Galtonia (lat.Galtonia), or Cape hyacinth Is a bulbous perennial of the Liliaceae family from the Cape of Good Hope. The plant got its name in honor of Francis Galton, an English researcher of the flora of South Africa.
In Europe, Galtonia has been cultivated as a late flowering plant since the seventies of the XIX century. Of the four natural species of the genus, mainly one is grown in culture - whitish galtonia, or whitening.
Read more about the cultivation of galtonia below.
The height of the Galtonia flower reaches from 50 to 150 cm. The bulbs of the Galtonia are large, with a concave bottom, conical. All leaves are ground, grooved, belt-like, glabrous and succulent. White drooping flowers with a tubular-funnel-shaped non-falling perianth form a loose racemose inflorescence on a peduncle up to 1 m high. Galtonia blooms in August-September. The fruit of the flower is a three-celled, slightly ribbed cylindrical capsule with numerous flat black seeds of an irregular triangular shape.
When growing Galtonia, you should focus on the natural conditions familiar to it: the summer in the Cape Mountains is warm and humid, and the winters are dry and cold. How to grow galtonia in our climatic conditions? Look for a place for the plant in which water will not stagnate in the spring, and it will be even better if you plant Galtonia on the southern rocky slope, brightly lit by the sun. Although it grows well in partial shade. The soil should be deeply cultivated, well-drained, slightly acidic, light and fertilized with humus.
Galtonia is planted in warm soil from the end of March to May: the timing depends on climatic and weather conditions. The flowering time of Galtonia can be controlled by planting it a little earlier or a little later and placing the bulbs in the ground a little deeper or a little shallower.
When buying planting material, pay attention to the bottom: there should be no traces of rot, mold or signs of softening on it, and the bulb itself should be dense and elastic.
Often, Galtonia bulbs are grown before planting so that flowering occurs a month earlier: in April they are transferred from storage to a warm, bright room, treated with a fungicide solution and laid out under bright diffused light, but where direct sunlight does not fall on them. After sprouting, the bulbs are planted in pots with drainage holes filled with loose garden soil and watered from time to time. The bulbs that have started to grow are planted in May in open ground along with a lump of earth.
The planting depth of Galtonia bulbs in open ground is from 18 to 22 cm (the larger the bulb, the deeper it is planted), and the distance between plants in a row is 30 cm.If you did not lay drainage under the topsoil, throw it into each hole before planting a handful of coarse sand, then put a complex mineral fertilizer and a handful of humus or compost if you did not add organic matter for digging the site.
After planting, the area with galtonia is watered.
Planting and caring for Galtonia is as simple as if it were not an exotic plant from the African continent, but a garden flower familiar to the middle lane. You will need to carry out routine procedures for a gardener: watering, loosening, weeding and feeding. Cape hyacinth is watered abundantly during growth, a day after watering, the soil is loosened around it, while removing weeds. Water consumption during flowering can be reduced slightly.
Fertilization of galtonia with mineral fertilizers for flowering plants is carried out 1-2 times during the growing season. Sometimes tall peduncles have to be tied up for stability, and immediately after the flowers wither, they are cut off so as not to weaken the bulb.
In one place, galtonia grows for 4-5 years, forming dense thickets.
If you have organized good soil drainage on a site with galtonia, then fungal diseases will not threaten it. In wet weather, the plant can be annoyed by gastropods - slugs and snails. To prevent their appearance, scatter ash over the area, but if the clams do appear, you will have to collect them by hand.
Galtonia is a moderately cold-resistant plant. What does it mean? If you live in an area with not very cold winters, then leave the Galtonia bulbs to winter in the soil, covering them with a layer of sawdust or peat 15-20 cm thick and throwing spruce branches or dry leaves over them. Cover galtonia in dry weather.
In regions with harsh or snowless winters, the bulbs should be dug out in late October or early November. The bulbs removed from the ground are brought into the room and, under good ventilation, are dried without removing the leaves for a week. After drying, the leaves are cut at a height of 2 cm from the neck of the bulb, but the roots cannot be cut off. After trimming the leaves, the bulbs are dried at room temperature for another 7-10 days, then they are placed in dry peat or sand so that they do not come into contact, and stored in a dry place at a temperature of 10-15 ºС. If there are few bulbs, put them in the vegetable section of the refrigerator, but make sure they don't get damp there.
In the spring, before planting, the nests of the bulbs can be divided.
Or white galtonia (Hyacinthus candicans) - perennial up to one and a half meters high with bulbs covered with numerous membranous dry scales up to 7 cm in diameter. Basal dark green linear grooved belt-like leaves in the amount of 4 to 6 pieces reach a length of 90, and a width of 8 cm. They look like hyacinth leaves. White fragrant drooping tubular-funnel-shaped flowers about 6 cm long and up to 3 cm in diameter are collected in a raceme. The species blooms in August-September. The fruit of the whitening galtonia is a triangular box with seeds.
It grows in the subtropical zone of South Africa among forbs, rising to an altitude of 1000 m above sea level. The growth of Galtonia is excellent up to 1 m. It has a cone-shaped bulb covered with fibrous scales with a diameter of 3-4 cm. The short racemose inflorescence consists of 10-15 white, greenish outside drooping flowers up to 3.5 cm long. Flowering occurs in September. In culture, this species is rare.
The most thermophilic species, the bulbs of which must be dug up in the fall and stored until spring in a cool and dry place. You can store them by planting them in pots. This plant reaches a height of 1 m, and each of its stems bears from 10 to 30 not white, but emerald green flowers, although when grown in a room culture, the peduncles grow far from so high.
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Interesting Flowering Plant Facts:
A short annual plant.
Shades of petals:
The diameter of the buds is about 2 cm.
A spectacular variety obtained by crossing multi-colored and goiter Nemesia. It blooms profusely, the diameter of the buds is 2 cm, bright colors appear on a bush from 15 to 60 cm high. The flowering period is up to three months. The buds are large, the petals are blue, pink, blue, white.
Outwardly, the bush and flowers resemble a goiter-like appearance, but the buds are smaller, shades of deep blue or pale blue.
A beautiful bush up to 40 cm high. The annual is grown in the garden, when cultivated in an apartment, the plant pleases the eye for several years.
Nemesia Carnival is a spectacular decor for a flower bed, garden area. One sachet contains seeds with several shades of petals. To create an original, bright composition, it is enough to sow seeds from a bag directly into the ground, and large beautiful flowers will appear on a strongly branching bush.
To plant a mirabilis, you need to choose a sunny place, possibly in partial shade. The flower is not hardy. The plant is not very demanding, despite its undoubtedly high decorative value.
It is a popular garden plant used for flower beds, flower arrangements, and is often planted in groups. Rarely used for cut flowers.
Mirabilis grows best in a quiet, calm place in the garden, on the balcony, terrace, where it is not exposed to strong winds.
Mirabilis grows strongly horizontally, it is better to plant plants in pots freely:
Mirabilis multiplies in two ways:
The plant gives a lot of seeds, so it can sow on the site on its own. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years. They can be sown in a variety of ways.
In our climate, the timing of planting seeds depends on the method of cultivation:
Advice. If you need to speed up the germination process a little when sowing seeds for seedlings in an apartment, for faster germination it is worth soaking them in warm water for a day. It is important to keep the water warm, so the hard seed shells will swell faster.
At room temperature 20-21 ° C, seeds germinate in 4-5 days. Young seedlings need lighting.
If the seeds are sown in seed boxes, after the seedlings appear, as soon as the plants have the first true leaves, they should be dived into the pots. And after May 15, plant it in a permanent place in the garden. If we sow directly into pots, there is no need to dive. These plants do not like transplants.
Photo. Seedlings of mirabilis after a dive
Before transplanting seedlings into open ground, it must be hardened - taken out into the street first for 15 minutes, gradually increasing the time so that young seedlings get used to external conditions - wind, cool air, sunlight.
When sowing seeds of mirabilis in open ground, after the emergence of seedlings, you can thin out the seedlings with a distance of at least 30 cm.
The seedlings are planted in well-prepared, loose, fertilized soil.
Landing scheme... Plants are planted in open ground at a distance of 50 × 50 cm. This distance is necessary, because under favorable conditions the bushes reach significant sizes.
Make several holes, carefully place the seedlings. Seedlings are accepted quickly. After planting, mirabilis are watered, especially if there is little rainfall or during a drought.
They do the same with tubers as with dahlias. For reproduction, they are dug up in the fall, in winter they are stored in a room protected from frost. In an unheated room, you can shelter the tubers for the winter from frost with peat.
In early May, but preferably much earlier, the tuberous roots are divided, planted in pots to speed up the growing season, and only after May 15 are planted in a permanent place. Mirabilis planted from tubers will be much higher than when sown with seeds.
Only planted large and resilient bulbs bloom in the same year.
When planting Ixia in the ground, it is important to remember that it is a tropical plant and too low a temperature can kill it. Therefore, gardeners recommend:
It is very important to choose the right place for planting, as it must be sufficiently illuminated. It is best to follow the basic guidelines:
After choosing the time and place, you should start planting a perennial. The whole process can be divided into several stages, detailed in the table.
|Planting ixia into the soil|
|Soil preparation||The earth is dug up in advance, freed from lumps and stones, leveled. If the soil is very heavy, river sand can be mixed into it (1 bucket per 1 sq. M).|
|Top dressing||Fertilize the soil in a complex: 1 sq. m, 70 g of superphosphate, 20 g of magnesium and 300 g of wood ash are introduced.|
|Preparation of planting material||Only the most elastic and dense bulbs are suitable for planting. All dry and moldy specimens must be destroyed. Selected tubers should be treated with a fungicide - it will protect them from mold.|
|Making holes||Depressions in the soil are made by 50-80 mm.In this case, the distance between the holes should be 10-12 cm from each other if whole bulbs are planted. When the bulbs are multiplied by dividing, they are planted in the ground to a depth of 4-5 cm.|
|Disembarkation||It is advisable to pour a handful of river sand into each hole - it provides soil drainage. Corms are placed in the finished wells, carefully sprinkled with loose soil. Immediately carry out mulching of the soil by 2-3 cm.|
|Watering||The planted tubers are not watered. The first time this can be done only after 15-18 days, when the sprouts will already be visible.|
It should be remembered that in the fall Ixia can be planted for wintering only in the southern warm regions and only with corms - delenki sit down in the spring, because they are not able to survive even a slight cold snap.
Only with proper care will the perennial bloom.
Despite the fact that Ixia was brought from warm tropical countries, it is quite easy to care for it - the main thing is to plant it in a warm, sun-filled place and water it in time.
Caring for a perennial is no different from other plants - you need to regularly weed the soil, remove yellow leaves, wilted spike-shaped inflorescences, and also feed with fertilizers in time.
The first watering is done only when green shoots appear.
Moderation is important when moistening the soil: the first shoots should only be lightly sprinkled, but as they grow, increase the intensity of watering. It is especially important to water Ixia abundantly during the formation of its buds and during subsequent flowering.
Tropical plants are used to humid, saturated air, so Ixia should be regularly sprayed with a spray bottle, especially on dry, hot days. For spraying, as well as for irrigation, warm, settled water is used. The moisture in the soil provides good drainage - it fights waterlogging, but keeps the roots fresh.
After the rain, the moist soil must be loosened, in the process of which all weeds must be removed. As soon as Ixia fades, its watering is reduced to a minimum, and in rainy, wet edges it is completely stopped.
Peat, sawdust and part of humus are used as mulch.
For feeding Ixia, mineral and organic fertilizers are used, which are applied every 10-12 days. Since she belongs to the family Bulbous, you can use any complex of fertilizers for this type.
Usually they use:
They begin to feed Ixia, like gladioli, in the first summer weeks - about 2-3 weeks after disembarkation. Fertilize the plant with a nutrient mixture especially carefully during the budding period, and after all the flowers fall off, feeding is stopped. If the soil is fertile and saturated enough, then Ixia can be left without additional nutrients - it will take the necessary minerals from the soil, but in the summer the soil around the bushes should be mulched.
With mechanical division, even a small onion can be cut into 4-5 pieces
In the wild, Ixia reproduces by growing and distributing its seeds and babies. In horticulture, two main methods of reproduction are used:
In the first case, gardeners wait until the mother bulb begins to grow shoots - this usually happens at 3-4 years of plant life. Rhizomes form babies, which are carefully cut with a knife. The cut site is processed with crushed coal or brilliant green, and the resulting seedlings are planted in the spring in garden plots.
If Ixia needs to be multiplied faster, then the path of division is chosen - the corm is cut so that the new part is with root processes and has a root bud (eye). The place of the cut is also carefully sprinkled with wood ash.
It is impossible to store bulbs in room conditions, you need to keep them cool
After prolonged flowering, the plant gradually transitions to dormancy. With the onset of autumn and cold weather, Ixia bulbs should be taken care of, since they do not tolerate cold well and even a small drop in temperature can kill them. After the onset of autumn, the aerial part of the perennial is cut off and harvested, and the bulbs are supplied depending on climatic conditions:
You can plant perennials in flower pots for distillation - but they will not bloom after planting in the ground. With the onset of spring, flower tubers are either freed from insulation and fertilized, or they are moved again and planted again.
The most common problem is waterlogging - this leads to rotting of the bulb
Ixia is resistant to diseases and pests, especially if all the rules for planting and caring for perennials are followed. Possible causes of flower problems, as well as solutions, are listed in the table below.
|Disease or pest||Signs||Treatment methods|
|Fusarios - a viral disease||Leaves dry out, shoots grow crooked, and flowers are deformed.||The bush should be treated with a fungicide that contains copper.|
|Gray mold - bacterial disease||The tubers become moldy, and the plant begins to wilt and dry out.||It is impossible to cure the affected specimens; they should be quickly removed so that healthy ixia does not become infected. For prophylaxis, plants are treated with Fundazol.|
|Septoria - a fungal disease||Small brown spots appear on the leaves. The bulbs have watery gray spots.||Spray the aboveground half of the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Destroy badly affected specimens.|
|Parasites (aphids, spider mites, thrips)||Flowers lose brightness, shoots become crooked. Dots and spots appear on the leaves.||The plant must be treated with strong insecticides.|
Ixia is a vibrant and exotic plant with beautiful inflorescences that will adorn any garden. Growing it in the open field is quite simple, the main thing is to correctly plant Ixia in the soil and timely satisfy the perennial's needs for water and bait. Indoors, ixia can only grow in special greenhouses and conservatories; at home, it is rarely possible to maintain the desired temperature and illumination.
Ixia: description, types, planting and care in the open field: growing a star perennial in the garden | (60+ Photos & Videos) + Reviews
Propagated by feijoa cuttings, layering and seeds. Plants obtained from seeds bloom in the 5th - 6th year, and from cuttings and cuttings - in the 3rd - 4th year. Despite the fact that when propagated by seeds, the characteristics of the parent's variety are not preserved, this method is used most often.
Seeds are sown in boxes at a distance of 5-6 cm from each other. In feijoa, the seeds are small and therefore it is better not to cover them with earth on top, but sprinkle them with sand (1-2 mm). In order not to erode the top layer of the earth during watering, it is better not to water, but to spray the ground with sowing with warm water.
At a room temperature of 18-25 degrees, seedlings appear in three or four weeks. When the feijoa seedlings have 2-4 pairs of leaves, they are transplanted with root pruning, and the next year they can already be transplanted to a permanent place.
Propagation by cuttings
If you need to preserve the characteristics of the variety, then you need to cut the semi-lignified cuttings (at least 10 cm long) and, having treated with heteroauxin for 16-18 hours, planted in a micro greenhouse for rooting. There should be a temperature of at least 26 degrees, high humidity and additional lighting.
Reproduction by layering
Akka (feijoa) it also multiplies by layering, but it should be borne in mind that the lower branches of the plant are very fragile, so you need to be very careful to bend them to the ground. It is also necessary to carefully handle this plant during transplantation. But small inconveniences are paid off by the resulting harvest of the most useful fruits.
We summarize, according to the testimony of experienced gardeners, reproduction of feijoa, as a way:
♦ Seeds. It is ineffective, as it does not germinate well.
♦ Cuttings. Cut from the middle of the crown. Efficiency is high, after rooting, they are planted in a permanent place.
♦ Root processes. Fast and highly efficient.
And, finally, the most important event in the trench cultivation of mandarin is the preparation of plantings for the coming winter, which is carried out as follows:
The covering structure is dismantled in the spring, with the onset of stable heat. You should not overexpose trees in captivity - they will begin to vomit. Spruce branches and fallen leaves are removed from the trench, the polycarbonate is installed in its original place and the overwintered tangerines are provided with appropriate care.