Aloe: home care, properties, reproduction, transplantation, types and photos


Houseplants

Botanical description

Aloe (lat. Aloe) - has up to 260 species of herbaceous perennials belonging to the Asphodeloi family. The homeland of aloe is Africa, with arid zones. But for aloe, this is not a problem - it tolerates a lack of moisture well.
Aloe leaves are often fleshy, growing from the root, collected in a rosette. There are species with thorns on the leaves, there are those without thorns. The leaves of some species are covered with a waxy coating. Aloe blooms with flowers of yellow, red or orange shades. The flowers, depending on the species, are collected in paniculate or racemose inflorescences, and are usually tubular or bell-shaped.
Some types of aloe are used in medicine, because some types of aloe have beneficial properties. The juice is used in the treatment of burns and abscesses. Aloe juice has a rejuvenating and regenerating effect on the skin. A substance is obtained from the leaves that has a laxative effect. In indoor floriculture, a large number of species and varieties are grown.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: the plant is grown as an ornamental-deciduous and medicinal plant.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight. In winter, aloe vera may require additional lighting.
  • Temperature: in spring and summer - usual for residential premises, in winter - no higher than 14 ºC.
  • Watering: during the period of active growth - as soon as the top layer of the substrate dries. In winter - two days after the top layer has dried. When moistened, water should not get into the outlet of the leaves.
  • Air humidity: common for living quarters.
  • Top dressing: once a month with mineral fertilizers during the growing season - from mid-spring to early autumn.
  • Rest period: from mid-autumn to mid-spring.
  • Transfer: at the beginning of the growing season: young plants - once every two years, adults - once every four years.
  • Substrate: two parts of sod land and one part each of sand and leafy land.
  • Reproduction: seeds and root shoots.
  • Pests: aphids, scale insects, mealybugs and spider mites.
  • Diseases: all aloe problems are from improper care. In particular, over-watering the plant can rot.
  • Properties: some types of aloe have healing properties: wound healing, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, immunostimulating, regenerating and others.

Read more about growing aloe below.

Photo of aloe

Home care for aloe

Lighting

Homemade aloe is a very light-loving plant, and taking into account its natural habitat, it is advisable to place the plant on a southern window and not be protected from direct sunlight. If the plant has been in the shade for a long time, then it is necessary to accustom aloe to the direct sun gradually. In winter, the plant may need additional lighting - fluorescent lamps are suitable.

Temperature

In summer, room temperature will be fine. If there is where, then you can take the indoor aloe to fresh air, protecting it from precipitation. If the plant spends all the time indoors, then you need to provide an influx of fresh air. In winter, the plant rests, so the optimal aloe content at home is at a temperature not higher than 14 ° C. At higher temperatures, the plant can stretch out due to the lack of light, which is often seen in winter.

Watering aloe

During the period of active growth, aloe at home is watered immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture has dried. In winter, watering is reduced, allowing the earth to dry out a little, but not letting it dry out completely. If water gets into the leaf outlet, the stem of the plant can rot, which can lead to the death of the aloe.

Spraying

Air humidity does not matter for the normal development of the aloe plant.

Bloom

For flowering, the plant must retire, and the dormant period can be provided with low air temperature and long daylight hours. It is rather difficult to create such conditions when growing aloe in an apartment, therefore, aloe flowering at home is more an exception than a rule.

Top dressing

The indoor aloe flower responds well to monthly fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. You need to feed from mid-spring to early autumn, after which feeding is not carried out until next spring.

Aloe transplant

The soil for aloe is made up of two parts of sod land, one part of deciduous and one part of sand. To loosen the soil, you can add broken bricks and charcoal. Aloe is transplanted as needed: young specimens every two years, and adults every four years.

Growing from seed

The aloe plant reproduces well by seeds. Seeds are sown in a sandy mixture with good drainage in late winter - early March. The container with seeds is ventilated and moistened from time to time. They are not exposed to the sun, the temperature is kept at 20 ° C. A month after the emergence of seedlings, they are dived into larger pots, and after another three months they are transferred into individual pots and gradually begin to take care of them as for adult plants.

Reproduction by shoots

The substrate is taken the same as for seed propagation of aloe. Young shoots that grow from the roots of the mother plant are carefully removed in spring or early summer and planted in a separate pot. When the sprout takes root and gets stronger, it is taken care of like an adult aloe.

Diseases and pests

Aloe leaves are pale and lethargic. The first option is too frequent watering, the substrate does not have time to dry out between waterings. The second option is the wrong earthen mixture - read about the soil above.

Aloe is stretched out. If the plant does not have enough light, it begins to stretch and lose its attractive appearance. In low light conditions, fluorescent lamps should be used to increase daylight hours.

Aloe stem and roots rot. Aloe does not tolerate excessive watering, and the roots can rot for this reason. In addition, do not allow water to enter the leaf outlet, especially in cool weather. Adjust watering, dry soil, remove missing roots and leaves, change soil.

The tips of aloe leaves turn brown. Although aloe can tolerate dry air, it is still necessary to increase the humidity of the air from time to time. Lack of moisture can lead to brown spots on the edges of the leaves.

Dark spots on aloe leaves. Aloe does not tolerate drafts and temperatures below 8 ° C. Ventilate the room, but the plant should not be in a draft.

Aloe pests. Aloe is affected by aphids, scale insects, spider mites and mealybugs.

Views

White-flowered Aloe / Aloe albiflora

Bush, stem is missing. The leaves are narrow, up to 5 cm wide, long - up to 25 cm, edges with small white thorns, the leaves themselves are gray-green covered with white dots. It blooms with white flowers that gather in a racemose inflorescence on a half-meter peduncle. This species reproduces well by basal rosettes.

Fan Aloe / Aloe plicatilis

This species is a bushy plant with a woody stem. It branches well and grows up to 5 m in height. The trunk is divided into smaller branches, on each of which a leaf rosette grows. The leaves grow in 14-16 pieces, are located opposite, have a linear shape with a rounded rather than pointed top. The leaves reach a maximum of 30 cm in length and 4 cm in width, green with a slight shade of gray, the edges are usually smooth. It blooms with red flowers, which grow 25-30 pieces in racemose inflorescences on high peduncles. The peduncle reaches 0.5 m in length. Aloe fan is distinguished by the need for frequent watering. This species is also known by the names: aloe umbrella (Aloe tripetala), aloe lingual (Aloe lingua), aloe lingual (Aloe linguaeformis).

Aloe Vera / Aloe vera

A shrub with short stems. The leaves grow in small rosettes, are lanceolate, green in color and usually covered with white spots and pinkish thorns around the edges. Leaves grow up to almost 0.5 m in length. The peduncle is long with several racemose inflorescences. The flowers are yellowish, up to 3 cm long. There are varieties with red flowers. Synonyms: aloe Lanza (Floe lanzae), aloe Barbados (Aloe barbadensis), Indian aloe (Aloe indica).

Aloe descoingsii

Herbaceous appearance, the stem is short. The leaves grow from the root and gather in rosettes, have an elongated triangular shape, short (up to 4 cm). Small thorns grow along the edge of the leaf, green leaves (dark or light) are covered with white dots and slightly grooved. It blooms with orange flowers that grow up to 1 cm in length and have a tubular shape. They are collected in racemose inflorescences at the top of a 30-centimeter peduncle growing from a flower rosette. They reproduce easily by basal young shoots.

Aloe jacksonii

Bushy perennial, the stem is low (up to 30 cm). The leaves are short (up to 10 cm) and narrow, covered with small thorns at the edges, and one longer thorn at the top of the leaf. The leaves are light green on both sides covered with a waxy bloom and white spots. The flowers are tubular and light red in color, gather in racemose inflorescences on a 20-centimeter peduncle.

Aloe dichotoma / Aloe dichotoma

At home, this species is an evergreen tree-like perennial that grows up to 8 m in height. The leaves are long (up to 40 cm) and narrow (up to 6 cm), green with a slight shade of blue, covered on both sides of the leaf with a waxy bloom, and along the edges with small thorns. The flowers are yellow, tubular, and gather in racemose inflorescences. Inflorescences grow on a peduncle in 1-3 pieces.

Aloe arborescens / Aloe arborescens

This is exactly the kind that is called the Centenary, when grown indoors. Bushes or trees that grow up to 3 m in height. Stems branch, eventually become bare at the bottom and branched at the top. The leaves are rosette, apical, dense, have a xiphoid shape (up to 0.5 m long and up to 6 cm wide) in length and curved-concave in width, green with a shade of gray, fleshy. The edge of the leaf is covered with 3 mm thorns. The flowering period is May-June, but in indoor conditions this is quite a rare occurrence. The flowers are red, pink or yellow and are collected in racemose inflorescences on a long peduncle.

Aloe camperi

Low herbaceous perennial. The leaves are narrow, curved, shiny, green, lanceolate, grow up to 0.5 m in length, and up to 5 cm in width, have small denticles at the edge. The flowers are collected in a racemose inflorescence on a long peduncle. The flowers are red, orange and yellow, up to 5 cm long, tubular. Also known as aloe eru.

Aloe cap-shaped / Aloe mitriformis

Herbaceous perennial. The stem is short. The leaves grow from the roots, gather in rosettes, have a rounded triangular shape (length up to 20 cm, width up to 15 cm). The color of the leaves varies from green to gray-blue, and the edges of the leaves and their underside are covered with small thorns. Flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences that grow on a long peduncle from a leaf rosette. The flowers are red or bright red and have a tubular shape. In indoor conditions, it practically does not bloom.

Short-leaved Aloe / Aloe brevifolia

Herbaceous perennial with rosette leaves. The shape of the leaves varies from lanceolate to triangular (up to 4 cm wide and up to 11 cm long). The white teeth on the leaves are located on the outside of the leaf and along its edges. The color of the leaves is green-blue. The peduncle is long, the inflorescence is racemose, the flowers are red, tubular.

Aloe bellatula

Or aloe is premium. Herbaceous stemless perennials native to Madagascar. Rosette leaves, growing from the root, not long (up to 15 cm) and narrow (up to 1 cm). The edge of the leaf plate is covered with small thorns, and the leaf itself is covered with white spots and tubercles, dark green. The flowers are like bells, of a coral shade.

Aloe marlothii / Aloe marlothii

This species is a shrub. It reaches a height of 3 m. The leaves grow in a basal rosette, fleshy, lanceolate, waxy. They reach 1.5 m in length, and up to 30 cm in width, of a green-grayish hue, covered with small reddish thorns on all sides and along the edges. Tubular flowers grow on racemose inflorescences. Usually reddish-orange in color.

Soap Aloe / Aloe saponaria

Or aloe soapy. A bush with a branching stem. There are usually several leaf rosettes. Leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 6 cm wide, green with white spots on all sides, 5 mm thorns grow along the edges of the leaf plate, which has a flat-curved shape. The flowers are collected in small racemose inflorescences, sometimes yellow with a shade of red. Another name for the plant is aloe spotted (Aloe maculata).

Aloe aristata / Aloe aristata

The plant is bushy. The stems are short. The leaves are collected in rosettes, have a triangular shape, green in color with white tubercles and short thorns along the edge of the leaf plate. A long thread grows at the top of the leaf. Leaves are slightly curved. On a long peduncle there are several racemose inflorescences with two to three dozen tubular flowers and a red-orange color.

Aloe distans

Bush. Shoots are long - up to 3 m, spreading. The leaves are pointed-ovoid, up to 10 cm long and up to 6 cm wide (at the base), green with a shade of gray, whitish small thorns grow along the edges and center of the leaf. Flowers are yellow, tubular, growing in racemose inflorescences.

Aloe striata

Or aloe gray. A stemless perennial native to South Africa. The leaves are collected in a basal rosette, dense, fleshy, green with a shade of gray, up to 0.5 m long and up to 15 cm wide. The edge of the leaf is smooth, with a red tint. On a long peduncle, several racemose inflorescences with small, light red flowers usually grow. Flowering falls in mid-late spring.

Tiger Aloe / Aloe variegata

Or aloe variegated. Shrub, no stem, grows up to 30 cm in height. The leaves are elongated, grow in basal rosettes, reach 15 cm in length and 6 cm in width. The leaves are dark green, covered with a white pattern of stripes and dots. It blooms with pink, red or yellow flowers that gather in racemose inflorescences on long peduncles. Other names are Aloe ausana and Aloe punctata.

Aloe ferox

Or aloe is awesome. This species grows in nature up to 3 m in height. The stem is straight. A leaf rosette with long (up to 0.5 m) and wide (up to 15 cm) leaves grows at the top of the plant. Leaves of light green color under certain conditions can take on a reddish tint. The teeth grow along the edges of the leaf, they can grow on the leaf itself. From the center of the leaf rosette, a racemose inflorescence grows from 0.5 m in height with flowers of a bright red-orange color.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Asphodelica
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Houseplants Asphodelic Plants on A


The homeland of the plant is the tropical belt of America. There are about 300 species of philodendrons that belong to the aroid family (Araceae). At home, this plant does not bloom, it is loved for its large green leaves of an unusual shape, which adorn the house with their beauty.

Foliage is capable of recycling high levels of formaldehyde, which is why it is considered a useful houseplant. If flowers are needed, then the philodendron must be taken outside and allowed to grow up to 8-10 meters in height. The flower is red or white with a white ear in the middle.

In the wild, the philodendron grows in the form of a liana, but hybrids are suitable for indoor use. Most often these are creeping and climbing species with a massive and green trunk. In many varieties, lateral roots grow from the knee of the stem; this is left from the wild.

In outdoor conditions, they spread along the ground, growing into the soil with additional roots. Different varieties differ in the shape of the leaf, in some they are with cuts, in others they are solid, the length can reach one meter.

With age, they change color, and it is already difficult to distinguish it from other plants. Often, adult vines are confused with other species, for example, with monsters and scindapsus. But, they have differences, only the philodendron vine is capable of unfolding a leaf in a special way. Most often, a new leaf grows from the middle of the old one, and that, in turn, dies off. But, in some varieties, they continue to live.

In indoor conditions, the vine is quite unpretentious, grows freely, without requiring unnecessary care. But, with light, a small problem, vines do not like darkness and direct rays of the sun. If in the house it stands in a dark corner, then its base begins to stretch, and the leaves turn into a pale and small mass.

When exposed to direct light, the leaves of the philodendron are burned. Favorable conditions are scattering light. It does not like sudden changes in temperature and drafts. In the hot season, it needs an abundance of water, and in winter, vice versa.

In the spring, the philodendron needs feeding, otherwise it will stop growing. The earth should be light and as loose as possible. In rare cases, the plant has diseases that are caused by insect pests. At this point, it should be treated with a solution for the prevention of indoor plants.

Before choosing a variety of creepers, it is necessary to clarify its size, some of them are bushy, while others like to grow up, obscuring the entire space. High varieties are preferable to grow in large houses or in conservatories.


Reproduction

There are four breeding methods for aloe: seed, leaf, scion, and babies.

Seminal

In this way, you can get a plant only after a year. Getting seedlings and caring for them requires a lot of attention.

Sheet

Quite a simple method. Planting material can be very easily obtained by pinching off the leaf from the mother plant; it is better to treat the cut with activated carbon. It is dried for about 5 days. Then they are planted in a small pot with a damp substrate, pressing in 5 cm. Cover with a glass container on top. It should take root in two weeks.

Cuttings

Cut off a stalk with about 8 leaves. Dry for 5 days. They are planted in moist soil, so that the lower sheets are in contact with it. Placed on a windowsill on the sunny side. Rooting takes place within a month.

Children

It consists in the separation from the mother plant of the shoots coming from the root. They can be with or without roots. In the second case, after a while after planting, the root system will develop.


In general, the culture is not very susceptible to diseases and pests, but they sometimes manifest themselves.

  1. Most often, aloe suffers from root rot, when, due to overflow or watering with cold water, the roots deteriorate, and the whole plant begins to dry out, stops its growth. In this case, the sprout should be dug out, all rotten roots should be removed, the root system should be treated with charcoal powder and planted in a pot with new, looser and more sandy soil. And with the complete destruction of the root, the sprout will have to be cut and rooted like a cutting.
  2. Dry rot is more insidious, it comes out of nowhere and is capable of destroying a flower in a short time. To avoid this, it is recommended to occasionally spray the plant with fungicides.
  3. Among the pests, the most common mealybug is, it is clearly visible on the leaves and stems of the culture and it can be removed even purely mechanically, with tweezers or other device. And then the bite sites need to be wiped with a tincture of garlic in alcohol and put the pot in the shade for acclimatization.
  4. The scale insect rarely appears on this succulent, but it is much more difficult to fight it. Special insecticides destroy pests most effectively, and at home you can wipe the foliage with an aqueous solution of vinegar.
  5. The spider mite is difficult to diagnose due to its small size, from it aloe grows worse, and the leaves are deformed. You can fight the pest by spraying with tobacco infusion or soapy water.


Plant selection

When the question of acquiring Kalanchoe arises, there are a number of certain rules, adhering to which you can choose plants without fear of losing it in the coming months.

It all starts with an external examination of the plant and checking its mechanical strength.

The deciduous part of the plant and its stems must be elastic and have a uniform color. there should be no plaque in any form, since non-compliance with these requirements speaks of Kalanchoe disease.

The plant should have an even distribution of leaves along the stem, if there are long sections of the stem that are devoid of leaves, this indicates plant injuries or diseases

Another requirement applies to decorative Kalanchoe varieties: it is better to take a plant with a large number of unblown buds.

If the number of faded or dried buds prevails, therefore, the period of its flowering has already passed and a new one will not come soon.

It is optimal to purchase a plant at the beginning of winter, when it begins its flowering period.

At the same time, it is desirable that faded flowers and inflorescences are removed in time - this way he will have the opportunity to set new flowers.

It is obligatory at this stage to place the plant in a kind of "quarantine", away from other plants, this will help to identify its possible diseases and prevent their spread to other plants.


You need to transplant a young aloe once a year. After 3 years - once every 2-3 years, if necessary, and instead of replanting old large plants, the top layer of the soil is replaced. An earthen mixture is taken for succulents or prepared at home from sod and deciduous land, with the addition of peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 1), a little more is worth adding charcoal (a kind of disinfectant).

Aloe propagates by seeds, but since it is possible not to wait for flowering, it is propagated by cuttings, upper shoots, basal processes.

Aloe can be propagated by cuttings at any time of the year, but if possible, give priority to spring-summer. After cutting, the cuttings and upper shoots need to be dried a little during the day, after which the cut is powdered with crushed coal. You need to plant the cuttings in wet sand to a depth of 1 cm (if deeper, it can rot), after planting the cuttings, the sand must be kept moist. After the formation of roots (it usually takes a week), they are transplanted into pots (up to 7 cm high).


Watch the video: Aloe Vera Care Guide! . Garden Answer


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