The herbaceous annual or perennial flowering plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum) is a member of the Asteraceae or Compositae family. This genus unites about 30 species, their representatives are found in zones with a temperate and cool climate, with most of the species growing in Asia. Chrysanthemum has been cultivated by gardeners for more than 1,000 years, while the culture appeared on European territory in the 17th century. Most chrysanthemums are grown outdoors, but there are also species that grow well both indoors and in greenhouses.
Home chrysanthemum is a compact and not very tall bush. The fact is that during its cultivation, special preparations are used that artificially stop growth. However, there were such cases when garden-sized bushes grew from a purchased cutting of a home chrysanthemum.
As a rule, undersized varieties of Chinese chrysanthemum or mulberry chrysanthemum are grown in indoor conditions. The height of the lush flowering bushes can vary from 0.15 to 0.7 m. Their flowers are both large, reaching about 50 mm in diameter, and small (no more than 25 mm in diameter). And the varieties may also differ in the shape of the flowers. Also, some varieties of Indian and Korean chrysanthemums are cultivated at home by flower growers.
Indoor chrysanthemum blooms are usually observed in autumn and winter. In order for the bush to bloom as long as possible, it needs to be properly looked after, and it will also need special conditions for growth.
How to care for a potted chrysanthemum
In order for the cultivation of chrysanthemums in indoor conditions to be successful, it needs to provide the correct temperature regime, the optimal level of lighting and timely watering.
In order for the home chrysanthemum to grow and develop normally, as well as bloom for a long time, it needs a certain temperature regime. This culture does not belong to the thermophilic, in connection with this summer it will feel great at temperatures from 20 to 23 degrees. In spring and autumn, the room where the plant is located should be from 15 to 18 degrees Celsius, and in winter it is kept in a cold place (from 3 to 8 degrees). If you strictly adhere to the established temperature regime, then the flowering of the bush will be as lush and long as possible.
For growing chrysanthemums, windows of east or west orientation are excellent, since it needs a lot of diffused sunlight. On the northern windowsill, the flowering of the bush will be poor, because there it does not have enough light, but if you put it on the south window, it can wither away due to excessively bright lighting. The best place to grow such a culture is considered to be a cool loggia, balcony or veranda, while it must be well lit. In the warm season, the flower is moved to the garden if possible.
Throughout the growing season, the chrysanthemum will need regular pinching and pruning, thanks to which the bush will be lush and compact. In addition, you should systematically tear off yellow leaves and inflorescences that have begun to fade.
In order for the chrysanthemum to grow healthy and bloom well, it must be watered in a timely manner and correctly. This flower belongs to moisture-loving plants, in this regard, the substrate in the container should be constantly slightly damp. During the growing season, the bush must be watered at least twice every 7 days. In no case do not allow the clod of earth to dry out. But also make sure that there is no stagnation of liquid in the soil mixture, and also in the pan.
On hot days, it will not be superfluous to moisten the bushes from a spray bottle. Such a procedure is carried out in the evening or morning. The plant can do without moisture, but in this case, in the heat, it will look more lethargic and less attractive.
Young chrysanthemums grown indoors are recommended to be transplanted regularly once a year in spring, while a new pot is taken a little more than the old one. Adult bushes can be replanted less often, namely, once every 2 or 3 years.
For transplantation, a soil mixture is prepared, which should include: turf, white sand, garden soil and humus (4: 1: 4: 1). In order for the culture to bloom more magnificently, a small amount of bird droppings is poured into the finished substrate. In no case should you use acidic soil for planting it, since it reacts extremely negatively to it.
A good drainage layer is made at the bottom of the new container, and the soil mixture is spilled with boiling water before planting and wait until it dries out.
Chrysanthemums in a pot! Transplant, how to care!
The flower needs to be fed regularly. For this, it is recommended to use a complex mineral fertilizer because the phosphorus and potassium contained in it contribute to the stimulation of flowering. In order for the bush to bloom much earlier than the due date, a solution of potassium monophosphate is introduced into the soil in a ratio of 1:10, or another complex fertilizer is used, in which the proportion of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium is 3: 1: 2. You can also feed such a flower with liquid organic fertilizers.
An adult plant is fed with minerals once every 1.5 weeks, while every four days a mullein solution is added to the soil mixture (1 part of fertilizer per bucket of water). As soon as the formation of buds begins, the chrysanthemum is stopped feeding.
Immediately after flowering ends, the plant must be put into a dormant state. Cut off all the stems from the bush and transfer the pot to the cellar, where at a temperature of 2 to minus 3 degrees, it will stay until spring. Immediately after young shoots begin to appear, the bush is transplanted into a larger pot and returned to the house to its original place.
Homemade chrysanthemum is most easily propagated by non-lignified green cuttings. During the preparation of the cuttings, the lateral shoots are cut off from the branch, while the length of the segment should be equal to 10 centimeters. All leaf plates are cut off from the bottom of the segments, and then they are placed in a container with water for rooting. After the roots reach 40-50 mm in length, they are planted in pots, while several pieces are planted in one container at once. Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot; use a slightly alkaline or neutral soil mixture. After planting, the substrate is tamped around the cuttings and watering is carried out. It is also recommended to pinch the tops of the cuttings, this helps to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots.
Cuttings for rooting can be planted directly into the soil mixture. They must be covered with a plastic cap on top, which will help create the greenhouse effect necessary for successful rooting. Every day, the cuttings are ventilated, for this, the cap is temporarily removed, do not forget to remove the accumulated condensate from its surface. After the foliage turgor is restored, rooting will be completed, and the shelter can be removed.
Reproduction of chrysanthemums. Cutting room chrysanthemum
You can propagate the culture by dividing the bush during transplantation. Remove the plant from the container, carefully remove the remaining soil mixture from the root system and rinse it. Then take a pre-sterilized very sharp instrument and cut the bush with it into several parts, while each division should have several stems and well-developed roots. Treat the cut areas with charcoal powder. Delenki need to be planted in a pot in the same way as adult bushes.
Most often, Korean hybrids and varieties are propagated by seeds. Sowing seeds is carried out in low containers, at the bottom of which they make a good drainage layer. They are filled with a soil mixture, which includes humus and peat (1: 1), before sowing it must be calcined at a temperature of 110 to 130 degrees. For sowing, you can also use a store-bought ready-made soil mixture for flowers, which also needs to be disinfected. It is not necessary to deepen the seeds of perennials into the soil mixture, they are only slightly pressed into the substrate. Crops are moistened from a sprayer and covered with a film (glass) on top. The container with crops is transferred to a warm place (from 23 to 25 degrees), they need systematic ventilation, as well as timely watering. Also, do not forget to remove condensation from the surface of the shelter in time. The first seedlings should appear after 10-15 days, immediately after that the container is moved to a well-lit place. The shelter from the container is not removed immediately, allowing the seedlings to get used to the new conditions. To do this, glass is removed from them every day, increasing the duration of airing gradually, and it is removed completely only when the plants are fully adapted. A pick on individual containers is carried out at the stage of forming 2–4 of a real sheet plate. A drainage layer is poured on the bottom of the cups or pots, and the soil mixture for planting is used the same as for sowing. When diving, try not to injure the roots. To make rooting more successful and faster, the transplanted seedlings are treated with a solution of Epin-Extra or Zircon. The cut seedlings are transferred to a cooler place (from 16 to 18 degrees) and then they are looked after in the same way as for adult chrysanthemums.
If the chrysanthemum is in unsuitable conditions for it and does not receive proper care, then it can be struck by such fungal diseases as: septoria, powdery mildew and gray rot.
If the plant is affected by powdery mildew, then a whitish bloom forms on its petioles, foliage and stems. Over time, it thickens and becomes brown, which is why the decorative effect of the chrysanthemum suffers. To cure a flower, it should be treated with a solution of a fungicidal preparation, for example: Topsin, Skor, Fundazol or Topaz.
In chrysanthemum affected by septoria, specks of rusty or brownish-gray color with yellow edging appear on the foliage. Over time, these spots increase and, eventually, occupy the entire surface of the leaf plate. In the middle of such spots, mushroom pycnidia appear, which are black dots. Affected shoots and foliage begin to dry, the stems turn brown, wrinkle and bend. Try to isolate the affected bush from other plants. Cut off all diseased stems and foliage from him, then spray it with a solution of Oxychom, Kuproksat or copper sulfate. You can put a bush next to other indoor flowers only when it is fully recovered.
Chrysanthemum affected by gray rot, also called botrytis, is relatively difficult to cure. In this case, a fluffy bloom of gray color forms on the surface of the above-ground parts of the plant, the tissue of the flower under it perishes and rot appears. To cure the plant, it should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture solution, while it is best to spray the bush before flowers form on it.
Chrysanthemums Storing at home Pest control
Chrysanthemum nematodes, slobbering pennies, aphids or thrips can settle on the bushes. Pennits, thrips and aphids are sucking harmful insects that suck out the plant's cell sap from the plant. To get rid of them, the flower is sprayed with a solution of an insectoacaricidal agent, for example: Derris, Biotlin, Aktellik, Confidor or Aktara.
The nematoda is a very small filamentous worm that cannot be seen with the naked eye. The fact that such a pest has settled on the plant can be understood by the mosaic specks of white color that appear between the veins of the lower leaf plates. Over time, these spots turn brown. After a while, folding, drying and flying around the affected foliage is observed, while mosaic specks begin to form on the upper leaf plates. As a rule, bushes are affected by nematodes through a substrate that has not been disinfected. It is impossible to cure a flower affected by a nematode; in this regard, it will have to be burned along with the soil mixture in the pot.
It was already mentioned above that dwarf and undersized varieties, as well as hybrids of Korean, Chinese and Indian chrysanthemums, are cultivated at home by flower growers. The Korean chrysanthemum is distinguished by its hybrid origin, however, no one has met the mulberry chrysanthemum in natural conditions. The history of such a plant is very confusing and complex, so it is better not to delve into it. Below will be described those varieties of chrysanthemums that are most popular among flower growers:
How to properly care for Chrysanthemum? / indoor chrysanthemum
Planting and caring for a dicenter is a simple process that any gardener can easily master. A flower shaped like a heart will adorn any flower bed.
Growing chrysanthemums at home is not too difficult, however, for flowering, you need to comply with the requirements for temperature and light conditions. This is not always easy as the flower loves cool content.
Indoor chrysanthemum feels good at an air temperature of 15-18 ° C. An increase in this indicator leads to a reduction in the flowering period, the leaves may turn yellow, the buds may dry out. Recently purchased plants that have not had time to adapt also react to the high temperature in the room. Domestic chrysanthemums are content with 8-hour daylight hours, but the lighting should be intense. Do not put the flower in the shade, although protect it from direct sunlight too.
Potted chrysanthemums are unpretentious to the ground. Ordinary garden soil and general-purpose store-bought soil will do. Peat and humus can be added to the mixture for greater looseness.
The plant needs high humidity, so chrysanthemum is regularly sprayed. Watering is needed in moderation, but the soil should not dry out and be constantly slightly damp.
Potted chrysanthemums should be transplanted once a year. Adult flowers can be replanted every two years. Garden plants can grow up to 3-4 years in one place. After the lapse of time, it is recommended to change the landing site, since the flowers become smaller. Flowering plants should not be repotted.
Indoor chrysanthemum needs pruning and pinching to form a lush bush. Chrysanthemum pruning should be done throughout the growing season. If you neglect the procedure and cut the chrysanthemum only in the spring, the trunk will stretch out and the flower will look unattractive.
On New Year's Eve, scarlet stars - poinsettias are sold literally everywhere: for a long time, these luxurious representatives of the flora have been one of the attributes of winter holidays. Legend has it that one Christmas, a child who wanted to make a gift to Jesus was gathering flowers for the Lord along the road.
When he brought the bouquet to the church, the flowers shone with green and red lights - a real Christmas miracle happened! Since then, every year in winter, poinsettia blooms at home, illuminating the souls of people. A legend is a legend, but the fact that the plant organically fits into the decor of any interior, you must agree, otherwise you cannot call it wonderful!
Red poinsettia itself looks like a queen, but to enhance the effect, you can surround it with a “retinue”: Christmas tree decorations, bows, ribbons, cones, holly twigs, spruce, pine.
The catchy outfits of poinsettia, or, scientifically, the milkweed of the most beautiful, are in fact nothing more than bracts. And the flowers themselves - small and inconspicuous - are located at the very top of the stems in the middle of the bright apical leaves. So it seems that the stems are crowned with flowers like stars with "petals" of bracts and a yellow center of real flowers. And, by the way, our heroine only benefits from this, because bracts retain their decorative effect much longer than flowers.
Do you want a star beauty to delight the eye for months? And learn to take care of her properly! First, select a bright spot for the plant.
Do not be alarmed when the indoor euphorbia begins to shed its leaves: this does not mean at all that it is dying. He just has a period of rest, which lasts several months. After the stems are completely exposed, shorten them, place the plant in a dark, cool place (12-15 ° C), stop feeding and water very sparingly - just so that the earthy ball does not dry out. Poinsettia will notify its awakening by the appearance of young shoots. From that moment on, she needs to be provided with a sunny warm place, increase watering and feed every 2 weeks (from spring to autumn).
And finally, we will reveal the most important secret of Poisettia - the secret of bright colors. The trick is this: the plant is activated only with a short daylight hours (about 10 hours a day). And this means that for the rest of the watch, your pet needs to be covered with an opaque bag or brought into a dark room. And so for 8 weeks - but the result is undoubtedly worth it!