The main pome fruits in our gardens are apple and pear. If you intend to grow them in your garden, then first of all you need to be very serious about the choice of varieties, since they differ in early maturity, winter hardiness, and growth.
The apple tree and the pear are very close in biological properties to each other, but they also have some specific structural features, and, therefore, different requirements for growing conditions. This is also important for novice gardeners to know in order to choose a place for planting seedlings and plant them correctly. In the future, this will have a beneficial effect on the vegetation of plants and their fruiting.
Aboveground and root systems of 13-year-old apple and pear trees in the garden of the K.A. Timiryazeva:
a - apple tree
b - pear
In a pear, the root system lies in deeper horizons than in an apple tree. It is characterized by vertical roots, weakly branching and heading deep into the subsoil (up to 5-6 m), and horizontal, strongly branching, running parallel to the soil surface. The bulk of the roots is located at a depth of 20 cm to 1 m. The root hairs of an apple tree are thicker than that of a pear, therefore, the survival rate of a pear is lower.
The pear tree is characterized by a sharply defined trunk and a more compressed crown shape than that of an apple tree, which can be of some importance when they are located in the garden. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that with age, the crown of a tree of the same pear variety can change, even acquiring a spreading shape.
Experts attribute this to a strong deviation of the skeletal branches under the weight of the harvest and the restoration of the crown of an old tree due to dormant buds forming branches in a horizontal direction. They note that this culture has a higher bole than the apple tree.
The strongly pronounced apical growth of branches of the first, second and subsequent orders determines the good layering of the plant. Weakened growth of lateral branches running at right angles leads to the formation of short overgrown branches. In this, the pear is significantly different from the apple tree.
The apple tree is a more plastic plant, less demanding on growing conditions, and therefore much more common in gardens than a pear. But she is more long-liver, has an average age of almost 100 years (there are cases when her trees, with favorable cases, lived for 500 and even 1000 years).
The pear is capable of reaching a height of 20-25 m, forming such a trunk that only three people can grasp with their hands. There is information that the duration of the fruiting period of these crops depends on the growing conditions, quality of care, varietal characteristics and rootstock.
Adult apple tree
The apple tree is characterized by the periodicity of fruiting ("year - empty, year - dense"), but the pear bears fruit regularly, although its harvest, as they say, "does not come from year to year."
Experts explain this phenomenon by the fact that a significant amount of nutrients are consumed for the formation of fruits, due to which the tree is depleted and it no longer has enough nutrients for the development of new fruit buds in the same year. In their opinion, if you properly cultivate the soil, systematically and timely apply fertilizers that will provide the required ratio of nutrients in the soil, skillfully prune branches and fight pests in a timely manner, you can achieve a solid annual harvest of these crops.
It should also be recalled that a pear is a cross-pollinated crop, which requires another pear (preferably another variety, even a specially selected one), while an apple tree can successfully bear fruit alone, although it also needs a pair for a high yield. Pollen from flowers of one sort of pear to another is carried mainly by bees and bumblebees. True, its flowers smell not as pleasant as that of an apple tree, which is why pollinating insects are less willing to visit this culture than an apple tree.
For laying a garden, and especially a large one, soil conditions are important. As a rule, they choose sod-podzolic, gray, forest, sandy, clayey and loamy soils in texture, as well as peat soils. It should be noted that the development of the plant and the yield of the pear are more dependent on the quality of the soil than the apple tree. So that later you do not have problems due to plant diseases of a physiological nature, you should first assess the acidity of the soil of the future garden (through agrochemical services), as well as carry out a set of preparatory work aimed at cultivating the soil (to increase the humus content and improve the physical -mechanical properties).
Sandy and sandy loamy soils are characterized by flowability, poor nutrients and low water retention capacity. According to the calculations of specialists, when their cultivation is necessary: deep plowing - up to 60 cm, the introduction of organic matter - 10-15 kg / m2, clay - 50 kg / m2, lime - 0.5-0.8 kg / m2 (depending on soil acidity), superphosphate - 0.07-0.08 kg / m2 and potassium chloride - 0.04 kg / m2.
If the soil is cultivated to a depth of 30-40 cm, then the specified fertilizer rates should be halved. To increase the fertility of sandy loam soils, one year before planting fruit trees, it is possible to sow narrow-leaved lupine in the allotted area, which can then be used as a green fertilizer, plowing it. Since sandy and sandy loam soils have poor absorption capacity, when high fertilizer rates are applied, the concentration of the soil solution first increases, but then the nutrients are easily washed out of them. Therefore, fertilizers should be applied in small portions (in the form of dressings).
Usually, a pear tolerates any soil (except for sandy crushed stone soils) in which normal root growth is possible. However, it is important to know that the consistency of the pulp, the taste and aroma of its fruits depend on the properties of the soil. On poor soils, pears are often sour, with dry, bitter, granular flesh. Sandy dry soils can not only impair the taste of their fruits, but also significantly shorten the fresh storage period.
Heavy and cold clay and loamy soils are characterized by a low content of humic and ash substances. They can be refined by deep plowing: highly podzolic - by 40 cm, medium-podzolic - by 50 cm and the introduction of organic matter - 10-15 kg / m2, lime - 0.5-0.8 kg / m2, superphosphate - 0.07 kg / m2 or phosphoric flour - 0.12 kg / m2 and potassium chloride - 0.05 kg / m2... To improve their physical qualities, sand is also added - 50 kg / m2... According to experienced gardeners, cultivation should be completed a year before the garden is laid by sowing catch crops (winter rye, lupine, mustard or phacelia), followed by their timely incorporation into the soil.
Many areas of the North-West region (especially the Leningrad region) are located on peat bogs, which can be of different thickness. They take ample time to cultivate them. Although they contain a significant percentage of organic matter - peat, however, unfortunately, nitrogen is in it in a form inaccessible to plants. In addition, peat is characterized by a fairly high acidity, low amounts of phosphorus, potassium, copper and boron.
To carry out its successful domestication, you need to perform a cycle of successive operations: drainage, liming and sanding of peat, fertilization. The main method for the development of peatlands is drainage, which consists in lowering the level of groundwater and removing excess moisture from the root layer of the soil. The simplest drainage method is the construction of an open drainage network, which in horticulture is preferable to be carried out in an organized manner.
Every gardener should remember that the cultivation of an apple or pear is possible at a groundwater level of 2-2.5 m from the soil surface. If their level still cannot be reduced to the required limits, in this case it is recommended to grow apple and pear trees on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks, the root system of which is more superficial. You can also plant trees on bulk hills with a height of 0.4-0.6 m.
To improve the quality of soils in which the thickness of the peat layer exceeds 0.4 m, it is advisable to carry out sanding. In this case, sand is evenly distributed on the surface of the site (4 m3 or 6 tons per hundred square meters), and then they dig up the entire plot. With a medium-thick layer of peat (0.2-0.4 m), it is necessary to carry out a high-quality deep digging, as a result of which the sand layer below is well mixed with peat.
During soil cultivation, which has a thin layer of peat (less than 20 cm), too much sand gets into the top layer. This leads to a very rapid decomposition of peat and depletion of the root layer in organic matter. Therefore, it is even desirable to add an additional amount of peat (4-6 m3 per hundred square meters).
To create an optimal supply of nutrients in peat bogs for digging (depth 0.2-0.25 m), apply: manure or compost - 1-2 kg / m2 as organic matter, lime - 0.6-1 kg / m2 in the presence of acidity, double superphosphate - 0.07-0.09 kg / m2 or simple - 0.15-0.2 kg / m2, or phosphate rock - 0.2-0.25 kg / m2, chlorate or potassium sulfate - 0.04-0.05 kg / m2.
Read the next part. Preparing the soil for planting apple and pear →
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin
Read also about the pear:
• Pear - biological features and cultural history
• Varieties of pears of early middle and late ripening
• Peculiarities of pear agrotechnology
• Choosing the best pear varieties
Every summer resident who cultivates potatoes wants to grow a variety that will yield a crop at the earliest possible date. To do this, you need to plant early potato varieties. At the disposal of modern farmers there is such a variety of potatoes with early ripening of tubers that it is sometimes difficult to make a choice. To solve this problem, you need to familiarize yourself with the description of each variety, find out their differences. In this article we will try to answer these questions.
The lines are different, they all differ in the nuances of their appearance. Consider the most common types.
Gyromitra esculenta. Rarely grows in the forest. Prefers sandy, non-turfed soil. Fruiting from March to May.
The pulp is waxy, the smell cannot be called unpleasant - it can deceive an inexperienced mushroom picker.
Gyromitra gigas. The fruit body, as it should be in the line, looks like a winding core of a walnut.
Giant stitches can be eaten as they have less gyromitrin than other types. But before using it, it must be thoroughly boiled. There is another opinion - the lines are poisonous and not suitable for food.
The giant stitching, unlike the usual one, has a larger and lighter hat. It comes out, more often, under birches. The pulp, which is thin and breakable, has a pleasant mushroom smell, although usually the lines smell bad.
Gyromitra infula. This bizarre mushroom is often called "horned" - for its unusual shape of the cap. Its external data:
The pulp of the mushroom is fragile, crumbly, waxy. There is no pronounced aroma. It will not be possible to confuse it with morel - this mushroom, unlike other lines, grows in July-August. Extremely dangerous.
Regular watering is an essential part of caring for a young apple tree.
In the first two months, watering is carried out several times a week (depending on the weather). As it grows older, it is watered less often - several times per season, but in abundant quantities.
The soil of the trunk circle is regularly loosened and weeded from weeds. Top dressing is applied in spring - during the first loosening, before and after flowering, in summer - in June, in autumn - after harvesting.
For full fruiting, the apple tree needs crown thinning and sanitary pruning. In the spring, the crown is formed and the frozen branches are removed, at the end of autumn, dried and damaged branches are cut off.
For the winter, the tree is insulated and wrapped from rodents using burlap, polyethylene, pieces of rough cloth, spruce branches.
Annual pest control measures include regular weeding and loosening of the soil, fertilizing with potash and phosphorus fertilizers, spraying, and burning discarded leaves.
Early variety Candy it is no coincidence that it bears this name, because its fruits are very sweet and fragrant. Among the early ones, these apples are rightfully considered one of the most delicious. The variety owes its appearance to one of the talented students of Ivan Michurin - breeder Sergei Isaev, who received it from varieties Korobova and Folding.
The tree is easy to care for, frost-resistant and has a unique ability to restore. Apple tree varieties Candy begins to bear fruit in the 3-4th year and yields up to 100 kg of yellow fruits with a dark orange or red blush.
Small apples (maximum can weigh up to 150 g) ripen at the end of July, have a juicy dense pulp and a specific honey aroma. However, they cannot be stored for a long time: under normal conditions - two to three weeks, and in the refrigerator - up to a month.
The representatives of these two kingdoms have similar features of the way of feeding. They lack a digestive system, all trace elements are absorbed at the cellular level. Representatives of the animal world digest food with the help of the digestive system. But for the simplest, only the digestive vacuole is characteristic. What unites these kingdoms is the possibility of unlimited growth throughout life, as well as the inability to move. In the animal kingdom, immobile corals are an exception.
The main similarity between representatives of the mushroom kingdom and the plant world is manifested in the methods of reproduction. Some organisms from both classes reproduce sexually, some asexually, others vegetatively. In addition to the similarities, there are also differences. During reproduction, some representatives of the plant kingdom form seeds with a multicellular structure. Representatives of the fungal kingdom form unicellular spores. Herbaceous ferns also reproduce by spores.
There is also a difference in the vegetative mode of reproduction.It consists in the fact that representatives of the plant world reproduce by dividing the root (division), the formation of specific shoots (whiskers) or leaves that have the ability to take root in a humid environment. Vegetative propagation of fungi occurs due to the presence of mycelium or sclerotia.
Representatives of both kingdoms are found in the aquatic environment and on land. Some species of mushrooms have adapted to life in places where oxygen does not come, which makes them different from the representatives of the plant kingdom.
In general, in a nutshell, the similarities between plants and fungi are as follows:
In the middle lane, they start harvesting apples from Papirovka in early August. In the southern regions, the fruits ripen by July 20-22. The apples hold well on the branches, but if the weather is too hot, they can crumble.
Cannot be stored, preferably used immediately (fresh, recycled).
Papirovka is an old, time-tested summer variety of apple trees, recommended for cultivation in the middle lane.