Peach is originally a southern heat-loving plant. But grafting, if you choose the stock correctly, allows you to adapt it to more severe climatic and weather conditions. The result of the procedure depends on how accurately the gardener adheres to the technique and whether he has a refined technique of movements.
If you decide to plant a plum on a peach, choose the most unpretentious, hardy and frost-resistant varieties. These are, for example, any varieties of Hungarian plum (Donetsk, Italian). An unsuccessful option is the rather capricious Anna Shpet. The age of the tree is important (preferably up to 10 years), as well as the ripening time of the fruits (they must coincide in the scion and rootstock).
Plum resists diseases better than peach, less often it is attacked by pests. The only significant drawback of such a rootstock is the tendency to abundant formation of root growth. It will have to be destroyed regularly so that the yield does not suffer.
Plum grafting provides the peach with a higher frost resistance, the tree suffers less from diseases and pests
The taste of peaches after vaccination does not suffer in any way. Therefore, for central Russia and other regions with a temperate climate, plum is one of the most suitable rootstocks for peach. Trees belong to the same family (Rosaceae), this leads to a high percentage of successful grafts if done correctly.
Vaccination is a lottery in a sense. It is impossible to guarantee a positive result. To increase the likelihood of success, follow these general guidelines:
A special grafting pruner greatly facilitates the gardener's work, making incisions of the desired shape, but it is not cheap; it makes sense to acquire it only if you are going to be vaccinated constantly
With a limited area of u200b u200bthe site, several varieties of peach can be planted on one plum. Such a tree looks very original during fruiting. Each variety retains its characteristic taste.
Gardeners practice several different grafting methods. Each of them is not devoid of advantages, there are also some important nuances that need to be taken into account.
Advantages of the method:
Budding in the butt with a shortage of breeding material is the only way out
Budding should not be done on the south side of the tree; the sun will dry out the bud. The stock should be young (branches 7–15 mm thick). The budding technique in the butt is quite complicated, this is not an option for novice gardeners:
In the process of budding, try not to touch the growth bud of the peach at all.
Good survival of the buds is demonstrated when they are grafted into T- or X-shaped incisions in the bark of the rootstock, folding back their edges. Thus, budding is most often carried out in the crown in the summer (in July), cutting off the "shields" from the peach just before the procedure. At this time, the bark exfoliates more easily and “painless” for the stock. On one plum branch, you can graft 2-3 peach buds, maintaining an interval of at least 15-20 cm between them.
With improved budding, the growth bud is not applied from above, but is placed in a kind of "pocket"
The simplest option, even beginner gardeners can achieve a positive result. The only condition is that the thickness of the scion and the rootstock must match.
A simple copulation looks like this:
The most important thing in the copulation process is to make the cuts on the scion and rootstock as even as possible in order to tightly combine them.
Improved copulation is distinguished by the fact that additional shallow splits are made on the scion and rootstock cuts. They turn into a "lock" that allows you to reliably fix a peach stalk on a plum branch, leveling the main disadvantage of copulation - it is almost impossible to keep it in the desired position during the tying process without moving the slices.
Additional splitting with improved copulation allows you to reliably fix the scion and rootstock in the desired position
A suitable option if there is only an old drain on the site. Grafting allows you to extend the life of a tree in a different quality:
Grafting for the bark allows you to "grow" thin peach cuttings to a stock that is much larger in diameter.
The number of cuttings that can be grafted onto one saw cut at the same time depends on its diameter
A universal technique that is used regardless of the age of the scion and rootstock, their diameters. It differs from grafting into the bark in that when cutting a branch or trunk, you must pay attention to the absence of defects below (knots, swellings) so that you can make an even split. For one cutting, the cut is made slightly obliquely and placed in the upper part, for two or more - horizontal.
The splits on the rootstock can be located in different ways
The depth of the split is 4–5 cm. It is fixed with a wedge and the base of the scion is inserted, cut wedge-shaped, not completely, leaving 3–5 mm of open cambium on the surface.
When splitting, try not to touch the wood itself with your hands to avoid infection
A tree with a successful grafting needs some care:
The fact that the grafting was successful is evidenced by the appearance of new leaves on the scion
Plum is one of the most suitable peach rootstocks. A competently performed procedure allows you to increase the period of the productive life of a tree, increase its frost resistance and resistance to the vagaries of the weather. The taste of the fruit is not affected in any way. In this case, the gardener requires certain skills and precise adherence to the algorithm of actions.
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Vaccinations - one of the methods of vegetative reproduction. By means of grafting, parts of one plant (cuttings, buds) are artificially spliced with the shoot of another plant. The plant that is grafted (transplanted) is called graft, and the one to which they are grafted - stock... The graft does not form its own roots, but receives water and inorganic salts from the rootstock roots. Grafts are used mainly for those plants that hardly give adventitious roots and cannot propagate by cuttings and layering. With seed propagation, such varieties split and do not reproduce the varieties of the parent plant.
Graft, perhaps one of the most interesting and mysterious technological techniques in gardening. After all, grafting allows you to grow your favorite plant in a short time from a small cutting (copulation) or even one bud (budding), and in the presence of a stock.
Most fruit tree varieties are propagated by grafting
Plant grafting is a rather complex technological method, therefore, on the one hand, it cannot be approached lightly, and on the other hand, it cannot be argued that plant grafting is the lot of the elite.
To successfully carry out this process, it is necessary to study the basics of biology and classification of plants, prepare the necessary tools and materials, master the techniques of grafting, persistently practice on the branches (for example, those left after pruning the garden). It is highly desirable to carry out the first vaccinations under the guidance of an experienced specialist. And, if these simple requirements are met, then there is hope for successful results of plant grafting.
It is very important that no matter what lines the grafting, stalk (scion) must have buds that have not begun to develop, that is, they must be in a "dormant" state. To do this, they should be harvested in November - March and stored in a refrigerator or basement before vaccination at a temperature not higher than + 2-4 degrees.
Stone fruit cuttings harvested in the fall, given their predisposition to germination when temperatures fluctuate, as in many basements, are best stored outside. To do this, from the north side of any building, when frost occurs, wet sawdust is poured onto a piece of film, cuttings are laid (you can wrap them with a rag), then they are covered with a layer of 20-30 centimeters with wet frozen sawdust, and a layer of dry sawdust is poured on top. Indeed, even in a thaw, heat does not penetrate under sawdust for a very long time.
Well-ripened annual shoots without flower buds are suitable for cuttings, except for "tops" and "wen". It is advisable to take shoots from the south side of the crown. Shoots of the same variety, tied in packs, must necessarily have a label with the name of the variety. In well-preserved shoots, the bark should be smooth, the cut wood is light in color, and the buds should be healthy (not darkened).
Cuttings are best cut on the day of budding. Early in the morning, in the cool of the morning, cut as many shoots from the mother plants as you can use that day. Ripe annual shoots are best taken from lateral branches in the middle of the crown.
It is better not to touch the extensions of the main branches and the central conductor, because this can spoil the crown, and it will still have to serve you for a long time. It is not recommended to take tops. They grow strongly, and the kidneys are not as well developed as they should.
Leaves and stipules must be removed immediately, leaving leaf petioles about 1 cm long.
So it will be more convenient to work, and later to control the survival rate. To prevent confusion in varieties, immediately tie labels to the cuttings. Prepared cuttings are placed in a bucket with a small amount of water and covered with damp burlap on top.
If the cuttings were prepared, but for some reason the budding had to be postponed, and the remaining cuttings should be wrapped in a damp cloth and put in a cool place (basement, refrigerator). For several days (it is advisable to keep no more than 5 days) they will not lose their qualities.
Basically, cultivars or decorative forms are grafted onto "wild", natural corresponding species, or species close in biological characteristics, namely:
a) pome fruits:
b) stone fruits:
For all of the above species, also when grafting adult trees, it is possible to graft on cultivars of the corresponding species.
c) ornamental trees and shrubs
weeping, pyramidal, spherical and other forms for the corresponding types of natural (wild) flora. So, weeping forms of mulberry, elm, ash, beech, mountain ash can be grafted on, respectively, black mulberry, elm (elm), ordinary or green ash, forest beech, mountain ash.
Before starting the vaccination, you must prepare the following tools materials, taking into account the method and technology of inoculation:
It is especially necessary to pay attention to the preparation of the grafting knife - its blade must be very sharp and clean. The knife blade must be sharpened to such an extent that, with light pressure, without effort, it cuts 3-4 sheets of paper.
Plant grafting allows you to solve numerous problems in gardening, ornamental nursery, as well as on a personal plot, namely:
When grafted into the crown, new shoots reach significant sizes in the first year
Most often, two methods are used - grafting with a cuttings, or copulation and a kidney vaccine, or budding.
There are many ways of grafting with a cuttings (copulation), but the most common and fairly simple to perform are the following:
Figure 1. Methods of inoculation: a) simple copulation b) improved copulation
Figure 2. Methods of grafting: a) for the bark b) splitting
The first three methods are used when the rootstock and scion diameters are the same. When the diameter of the branch of the plant on which the graft is grafted (stock) is greater than the diameter of the grafted cuttings (stock), then the grafting "under the bark" or "into the split" is used (see diagrams). Other methods - lateral incision grafting, lateral inoculation in the butt, saddle grafting, etc. require some skill to carry them out.
In detail, the technology of grafting with a handle using the above methods is described on the portal in the article Vaccination is difficult, but quite possible
Budding - a method of grafting fruit and ornamental plants with a single bud (eye) taken from a cuttings of a cultivar. Budding the easiest way vaccinations on the technique of execution. In addition, during budding, a stronger fusion of the scion with the stock occurs and 3-4 times less grafting (cuttings) material is required.
Among the many methods of budding in practice, the following are most often used:
The technology of budding in the above ways is described in detail on the portal in the article Vaccination is difficult, but quite possible. Part 2. Budding.
Vaccination site in each case is determined separately. For a rose, for example, this is the root collar, for fruit - 3-5 (8) cm from the root collar. Clonal rootstocks are grafted at a height of 12-15 cm.
If you want to leave the stem of the rootstock as a stem, make budding at the appropriate height (for ornamental trees this can be 180-220 cm. In this case, you will have to carefully monitor to remove the emerging shoots of the mother plant in time below the grafting.
It is better to place the eyes on the rootstocks on the north side.
Grafting with a cuttings (copulation), as a rule, should be started when the sap flow in plants begins. At an earlier date, stone fruits and ornamental plants should be grafted, and then pome fruits. Stone fruits can be grafted before the start of sap flow (end of February - March-April). Pome fruits can be grafted until the end of flowering.
Budding plants (eye grafting) can be carried out twice a year during intensive sap flow: in early spring and in summer. A clear sign that the plant is ready to accept the scion is the bark easily lagging behind the wood. This means that active division of cambium cells began both on the scion and on the rootstock. At this time, they are able to grow together with each other.
In spring, budding of trees is done with a "growing" eye, since after grafting it quickly germinates. In the summer, budding is carried out with a "sleeping" eye, as it will germinate, as a rule, only in the spring of next year.
Summer budding dates are determined by the ripening of the cutting, and, accordingly, by the full development of the kidneys on it. Well-ripened shoots with well-formed buds are cut off.
It is very important that the bark lags well behind during the incisions on the rootstock. To do this, if there has been no rain for a long time, the rootstocks should be watered 7-10 days before budding.
The optimal time for budding in most regions of Ukraine and for most breeds is from July 20 to August 15-20.
Budding it is better to spend in the morning and evening hours with a break in the afternoon from 11 to 16 hours, or in cloudy weather.
It is not recommended to carry out it in dry hot or rainy weather.
There is no vaccination in the methods. There are peculiarities in the timing of vaccination and in the choice of rootstock.
You can start grafting stone fruit cuttings (copulation) from the beginning of March, during the thaw.
Budding (peephole grafting) should also start a little earlier - in June-July, but not later than the beginning of August, provided that the trees are well watered. It is important that the shield is better overgrown with callus, then it will withstand the winter better.
Unlike apple and pear, which can be grafted at almost any age, if only the tree is healthy, then for stone fruits it is advisable to use plants no older than 5 years as a rootstock, because re-grafting of a tree at a more mature age can lead to its death.
It is important to choose the right stock for each type of stone fruit.
Cherries are best planted in the crowns of vigorous cherries. The cherry is poorly combined with cherries close to the wild steppe cherry, as well as with magalebka (magaleb cherry).
Plum is best planted in the crown of the plum. Plum grafting into the crown of the cherry plum leads to a strong annual growth of cherry plum shoots below the grafting site of the plum, which suffocate the grafting.
At the same time, cherry plum, grafted into the crown of home plums and other types of plums (Canadian, Ussuri, Chinese), is perfectly combined with them. Cherry plum often succeeds on apricot. Although apricot is best grafted onto apricot only. Peach It goes well with local forms of apricot - the main rootstock for peaches in the southern zone, as well as with plums Vengerka Donetskaya, Hungarian Italiana.
Further vaccination care is as follows:
You can discuss the article and ask additional questions on the forum in the topic "Learning to vaccinate"
All photos for the article were taken by the author on his own site
Rekovets Petr, dendrologist,
Chairman of the Board
Kiev Landscape Club
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Surely they are familiar to you. Buying ruddy apricots, you involuntarily think that it is good to plant a pit. And suddenly it will sprout. Some time passes - and a tiny sprout appears on the surface of the earth. This is the first victory, but it's too early to rejoice, because on his own roots he will not survive on your site. It must be said that it is also not suitable for growing as a houseplant. For this, special varieties are separately derived. However, while the seedling is gaining strength, there is time to think about what the apricot can be grafted onto.
Many modern fruit trees are propagated by grafting. This makes it possible to completely repeat the properties of the mother forms, as well as to make a special selection that allows you to improve the quality of plants, for example, to increase their level of frost resistance. The main thing is to know how to plant an apricot correctly. In this article, we will not only tell you how to graft an apricot on an apricot, but also introduce you to some of the subtleties that you cannot do without in this procedure.
The grafting time of the apricot also plays an important role. Indeed, at certain times of the year, this procedure has its own characteristics. It is better to vaccinate in cool, dry weather, when it is cloudy in the sky, but rain is not foreshadowed. It is under such conditions that the tree will tolerate grafting well. Cuttings must be prepared in advance and stored for a long time in special conditions for better preservation.
For a high-quality vaccination, it is necessary to properly prepare the required instruments. Most gardeners use a garden knife for this procedure. But this is not entirely advisable, because such equipment is necessary for trimming or cleaning wounds. But budding knives are actively used for budding. A distinctive feature of the presented tool is the presence of a curved blade, a bone at the base of the tool, with which the bark is pushed apart. You also need to buy a grafting knife for vaccination. Its design assumes the presence of a straight blade, and its sharpening is carried out on one side. The second side has a flat surface. This will allow you to get even cuts, and it will be much easier to make them. All knives you bought from the store need to be sharpened. If the tool is dull, then it is worth using bars with small and large grains, which are pre-moistened with water.
If the knife is not dull, but also not quite sharp, then it should still be tweaked. Process the block in water and grind the sharp side in a circular motion, and remove the burrs from the second. After the presented manipulations, it is advisable to correct the knife. To do this, it is worth using a vaccination with a leather or canvas belt. The graft should be treated with a polishing paste. You can't do without a pruner. It is during grafting that it is important to cut off cuttings, branches and other parts.
Any fruit trees should be planted on 4-5 year old rootstocks. When the thickness of the trunk is at least 4-12 cm. If the grafting on an apricot is carried out on a weakened, diseased, underdeveloped tree, it can be carried out at a later age. However, it should be borne in mind that the older the tree, the worse the survival rate is and the more difficult it is technically to perform this procedure correctly. Apricot can be grafted onto a large number of stone fruit crops, and a positive result is guaranteed.
Consider the options for grafting on different trees:
Numerous studies indicate that grafting on the same tree varieties succeeds especially well. Therefore, preference should be given to grafting on an apricot, in this case the risk of incompatibility of components is minimal, the stalk will take root much faster. The grafted plant, as a result, will be drought-resistant, winter-resistant, without overgrowth, and the fruits are sweet, large, with a bright color. Apricot-peach grafting is often used. However, it is more suitable for the southern regions, since the peach does not tolerate frost well, the probability of the death of cuttings is very high. Plum, cherry, cherry plum, blackthorn are also used as a stock.
Reproduction of apricot by cuttings is very popular. It is better to harvest cuttings for grafting in the fall, and take those that have grown well and got stronger in the summer, with healthy shoots, a good healthy color, and a little crackling when bent.
It is recommended to choose basements or pits as a storage place for cuttings. That is, it should be cold and damp. Proper storage will ensure good survival in the future. It is safest to store cuttings in damp sand, peat, sawdust or other substrate. The substrate is periodically moistened. So the cuttings remain fresh, as if only cut, and take root well.
When used as a rootstock, apricots adhere to the same stone fruit compatibility. Usually another variety of apricots or plums is planted.
Apricot and peach have ideal compatibility. The best time to get vaccinated is early spring, around mid-March. However, warm days should be established outside without the return of night frosts. In the last days of March - early April, the vaccine is wrapped in foil. In May, a paper bag shelter is additionally used. In summer, peach can also be grafted. This is done in early June or mid-July.
Frost-resistant semi-wild varieties of apricots are considered a universal stock. The winter hardiness of the peach increases, the growth is accelerated, and early fruiting begins. The vegetation of the peach ends earlier from the apricot, which is why the young branches have time to ripen before the onset of frost. An excellent rootstock is the variety "Greensboro", "Veteran", "Juicy".
Reproduction of apple trees by seeds is possible. For the average fruit grower, this method is complicated; it is most often used by scientists in nurseries to develop new apple varieties. The seeds of a new variety are created by cross-pollination, artificially transferring flower pollen from one apple tree to the apple tree of another variety. Hybrid plants grown from artificially obtained seeds will combine the traits of both parental apple trees.
Before planting, apple seeds are subjected to a special pre-sowing treatment.
On the one hand, there is nothing difficult in planting apple seeds. On the other hand, you need to have sufficient experience in apple growing to do everything right.