculation is carried out, as a rule, in May. For the operation to be successful, preparation must first be carried out.
To begin with, prepare the stock. The branch to be re-grafted is cut down with a sharp saw in the sequence shown in the image.
If the stock has a large diameter, it is cut in a certain sequence.
This is especially important when cutting down thick branches to avoid breaking off. Then they clean the saw cut with a sharp knife and start preparing the scion. As a grafting material, as a rule, the middle part of the cutting is used. This is explained by the fact that the kidneys are located close to each other in the upper part, and poorly developed in the lower part. To work, you need a grafting knife and garden putty.
The procedure consists of the following steps:
The graft at the bottom is cut obliquely
The cuttings are inserted into the stock in such a way that the oblique cut enters the cut of the bark on the tree
To fix the cuttings, the grafting site is wrapped with electrical tape
Inoculation with the considered method can be performed without cutting the bark. To do this, the bark is carefully separated with a peg and the prepared scion is inserted. At the end of the procedure, the fusion site, the butt of the cut branch and the upper part of the cutting are coated with garden varnish.
Depending on the thickness of the rootstock, a different number of cuttings can be planted. So, on a branch with a diameter of 2-3 cm, you can graft one stalk, 5-7 cm - two, 8-10 cm - three.
The apple tree and other fruit trees can be grafted with a grafting pruner. This tool allows you to perform a high-quality operation, even with insufficient experience. It is recommended to hold it not earlier than April, and later. The tool is quite simple to use, so everyone can handle it. The work is carried out in the following order:
An incision is made on the stock with a secateurs
The shape of the notch on the scion must be the opposite of the rootstock.
The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape or special film and a bag is put on to maintain moisture
There are situations when you manage to get a cutting of an interesting apple tree variety, but there is nothing to plant it on. In this case, you should not be upset. The grafting can be done on the root of the tree. Sometimes the roots of an apple tree are located at a shallow depth and when digging a site, they can be found almost on the surface. When buds appear on the tree, you can vaccinate. To do this, follow these steps:
Bark grafting with a saddle is slightly different from the usual method.
If the procedure is successful, the kidneys will begin to grow. The next year, you can separate the young apple tree and transplant it to another place.
To carry out an inoculation into the root collar, you will need the following tools and materials:
A knife, pruner, tape and cuttings are used for grafting.
From the cuttings prepared in advance, you will need to cut the middle part, making the upper cut 2-3 mm above the bud. Wild can be used as a stock. The process itself is performed as follows:
Grafting an apple tree with a bud (eye) is also called budding. The procedure is carried out in the summer, as a rule, in late July and early August. This method will require cuttings 25-40 cm long with the growth of the current year. Shoots should be lignified with healthy leaves and smooth bark. It is best to remove the foliage to reduce moisture evaporation, but leave the petioles.
The best time to harvest cuttings is in the morning hours on the day of grafting.
The technology itself boils down to the following steps:
A T-shaped bark incision is made on the rootstock
Using a knife, the edges of the bark are separated from the wood
The selected bud on the handle is cut off along with part of the stem
The kidney is inserted into the incision until it stops
If the flap is too big, cut off the excess with a knife
The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape or other winding, leaving the kidney open
This method is also called T-incision grafting.
There is a somewhat unusual way of grafting an apple tree - by drilling. The method is not that popular, but you can try it as an experiment.
For grafting by drilling, it is necessary to make a hole in the grafted handle with a drill
The bottom line is to drill a hole in the scion to a depth of 7–20 mm, cut off part of the wood from the stock and then combine the cambial layers. After the procedure, the site is isolated with garden pitch.
Gardeners, as a rule, always have a desire to have many varieties of fruit trees. However, the size of the site sometimes does not allow planting many seedlings. In this case, you can create a tree with several varieties by grafting into the crown. When planting two trees, 3-4 varieties of apple or pear can be grafted into the crown of each of them.
When grafting different varieties, you need to take into account that they must all be of the same ripening period.
For such a procedure, healthy and strong trees are suitable, which have an annual growth of branches in length of at least 25-30 cm. The optimal age for grafting is 4-10 years. The operation is best carried out in the spring during the period of active sap flow, i.e. before the beginning of flowering. It boils down to the following actions:
This method is suitable for branches with different diameters. Its distinctive feature is the high strength of rootstock and scion fusion. The procedure can be carried out in winter, summer or spring. The optimal time is the beginning of spring during the period of bud swelling. For grafting, cuttings harvested in the fall are used. The method consists of the following steps:
Preparation of rootstock for lateral incision grafting
When preparing the scion, the lower part is cut obliquely on both sides.
The graft is inserted into the cut on the rootstock and wrapped with strapping material
Growing seedlings using the knip-baum technology (flowering tree) allows you to get trees that come into fruiting 1-2 years after planting, which contributes to a rapid increase in yield. With this method, they resort to summer and spring budding, as well as winter grafting. The knip-baum system provides for several stages:
Valery Zhelezov, who is a gardener with extensive experience, suggests grafting on 1–2-year-old seedlings near the ground (2–5 cm) with cuttings harvested in the fall. Thus, it is possible to get strong and early-growing trees. In addition, it is recommended to vaccinate in the spring, when the ground thaws for 2 shovel bayonets. In this case, you need to adhere to the following scheme for combining the scion and rootstock:
With this method, it is possible to ensure the coincidence of the age of the scion and the rootstock.
Dormant (hidden) buds are those that do not develop in a timely manner and swim in the bark, remaining in a dormant state.
The essence of the method is as follows:
The stalk is grafted onto the stock using the split method
After grafting, the seedling is covered with a plastic bottle.
This method of grafting is quite simple and is recommended for novice amateur gardeners. An apple tree can be grafted into the splitting throughout the year, but the most favorable period is still considered to be spring and summer, namely during active sap flow, which contributes to rapid survival. The essence of the method is that the stock is split with a grafting knife and the scion is inserted into the resulting crack. On the handle in the lower part, two oblique cuts are preliminarily made. On a branch of a large diameter, 2 or more cuttings can be grafted. The main thing is to combine the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock on at least one side.
Cleft grafting is considered one of the easiest and is recommended for beginner gardeners.
Gardeners use different materials as strapping material for vaccinations: electrical tape, polyethylene strips, grafting tape, twine. However, the best material is cotton fabric, the pieces of which are impregnated with melted garden pitch. Such a winding will fit for the inner layer, and old bandages can be used on the outside. With regards to garden varnish, it is best to use a substance containing rosin.
Many people use electrical tape, plastic wrap or special tape as material for winding vaccinations.
Some gardeners use nails to fix the cuttings, but it is better not to use them, as additional damage is caused to the tree and the survival rate is impaired.
Having familiarized yourself with the methods of grafting, it is worth considering the crops on which the apple tree can be grafted, which in some cases can be quite relevant.
The general rule of grafting is the following: closely related crops are characterized by good accretion, i.e. the apple tree takes root better on an apple tree than on the same pear or other trees. At the same time, many gardeners quite successfully graft an apple tree on a pear, and in different ways (in the split, behind the bark).
Despite the fact that the apple tree does not always take root on the mountain ash, many continue to practice and even improve this method. And there is a logical explanation for this, since rowan as a stock has:
In addition, it is possible to get an earlier and more abundant harvest, since the mountain ash is used as a weak rootstock. Since it ripens at the beginning of September, then the varieties of apple trees need to be selected appropriate. You can, for example, vaccinate Belfer-Chinese or Long (Chinese).
Grafting an apple tree on a mountain ash allows you to increase the frost resistance of the tree without losing the quality of the fruit
Although it is generally accepted that pome fruits should be grafted on pome fruits and stone fruits on stone fruits, experiments indicate possible exceptions. There have been cases when gardeners, due to confusion, planted an apple tree on a plum. After discovering the error, they were surprised that the vaccine took root and began to grow. Since apple and plum belong to the Rosaceae family, such splices take root. However, deliberately using plums as a rootstock is a dubious event. The fact is that the plum has a short lifespan compared to the apple tree. In addition, the apple shoot is usually thicker in thickness than the plum shoot, which leads to breakage at the grafting site. And there is no data on harvesting. Therefore, successful grafting is not yet an indicator of a future harvest.
Cherry also belongs to the Rosaceae family and grafting an apple tree on it is quite real. But, as with the plum, the further development of the grafted cuttings is quite problematic. The likelihood that the cherry will reject the vaccine is high. How long this will take is unknown. Most likely, it will not be possible to get a crop with this combination. Cherries simply cannot withstand apple branches. Cherry in this regard is even more whimsical than cherry.
Hawthorn as a rootstock for an apple tree is attractive because the plant is undersized. The grafting can be done with cuttings up to 50 cm long at a height of 50-60 cm from the ground, and by autumn a well-developed seedling can be obtained. Thanks to this splicing, it is possible to accelerate the entry of the apple tree into fruiting by a year or more. The fusion turns out to be quite strong and without any defects. A positive quality of hawthorn is also the fact that the plant has a root system that is located closer to the surface of the earth. Therefore, it can be used for planting fruit trees in areas with high groundwater levels.
Irga is known as a dwarf rootstock, onto which apple and pear trees can be grafted. For long-term growth, it is best to vaccinate at a height of 15-20 cm from the ground. If the splice is higher, it must be borne in mind that the irga has flexible and thin branches. Cultures will develop unevenly. In addition, supports will need to be placed under the apple branches to avoid breaking.
Irga is used as a dwarf rootstock for grafting apple and pear
An apple tree can be grafted onto a quince only as an experiment, since the probability that the stalk will take root well and begin to bear fruit is not very high. In most cases, after 3-5 years, the vaccinated part simply dies.
Sometimes you can hear information about grafting an apple tree on a birch. The result of such a crossing will most likely be negative, although IV Michurin himself succeeded. In this case, it is worth considering whether such a vaccination is needed even as an experiment. After all, birch is a tall tree and it will be very difficult to get fruits, if any, will grow.
Despite the fact that the viburnum stock endows the apple tree with winter hardiness, the fruits may shrink.
Cleavage of an apple tree with aspen, bird cherry and sea buckthorn can be carried out only for the purpose of experiment. If the cuttings take root, then their viability will be low and there is no need to count on any result.
The peculiarities of grafting an apple tree in different regions are reduced, as a rule, to the timing of the operation. So, in the south of Russia the vegetation period is longer than in the middle lane. Work can be started earlier - at the beginning of March. Splicing in the autumn can be carried out almost until the beginning of November.
In the south of the country, return frosts for scion can be much more dangerous than in the north, due to the higher humidity.
The second stage of sap flow occurs in early July and lasts about a month. However, it should be remembered and taken into account that hot and dry weather, which is inherent in the south, is not recommended for vaccination procedures.
In the middle lane, spring vaccinations are carried out from late April to early May. If the operation is performed in the summer, then it is better to carry it out at the end of July. Since the movement of juices stops already in mid-September, the autumn crossing work must be carried out in a timely manner.
As for Siberia and the Urals, in these regions the soil condition is the benchmark for spring grafting. If it can be dug up on a pair of shovel bayonets, then this serves as a guideline for the beginning of sap flow near apple trees. Summer vaccinations are performed at the beginning of August. Because winter comes early in these regions, autumn splitting becomes impossible. However, the winter time for the procedure is considered ideal.
After reviewing the step-by-step instructions, both experienced and amateur gardeners will be able to vaccinate apple trees. Thanks to this process, it is possible not only to preserve rare and develop new varieties, but also to treat trees, adjust the quality of fruits.
Rate the article:
(5 votes, average: 4.4 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Many gardeners are faced with the need to plant an apple tree. Today we will tell you how to do this, even without much experience, how to choose the right stock, prepare and save the scion material, how to care for the plant after the "operation".
Grafting is one of the main methods of vegetative propagation of fruit crops
For grafting, they use cuttings that were prepared in late autumn and early winter, before the onset of frost. The branches must be cut from fruit-bearing trees. An ideal stalk is an annual branch that grows on the southern side of the tree, in the middle tier, 50-60 cm long, 7-8 mm thick, with 5-6 developed buds. The harvested branches of scions are stored:
If the winters in your area are frosty and snowy, you can store the harvested cuttings in the snow. To do this, a trench 30–35 cm deep is dug, covered with spruce legs, then cuttings are laid and again a layer of spruce legs. Everything is covered with earth, sawdust or straw and thrown from above with a half-meter layer of snow.
When stored in a cellar, the lower sections of the cuttings are dropped into wet sand. It is important to maintain the temperature between -2 ° C and + 2 ° C and the humidity around 65%. To determine moisture content, you need to squeeze the sand in your hand. It should be moist, but free of water droplets.
The easiest way to save the cuttings is to put them in the refrigerator. It is necessary to wrap bundles of branches with a damp cloth, put in a bag or bottle and set the temperature to +2 o C.
Cuttings can be stored in the refrigerator
Frozen, sprouted, dried out or moldy branches are not suitable for grafting, so it is worth preparing cuttings with a margin. You can also use branches cut in early spring, before the sap flow begins.
We use potatoes for transportation or short-term storage of the cuttings. A puncture is made in the potato tuber, but not through. A handle is inserted into this hole. In this form, our scion will be perfectly preserved for several days.
As a rootstock, which will be responsible for the nutrition and vitality of the tree, they take local varieties or wild animals adapted to the conditions of this region.
At the time of vaccination, the stock should already wake up in order to provide the grafted cutting with food, and the scion should still sleep. Therefore, we take out the cuttings only 1-3 days before vaccination and examine them. A good scion should be firm, with smooth bark and light green wood on the cut.
To determine that the cuttings are not frozen, I cut the branch below and put it in the water. If the water turns yellow, then the branch is unusable. If the water has not changed, you can take a cutting for grafting.
The limited number of good and favorable days for the survival rate of vaccinations affects the choice of methods.
Each of them has its own advantages:
And what is needed for vaccination:
What is missing from the picture?
Grafting for the bark.
Grafting the apple tree for the bark is most successful in early autumn.
2.2. Make bark incisions 3-6 cm long along the branch:
2.3. Separate the bark carefully with a knife.
Use reliable and most effective methods when grafting cuttings.
In a side cut, each of you will be able to:
If you vaccinate cuttings of the same diameter as the stock - you cannot do without copulation (more reliable than improved copulation).
In what situations will you do this:
That being said, remember:
Grafting an apple tree in the fall with a kidney (in the language of gardeners - an eye) you can do from late August to mid-September. And even longer in the south.
And you can use any of the methods at your discretion:
In words, we are all aces and geeks. We know how to cut and shape the crown of an apple tree.
And when the apple tree begins to grow, we notice:
To eliminate these errors, use a graft in the trunk behind the bark.
We constantly remind about timing for vaccinations... Autumn can be picky about the weather. And the cold may come earlier than you expected them.
therefore more and more hobby gardeners use rooms for vaccinations (specialists are engaged in vaccination all year round).
And they benefit in many ways:
And even more so if you have grown one-year seedlings.
We chose the day and time for vaccination:
In relation to the apple tree, the phrase moss and lichen meant for me that it was necessary to somehow deal with them. And here sphagnum moss it turns out - the most valuable thing for those who are fond of and engaged in the cultivation of rare orchids. It is he who creates the moist aura in the orchid apartment.
In the garden and vegetable garden as well. For rooting cuttings stir chopped sphagnum stalks into the soil.
Try to put sphagnum moss in pots with grafted seedlings for:
One of the methods (inoculation with an eye in the incision) we have discussed above.
But there are situations where the bark on cooked branches does not separate well (both the time and the characteristics of the variety).
In doing so, you can bud in the butt:
Autumn (September-October) in the cleavage method, vaccinate indoors (and heated). After vaccination, store for some time at a temperature of 3-5 degrees, and then even less. And until spring.
1.3. When grafting into a semi-split, split the branch not in the middle, but slightly shifting it to the edge.
Watch the video on how to plant an apple tree in a split: