"Viburnum is red, viburnum is ripe ..."
This berry culture is widespread throughout the forest zone of Russia, and has been very popular since ancient times. The people have composed many songs and legends about this unique and beloved culture, which is distinguished by its high decorative, special taste and healing qualities.
In the spring it is elegant with its beautiful white inflorescences and emerald three-lobed rounded leaves, in the fall - with bright red bunches of berries. They look especially beautiful when the first snow falls, when all nature is already falling asleep. It is not for nothing that viburnum is often used for landscaping well-maintained villages, and is now widely introduced into culture in personal plots.
Genus viburnum belongs to the honeysuckle family, it unites more than 100 species, of which 10 species grow in Russia, and the most common, of economic importance, is the common viburnum. In favorable conditions, the viburnum grows rapidly, its annual growth reaches 40-80 cm, and the life expectancy of the bush is about 50 years.
Berries, flowers and even viburnum bark are rich in vitamins, organic acids, especially ascorbic and valerian, essential oils, sugars, tannins and minerals. Viburnum berries contain iron, phosphorus and calcium, as well as a number of trace elements: manganese, iodine, copper, etc. The content of pectins, sugar, tannin and tannins in berries allows them to be used for making jams, marmalades, juices, jelly, various drinks and refreshing cocktails. In addition, viburnum is dried, using for brewing tea, grind it with sugar, getting "raw" jam.
Kalina is loved not only for its peculiar taste, but also for its unsurpassed healing properties. It is practically indispensable for many diseases.
In folk medicine they use not only berries, but also the vegetative parts of the plant - stems, leaves, bark, rhizomes, flowers, seeds. All these parts of the plant have a different chemical composition, depending on which they are used in various fields of medicine. The timing of the collection of raw materials also plays a role, for example, the bark and shoots of viburnum should be collected in the spring during the period of sap flow, flowers - at the beginning of summer, during their full bloom, berries - after the first autumn frosts, during this period they retain all their valuable properties.
All collected viburnum raw materials are dried in the shade in the open air or in a well-ventilated area. The dried parts of the plant are stored in dry linen or gauze bags, protected from light, and used as needed.
In medical practice viburnum is used as a preventive and therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases, it is known as a hemostatic, sedative, choleretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory agent. Kalina is widely used in gynecology, dermatology, for the treatment of stomach ulcers, liver diseases, and internal bleeding. It is indispensable for all colds, in cosmetology, and currently viburnum berries are used in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
The varietal composition of the common viburnum is not rich. In private gardens, seedlings or vegetatively propagated selective forms of local origin are mainly grown. In recent years, the Scientific Research Institute of Siberia has created varieties of viburnum, valuable in biological and economic terms, which are recommended for home gardening.
Zarnitsa is the largest-fruited variety with an average berry weight of 0.71 g, a yield of 6.2 kgf bush, taste of 4.3 points (tasting score according to a 5-point system).
Taiga rubies are the most productive variety - 7.8 kg per bush, average berry weight 0.51 g, taste 4.5 points.
Ulgen - average yield per bush 5.8 kg, average berry weight 0.64 g, taste rating 4.2 points.
Sauzga - average yield per bush 5.1 kg, average berry weight 0.65, taste rating 4.3 points.
Zhelobovskaya - average yield per bush 4.4 kg, average berry weight 0.57 g, taste 4.6 points.
Viburnum reproduces well both by seeds and vegetatively - by layering and cuttings. When seed reproduction 1-2-year-old seedlings are grown on a separate plot in the garden, which are then transplanted to a permanent place. To obtain economically valuable seedlings, ripe berries are harvested from the most productive and large-fruited plants. The seeds are separated from the pulp, washed with water and dried. They can be sown both in spring and autumn. Spring sowing is preferable, however, it must be remembered that for this, immediately after harvesting the seeds, they must be prostrated. To do this, they are mixed with wet sand and placed in storage at a temperature of 4 ... 8 ° C. Viburnum seeds stratification takes 5-6 months. In the spring, seeds are sown in well-prepared soil, seeding them to a depth of 3 cm. During the growing season, seedlings need to be looked after: weeding and loosening the soil, watering and feeding the plants. After 1-2 years of cultivation, the seedlings are planted in the garden in a permanent place.
Autumn sowing of seeds does not require stratification, it is simpler, but in the spring the seeds germinate poorly, they germinate en masse only after 1.5 years.
Vegetative propagation by layering and cuttings is more preferable, since it preserves the individual characteristics of plants and produces large-sized planting material faster.
The simplest and long-known method of vegetative propagation of viburnum is reproduction by layering (like a gooseberry), for which annual shoots in the spring, before bud break, are bent down on loose nutrient soil, pinned and sprinkled with earth. Shoots develop from the buds of bent branches, and when they reach a height of 10-12 cm, they are spudded by 4-6 cm with moist soil. Then, after 15-20 days, a second hilling is carried out to 7-10 cm. In the fall, these layers are cut into the number of rooted shoots, from which the strong are planted in a permanent place in the garden, and the weak ones for growing in a school.
Viburnum is propagated and cuttings, both lignified and green, similar to the propagation of black currants and other crops. When harvesting lignified cuttings, a part of the annual growth with well-developed buds is selected. The length of the cuttings is 15-20 cm. Before planting, the cuttings should be immersed with the lower ends (2-3 cm) in an aqueous solution of heteroauxin with a concentration of 0.01% for 12-36 hours. This operation promotes better rooting of the cuttings. In April, cuttings are planted obliquely in well-prepared, loose and moist soil, followed by frequent watering and loosening of the soil.
Green cuttings are carried out in June, cutting and planting the tops of annual growths of the current year with 3-6 internodes (about 10-15 cm) during the period when the shoot tissues begin to coarse.
Before planting, the lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, leaving 2-3 upper leaves, partially shortened for less moisture evaporation, and light longitudinal cuts are made in the lower part of the cuttings, which contributes to better rooting. As a rule, green cuttings are carried out in cultivation rooms under artificial fog conditions.
A simpler and more reliable method of propagation by combined cuttings is when a green cutting is cut with a "heel" - part of a two-year shoot up to 4 cm long. Combined cuttings can be planted both in the greenhouse and in the open field, subject to regular watering.
The grown seedlings are planted in pits 60x60 cm in size, into which 8-10 kg of humus, 200 g of superphosphate and 80 g of potash fertilizers are introduced. After planting, the plants are watered abundantly (2-3 buckets for each bush) and mulched with peat or humus. During the growing season, the soil fertility is monitored by feeding the plants and loosening the soil.
In a fruit-bearing garden in the spring (at the end of April), nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the viburnum bushes - 30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m² of the trunk circle. In mid-June - during the period of active growth of shoots - complex fertilizers are applied at the rate of 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium salt per 1 m² of the trunk circle. In the fall, after harvesting, only superphosphate and potash fertilizers are applied, excluding nitrogen fertilizers. Organic fertilizers - manure, compost or humus - are applied in the fall for digging the soil once every 3-4 years, 8-10 kg per 1 m² of the trunk circle or in the grooves according to the crown projection.
Viburnum loves moisture, so it is necessary to water the plants 3-4 times per season. It is last watered in September.
The main yield of viburnum is located on annual growths, therefore it is necessary to achieve good annual growths of annual shoots - at least 25-40 cm.
When forming a bush, 6-7 of the strongest branches are left, all damaged, dry branches thickening the crown are cut out. As the bush ages, old branches are removed, replacing them with new, young ones. For this purpose, obsolete branches are cut into a ring or a strong lateral branch. Viburnum pruning is carried out during the ripening period of the crop, when the berries turn red.
The fight against pests and diseases of the viburnum is given special importance, because the varietal viburnum like a magnet attracts numerous pests and in some years it is damaged so much that there are almost no healthy leaves on the branches.
The greatest harm to viburnum is caused by the black viburnum aphid, the viburnum leaf beetle, the viburnum leafworm, the honeysuckle prickly sawfly, the viburnum and honeysuckle gall midges, the green lobed moth, etc. However, the most malicious pest is the black viburnum aphid, which damages the viburnum every year. If you do not fight this rapidly multiplying pest, the tops of the shoots turn gray, stop growing in mid-summer and wither. It is necessary to spray the plants even during the ripening of the crop, but at the same time they exclude all chemical preparations, and only plant extracts are used: garlic, onion husks, potato tops, dandelion rhizomes, celandine, tobacco, yarrow, wild elderberry.
The most effective and simple infusion of celandine, which is prepared as follows: 1 kg of dry or 3-4 kg of raw celandine is poured with 10 liters of water, infused for a day, then filtered and immediately sprayed with the bushes. The dry mass can be ground into powder and pollinated with the affected plants.
At the beginning of summer, the treatment with tobacco infusion gives a good effect - the berries are still far from ripening, the toxicity of nicotine disappears. For 10 liters of water, 400 g of shag or tobacco is required. The heated water with makhorka is kept for about 48 hours, after which 40 g of laundry or green soap is added - the solution is ready.
Garlic infusion is also effective, for the preparation of which 30 g of cloves are ground in a meat grinder, the mass is dipped into a bucket of water, mixed, filtered, it is not necessary to insist: you can immediately spray viburnum and other berry plants inhabited by gluttonous aphids, mites and honeydew caterpillars.
Onions are slightly weaker in phytoncidal action, but they give almost the same results.
To obtain the infusion, 150 g of onion husks are used, which is infused in a bucket of water for 4 days. Then the infusion is filtered and used for spraying plants.
An infusion of potato tops is a fairly effective tool that destroys hordes of aphids, copperheads and ticks not only on viburnum, but also on other berry fields: 1.5 kg of green mass of tops is crushed, after clearing it from the ground, pour 10 liters of water, filter after three hours and spray the plants in the evening before dark. It should be remembered that an increase in the mass of potato tops is dangerous, as it leads to the formation of burns on young leaves.
To prepare an infusion of yarrow, 800 g of stems of this herb are required, which is dried in the shade, placed in a bucket of water, the mixture is boiled for 30 minutes, filtered, 40 g of soap must be added for better adhesion.
The phytoncidal action of wild elderberry has long been known. The berries contained in the aerial part of this plant are capable of destroying slugs, sucker and aphids. For 10 liters of water, at least 0.5 buckets of young elder shoots are required. They are insisted for two days, then the infusion is filtered, poured into a sprayer and the plants are treated with it.
candidate of agricultural sciences
If you decide to plant viburnum on your site in order to collect a rich harvest of berries or as an ornamental plant, then it is better to purchase varietal. Fruit viburnum, bred by selection, high-yielding, frost-resistant, bears fruit annually. Varietal decorative is distinguished by its singularity and uniqueness during the flowering period.
Viburnum rarely reaches a height of three meters, the bush begins to fall apart and bend to the ground ... In addition to the varieties, pay attention to the varieties Ulgen, Souzga, Taiga rubies.
I recommend Maria to everyone interested. I read that it was obtained by selection from the wild. But it differs in the absence of bitterness and is larger (1.5 times), productive.
I practically do not eat viburnum berries, but I grow viburnum at my dacha - a very beautiful plant and the birds like it. I have three bushes - red viburnum, Buldonezh viburnum and yellow-fruited Xanthocarpum.
apart from the fact that her fruits are yellow, the foliage does not turn red in the fall, but remains green, acquiring a slightly yellow tint. The size of the leaves is larger than that of red. The berries taste ordinary, do not differ from red, after frost they become translucent - it looks beautiful, just like glass yellow beads. Winters well in the Moscow region. It grows in a rather damp and sunny place, its pests, like any viburnum, are very fond of, especially aphids, but a rose growing nearby is not at all interested in aphids.
It is better to plant the Buldenezh variety in the sun and do not forget that the bush will grow strongly both upward and outward! You can cut it, but it seems to me that it is not necessary .. it looks spectacular precisely when it is big and all in its white balls! Ours is still growing, and our friends already have a giant next to their house - and such beauty cannot be passed by, believe me! Everyone who sees freezes ... and does not die off soon. Advise? Definitely - YES! Unpretentious and effective!
Amateur flower growers who want to decorate their plot with Buldenezh viburnum often wonder when is the best time to propagate and plant this ornamental bush. Here's what the professionals advise:
An important tip: whichever method you choose, carry out the procedure in warm and dry weather. Otherwise, you run the risk of losing a young plant, it simply will not take root.
Kalina, of course, is appreciated not only for food, but also for medicinal and decorative properties.
But, unfortunately, the culture, like many other fruit crops, suffers from pests (first of all, from the viburnum leaf beetle, rose leafworm and aphids).
Apparently, this was the reason for the prejudice of gardeners towards viburnum. But do not rush to give up the plant, because you can successfully fight aphids. Treat with an insecticide solution (Aktellik, Fufanon, Kinmiks) in the spring before flowering or immediately after. During the period of setting and ripening of berries, use Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin (they are effective both against the larvae of the viburnum leaf beetle, and against the caterpillars of the rose leafworm).
© Author: Tatiana ANDRUSHKEVICH, Cand. agricultural sciences
Thyme in the common people is called the Mother of God herb. This plant belongs to the category of semi-shrubs.
Sudanese sorghum has long been eaten in India and China... Porridge is cooked from cereals, and flat cakes are baked from flour.
Sorghum is widely used in agriculture in Russia.... The high sugar content of the grass contributes to good milk yield and weight gain.
The Sudanese Herb 3K Blend contains 0.28 feed units, crude protein - 34, digested protein - 20.7. For comparison: in a four-component mixture of feed units - 0.3, crude protein - 42, digested - 35. There is more protein in this composition due to barley.
Sorghum is a particularly valuable crop for the regions of the south and southeast.... By the yield of green mass, sorghum takes the 1st place among forage plants.
Important! Sudanese grass is indispensable in dry, hot summers. While yields are declining in other cereals, yields in Sudanese are still high.
On farms with a large number of cattle, sorghum is harvested for hay and haylage... After the second mowing, the aftermath is used for grazing cows, when the natural pastures have already been grazed and dried up.
In fact, Kalina Buldenezh (landing and leaving) will not give much trouble. Of course, this plant has pests and diseases, and it is they that are the main headache for most gardeners.
When all the agrotechnical conditions are met and the place is correctly chosen, every year the viburnum buldenezh pleases with abundant flowering. Planting and caring for the disease can prevent, but excessive moisture or excess fertilizer can provoke their development. Rust and powdery mildew are most often affected by viburnum buldenezh. If a yellow-orange bloom appears on the leaves, then an urgent need to spray the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Powdery mildew manifests itself in the form of a whitish bloom on leaf plates; spraying the shrub with an aqueous solution of Fundazole will help to cope with it. To prepare it, take about 25 g of the drug per 10 liters of water and spray the plant with the resulting composition.