Garden strawberries Asia (not to be confused with strawberries!) Is a fairly young variety and is rarely grown on strawberry beds of Russian gardeners. Care for her is basically the same as for other strawberry varieties, but the description of the variety says that Asia has inherent requirements for agricultural cultivation only. Without knowing them, you can make a lot of mistakes and be disappointed in a wonderful variety.
When in the market we stop at counters with fragrant bright red berries, we are vying with each other to buy strawberries. They are actually garden strawberries. What is the difference between them?
Garden strawberry is a typical cultivated plant that is grown both in small summer cottages and on huge plantations. It is a compact bushes with large leaves, under which flower stalks are hidden. Strawberry fruits are large - sometimes reach the size of a small, up to 100-110 g, apple. This is a relatively drought and frost-resistant crop that requires constant care, feeding, and pest control. With a bad attitude to the rules of agricultural technology, plants degenerate: berries and leaves become smaller, are affected by pests, diseases and ultimately die.
Garden strawberries began their triumphant path around the world at the beginning of the 16th century from France
Strawberry is a wild plant. Based on the place of growth, it has many names: forest strawberries grow in forest areas, steppe strawberries - in steppes and forest-steppes, field strawberries (popular name - raspberries) are found in fields and ungrown slopes of ravines. It differs from the garden relative in smaller leaves and fruits, but higher peduncles. Under favorable conditions, strawberry bushes grow in the form of a continuous carpet, occupying vast, sometimes multi-hectare, spaces. Strawberries are more winter-hardy and tolerate drought better than strawberries.
Here is a real strawberry - a very fragrant and sweet wild berry
Both plants belong to the genus Strawberry of the Rosaceae family, but their botanical species are different. The main difference is the way the fruit is set. In garden strawberries, male and female flowers are located on the same bush, so it is self-pollinated. Strawberries, on the other hand, have separate male and female plants; for successful fruiting, their joint growth is necessary.
Wild strawberries are not only tasty, but also extraordinarily healthy.
Forest strawberry stands apart from them - a plant with small berries that have such a taste and aroma that no garden strawberry can match. But it grows in forests, collecting small, easily deformed berries is a titanic work, which not everyone is capable of. We can say that in our time, wild strawberries have moved into the category of rare berries, real exotic.
In 2005, the Italian breeding company “New Fruits” from the city of Cesene bred the garden strawberry variety Asia and registered it under European patent No. 23759. In Europe, this variety claims a high place in the ranking of strawberry varieties. In the Russian State Register of Breeding Achievements Recommended for Distribution, this variety is not represented, but work on its zoning is underway. The variety is universal, suitable for both amateur gardening and industrial use. It is grown on an industrial scale in the south-west of Russia and Ukraine.
Garden strawberry Asia - mid-early variety. Her berries ripen in mid-May in the south, a little later, in early June, in more northern regions. Fruiting lasts about a month. The variety is very productive: gardeners get from 0.8 to 1.2 kg of berries from one bush, and in specialized farms, the harvest is about 15 tons per hectare.
The bushes in Asia are rather large, with large, but few in number, bright green leaves; they form a little mustache. Powerful, tall peduncles are crowned with bright green sepals. The berries are easily separated from the stalks.
Fruits with a shiny skin are elongated, conical in shape. The color of large (from 28 to 35 g) berries is bright red. In the first year of cultivation, individual specimens can reach 60–90 g. The berries are very sweet, with a slight sourness, the juicy pulp has a pale pink color. Due to their medium density, they tolerate transportation well and storage is long enough for strawberries.
The largest berries in the Asia variety are in the first year of fruiting.
|High and consistent yield.||The need for winter and early spring shelter in a temperate continental climate.|
|Large berries with excellent taste.||Difficulty in reproduction due to the small number of whiskers.|
|High resistance to fungal and root diseases.||It is affected by powdery mildew, chlorosis and anthracnose.|
|Berries are suitable for long-term transportation and storage.|
To obtain high yields, it is necessary to follow the rules for growing garden strawberries. Asia requires almost year-round care. Even in winter, you should pay a visit to the strawberry beds, check the shelter of the bushes, make sure that the plants do not undermine in warm winters.
Planting garden strawberries should be approached responsibly - only if the necessary conditions are met, one can hope for success.
When choosing a place for strawberry beds, you must take into account the following requirements:
If there is a threat of flooding, beds with a height of 30-40 cm are arranged on the site
The soil for planting strawberries in the fall should be prepared in advance, it should "ripen" for about a month. For spring - the ground is prepared in the fall. The following order is recommended:
The bushes of the garden strawberry Asia have few leaves and a small number of whiskers. Therefore, a multi-line planting scheme is recommended for the variety. When the goal is to obtain berries, a two- or three-line scheme is used with the width of the beds from 60 to 80 cm, in the rows the distance between the plants is maintained at 30-35 cm. On the mother plots for better rooting of the rosettes, strawberries should be planted according to a one-line scheme with a distance between the bushes at 35-45 cm.
One of the ways to help the rational use of the land is the staggered planting order.
Strawberries can be planted throughout the growing season. But the best are the summer-autumn and early spring periods. In the first case, seedlings are planted from mid-August to mid-September. With this option, the seedlings will root well and gain strength for the upcoming wintering, and in the next season they will give a high yield. With a later planting, the bushes can freeze out in winter. Spring planting can be done immediately after the plants start to grow and finish in mid-May. For better survival in seedlings, all peduncles and whiskers should be removed.
Garden strawberry plants are quite durable. However, with prolonged cultivation in one place, the soil is depleted, the yield decreases, the berries become smaller. In addition, a significant number of various sources of diseases and pest larvae accumulate in the ground. To increase yields, rejuvenate plantings in 2-3 years, strawberries are transplanted to a new site.
The establishment of a new plantation is carried out by dividing the bushes from the previous place or with the help of a mustache. In no case should you transplant whole bushes - in this case, the whole "infection" from the old place of growth will move with them.
Strawberries are very demanding on soil moisture and responsive to fertilization, but one should not go to the other extreme: excessive watering and overfeeding of plants with fertilizers will not lead to anything good either.
Watering is required after harvest and in the fall before the onset of frost. This increases the winter hardiness of the strawberry and promotes better budding for the next year. The best method is drip irrigation.
With drip irrigation, water flows directly to the roots of each plant
Along with watering, timely and properly dosed feeding of strawberries is one of the main techniques for growing them. In this case, one should not avoid "folk" remedies: manure, wood ash, mullein and others.
|Terms of feeding||Methods and means of introduction|
|Immediately after clearing the beds from the snow, thawing the soil.|
|When the first peduncles appear.||Complex fertilizer with the addition of trace elements for each bush (application dose according to the instructions).|
|At the beginning of the setting of berries.||Processing strawberry bushes with an infused solution of wood ash for a day at the rate of 2-3 tbsp. l to l|
When applying chemical preparations when feeding, you must strictly follow the instructions, otherwise, instead of a rich harvest, you can get ruined plants.
In addition to the listed measures for caring for strawberries, there are other, no less important agricultural techniques. These include trimming the whiskers from fruiting plants, weeding, hilling bushes, loosening, especially after watering and rain, mowing leaves after harvesting, shelter for the winter and other details of growing strawberries.
The Asia variety is propagated by seeds, mustaches, and dividing bushes. It should be remembered that, using the seed method, never obtain varietal characteristics of the original plants. It is used only by breeders when developing new varieties.
Biennial plants are used. In autumn, the most powerful bushes are marked, from which a bountiful harvest was obtained. The next year, they are transplanted together with a lump of earth to a separate bed at a distance of 50 cm from each other, all peduncles are removed so that all the energy goes to the formation of a mustache. When the mustache appears, the soil around the mother bushes is constantly kept moist. The most powerful shoots are chosen, the rest are cut out. The mustache with already appeared rosettes of leaves is pinned to the soil for better rooting. To obtain a better planting material, the first rosette from the uterine bush is left on each antenna, the rest are removed.
Until the rosettes are separated from the mother bush, they are constantly watered, loosened the earth, remove weeds and huddle. A mustache with well-rooted rosettes (early-mid July) is cut off from the mother bush, transferring to its own nutrition. After the final formation of the bushes, the seedlings should be planted in a permanent place as early as possible. The deadline is mid-September. If planted later, it will not take root well, it may die from frost. It is necessary to transplant with a lump of earth on the roots. You can plant rosettes in the spring, but in this case the plants will give a minimum of fruit due to the small number of flower buds laid in the fall.
The first rosette from the uterine bush is left on the antennae
Due to the fact that the garden strawberry Asia gives a little mustache, it is usually propagated by dividing the bushes. For this, three-year-old, the largest and most prolific bushes with a large number of horns are chosen. The plants are dug up and divided into separate bushes. Each leaves 2-3 healthy white roots and the same number of young leaves. The roots of each seedling are treated with preparations for growth, straightened, planted in pre-prepared holes, watered abundantly and covered with earth to the hearts. For better survival, you can use small greenhouses with fertile soil and holes 35x35 cm. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place in a month along with a lump of earth. You can propagate strawberries by dividing the bush during the entire growing season. The latest date is September.
Each division should have 2-3 healthy roots and leaves
Despite its resistance to many diseases, Asia has a weak immunity to powdery mildew, chlorosis and anthracosis, in wet weather it is affected by gray rot.
|Name of pests||Affected parts of the plant||Prevention and control measures|
|Spider mite||Damaged leaves turn brown and dry out.|
|Strawberry mite||Damaged leaves turn yellow and wrinkle.||Spraying plants with citrus peel infusion (leave 30 g of peels per liter of boiled water for 4 hours).|
|Strawberry-raspberry weevil||Damages buds.|
|Slugs||They eat out the fruits.|
When using chemicals, you must strictly follow the instructions for their use.
Two days before the start of the berry harvest, watering of the plants is stopped. For better preservation of the harvest, the harvest begins a couple of days before the onset of real maturity and is carried out in hot weather every day, and in damp weather - after 2-3 days. Strawberries are harvested: in the morning - after the dew dries, in the evening - when the heat subsides. The berries are removed together with the stalk - this increases their keeping quality in case of further transportation. When collecting strawberries, it is necessary to discard crumpled, diseased and moldy berries. Once in the general mass, they will spoil the whole party.
The earth generously thanked for the tireless work
The best containers are baskets, plastic containers in which strawberries are placed in one layer. In no case should you go through and wash the berries. Chilled to 0- + 2 aboutStrawberries can be stored in the refrigerator for up to four days. Without refrigeration, it stays fresh for no more than a day. For longer storage, the berries are frozen.
Garden strawberry Asia is a very promising variety, attracting with its early maturity, yield, large size of berries, pleasant taste and aroma. The advantages include ease of harvesting and long-term storage of berries without a refrigerator. Undoubtedly, gardeners will be interested in Italian Asia.
Strawberry Albion was developed by Douglas Shaw and Kirk Larson at UC Davis. This unit is known for its research on garden strawberries and is involved in the breeding of most American cultivars.
Albion was created by crossing the Diamant strawberry and the numbered variety Cal 94.16-1. At the beginning of 2004, the authors filed an application for an invention, and on 04.08.2005 received a patent US20050172374 P1.
The bush is large, the leaves are large, bright green, shiny, slightly wrinkled. Peduncles are powerful, long. Forms a mustache a little. The variety is adapted for mild climates.
Strawberry Asia has large bushes with large shiny leaves
The berries are elongated, bright scarlet, conical. Average weight - 30-35 g. In central Russia, it begins to bear fruit in mid-June, the yield is about 1.5 kg per bush.
In the first wave of fruiting, specimens up to 90 g come across.
The surface of the fruit is shiny (as if varnished), with yellow seeds. The pulp is pink, very sweet, juicy, dense, without voids. It tolerates transportation well, does not wrinkle. Fruit tasting score - 4.5–5 points.
Asian berries - shiny, very sweet and juicy
Strawberries Asia is the result of the work of Italian breeders. Received in 2005 and quickly gained fame and recognition in Europe.
The variety is suitable for industrial cultivation and for individual gardening. It grows and bears fruit well in the open field and in greenhouse conditions.
|High yields.||Poorly tolerates winter without shelter.|
|Good taste.||Needs constant watering.|
|Resistance to diseases of the root system and various spots.||It is damaged by some diseases and pests (the variety is susceptible to chlorosis, especially on poor clay soils, anthracnose, powdery mildew).|
|Good transportability.||For good yields, fertilizing or fertile soil is necessary.|
|Excellent presentation of berries.|
|Over time, the fruits do not shrink.|
I want to share my experience of growing remontant strawberry seedlings. I'll start in order. In February of this year, I planted store-bought seeds. Only seven plants emerged from four bags of different varieties. I was saddened by this result: after all, it was indicated on the packages that this is high-quality planting material. And then I remembered that I have one stash in the bins. Two years ago, I had such a generous harvest of remontant strawberries that I even passed the berries through an electric dryer, then folding them into paper bags.
When I ate these gifts of summer in winter, in bags I found seeds that had fallen off the fruits, which I did not throw out and set them aside just in case. And now, it turns out, she did it for a reason!
I took the risk of sowing these seeds in containers with soil. And what do you think? They all rose and grew rapidly. In May, I planted all the seedlings in open ground. But I didn’t admire the strawberry bed for long: insidious return frosts “concussed” my plantings. And then I sowed the remaining seeds between the frozen bushes right into the ground (again I saved some of them, and again it was not in vain!). And they quickly ascended, but very often. I fed them and, without replanting, left them for the winter.
How will they spend the winter - we'll see. But the main idea is this: in the spring, and so many different seedlings need to be grown, and there is not enough space for it at home, as always. And here it turns out that you can sow your harvested seeds in the spring immediately on the prepared bed, so that you can then calmly plant it in a permanent place. This is how tips for growing plants come unexpectedly.
© Author: Olga Vasilyeva ULYANOVA p. Kichmengsky Gorodok, Vologda Region Samara region
Multiflower cotoneaster belongs to shrubs family Pink. Eastern Siberia is considered its homeland, but it is extremely rare in the wild and is even listed in the Red Book.
The value of the shrub is manifested not in the fruits, but in its decorative qualities. In this article, we'll take a look at how to decorate your garden with this plant.
Did you know? Some people think that cotoneaster and dogwood are names of the same plant. However, they are united only by a consonant name, since these plants are from different families. The fruits of the cotoneaster are absolutely unsuitable for consumption, and the cornel is edible.
Multiflorous cotoneaster - a semi-evergreen shrub with which gardeners love to decorate their plots.
In height, it can reach 3 m, it can be used both in single plantings and in group. The leaves of a shrub are broadly ovate, up to 5 cm long.
They are purple-red in autumn, silvery-gray in spring, and dark green in summer.
The branches of this plant are thin and curved; in youth they have a slight tomentose pubescence. In the thyroid inflorescences are quite large white flowers.
They can reach 1 cm, and their number in each inflorescence can vary from 6 to 20. In autumn, fruits appear, which additionally adorn the multifloral shrub with its bright red color.
The plant also boasts good frost and drought resistance.
At the multiflorous cotoneaster quite a few advantages. One of them is that it can perfectly complement the plant composition without requiring much attention from the gardener. The cotoneaster is a frost-resistant plant, it is not afraid of dampness and drought. It will grow well and feel comfortable on any soil, and the plant blooms mainly in the shade.
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Dust, dirty air and gases are not afraid of him. But with all the above advantages of the plant, there is still one drawback. In order to maintain the shape and attractiveness of the shrub, its branches must be pruned often, otherwise they will grow and the appearance of the plant will deteriorate.
Since the cotoneaster - unpretentious plant, then you can plant it almost anywhere. The shrub is used as a hedge, giving the suburban area a neat and attractive appearance. The only thing you need to know when choosing a planting site is what kind of soil and lighting the shrub prefers.
In open sunny areas, the multiflorous cotoneaster develops best. But if you have chosen a place for a shrub in partial shade, you can safely plant a plant there - this will not affect its decorative qualities in any way.
Almost any soil is suitable, but it will be more comfortable in lime. However, in sandy or loamy soil, the shrub will grow equally well.
Important! The cotoneaster does not tolerate stagnant moisture or prolonged moisture.
Planting a cotoneaster in the garden does not require special skills and everyone can do it. Knowing how to properly prepare a hole, the exact scheme and what time it is best to plant a plant, you will not have any difficulties with planting.
Cotoneaster seedlings with an open root system are planted in the fall, from late September to early November, until the leaves begin to fall and the first frost occurs. And seedlings with a closed root system are best planted from the beginning of spring until the end of August, so that the bushes of the bush will get stronger until winter.
Before planting a multi-flowered cotoneaster, it is necessary to prepare a planting pit. For this plant, the optimal size will be a pit 50 × 50 × 50 cm.
To provide him with the necessary level of water drainage, gravel or broken glass up to 20 cm high must be poured onto the bottom of the pit. Next, we prepare a mixture of soil: for this we mix peat, humus, sand and 250-300 g of lime.
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The landing pattern is pretty simple. When planting, it is worth considering the distance from the bush to any other plant or building: it should be from 0.5 to 2 m.
This will depend on the size of the adult plant's crown. When burying the plant, you need to make sure that the root collar is flush with the surface. After planting, the earth must be tamped, watered.
The soil around the trunk is mulched with a peat layer.
Important! When planting as a hedge, cotoneaster seedlings are best planted in a trench, not in pits.
Caring for the shrub will not take you much time, and in return you will receive an original decoration for your garden. Proper watering, feeding and pruning Is all you need to know when leaving.
The only thing this plant does not like is excess water in the root system. But the rest of the natural phenomena, the shrub will stand with dignity. Therefore, there is no need to water it, since even in a drought it can remain without water for a long time.
But if dry weather is observed throughout the summer, then you need to water the plant once every 14 days. After rain or watering, all weeds should be removed from the area where the shrub grows and the soil should be loosened.
Sow thistle, ragweed, nightshade, purslane, buttercup, mint, chamomile and millet absorb a large amount of nutrients and water, thereby causing significant harm to the cotoneaster.
Cultivation of a multiflorous cotoneaster cannot do without timely feeding. This plant prefers nitrogen fertilization in the first warm spring days.
Prolonged-acting granules are used as nitrogen fertilization. "Kemira Universal" or urea, which must be diluted at the rate of 25 g per bucket of water. Before flowering, one more top dressing is done.
To do this, take 60 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium per m². At the end of the season, the land around the shrub is mulched with peat.
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The multi-flowered cotoneaster responds very well to pruning as it is a plant from which to form all kinds of designs, eg:
Therefore, this plant is very fond of using for decoration in landscape design. Annual shoots are cut by a third of the growth. Curly trimming requires special tools and skills. After the formation of a bush of the desired shape, the shoots will grow back as they were formed.
It is also necessary to cut the plant when there are sick, old, broken branches thickening the bush. Over time, it is necessary to carry out anti-aging pruning, allowing young branches to grow.
This pruning is done in the spring, before the buds open. In landscape design, they also use crown mock-orange, Norway maple, ash, fescue, barberry, yellow acacia, linden, levkoy, tamarix and lumbago.
If a shrub is ill with fusarium, then it is necessary to remove and then burn the affected parts of the plant. It is also worth disinfecting the soil, and with a strong spread of the disease, the planting site must be changed.
To combat the yellow bear, spraying with any organophosphate insecticide is carried out. If a multi-flowered cotoneaster was struck by aphids, then in early spring you need to use the drug "Nitrafen" or "DNOC".
For the defeat of the larvae, such preparations are suitable as:
Did you know? Instead of drugs, you can also use herbal infusions, for example, high larkspur, potato tops, makhorka, yarrow.
To get rid of moths, spraying is carried out in summer period, after flowering cotoneaster. To combat these pests, use "Fozalon", "Gardon", "Rogor", "Karbofos" or "Amyphos".
Green fences have attracted people for centuries. They serve as a fence not only from prying eyes, but also from street dust. With proper care, a living wall will last for several generations of a family.
Deciduous species look most vivid, but in winter you will have to contemplate gray trunks, so evergreens for hedges are ideal.
Vines, shrubs or conifers - the choice is vast, but a number of nuances should be taken into account before planting.
Before choosing which plants you can make a hedge, you should decide on the optimal height of the future green fence.Conifers and deciduous plants have their own height limit, which must be taken into account.
Separated by low curbs, medium and high green walls. Conifers are suitable for any level, but they grow slowly, so they buy mostly expensive adults in containers.
But you can grow them yourself with patience.
Reliable protection against road dust
Thuja is the most common choice among the many hedge options. Of more than a hundred types, only two are suitable for obtaining a decorative fence:
Thuja brabant has a conical shape
The ends of the thuja branches should be cut a little, giving an even shape, but not too carried away, since it grows very slowly. Pruning can be done twice a year - in spring and autumn, but it is better not to touch the tops of young specimens.
Answering the question of how to water an evergreen thuja hedge, it should be noted that it does not like drought, but the roots will begin to rot from waterlogging. It is better to plant in spring, after which water abundantly every other day, then once a week. Watering stops only during the winter period.
Smagard species branches less
Photos of an evergreen hedge confirm that such beauty is worth waiting for 8 years. It is during this period that the fence will become truly impassable. Thuja, like many conifers, releases phytoncides into the air, known for their disinfecting properties.
Such beauty can be expected
If it is preferable to plant the thuja in well-lit places, then the shade is more suitable for the juniper.
Evergreen hedges can only be grown from cone-shaped forms, as the spreading ones are suitable for creating a low curb. It is important to choose male or female specimens for disembarkation.
This is necessary for a uniform look. Women's - wider, men's - narrower. The berries ripen for 2-3 seasons.
Spreading shapes suitable for low curbs
The height in the fence does not exceed 1.5 m, they are planted in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 60 cm from each other. Drought tolerant, but water once a week. Photos of juniper hedge options clearly illustrate a wide variety of crown shades, as well as the shape and length of the needles.
Evergreen hedge shrubs are suitable for creating a dense wall that will be a fence of the site all year round. If deciduous forms can boast of abundant flowering, then evergreen representatives are attracted by the invariability of appearance and decorative foliage. Some plants do bloom, but usually quite plain. And there are exceptions.
Considering the types of shrubs for hedges, one cannot pass by boxwood. It is an ideal plant for creating green fences, but it also has its drawbacks. Attracted by the density of the crown, glossy small leaves, absolute unpretentiousness in terms of lighting, soil and watering. It is easy to grow a fence of the correct geometric shape from it.
Suitable for low curbs
The crown is pruned twice a year - in spring and autumn, but branches that are out of the general view should be removed every six weeks. Cuttings root easily, but boxwood grows extremely slowly. Among the significant disadvantages are:
Dense hedges are often found in southern regions. The plant is planted at a distance of 60 cm from each other. To understand what kind of boxwood hedge is, it is better to refer to the examples in the photo, since this plant looks great both in low curbs and in high fences.
Reaches high sizes
Choosing which shrub to make a hedge, you can pick up not only an evergreen, but also a flowering plant. There are 3 types of kalmia suitable for creating green fences:
This plant is often chosen for a fast growing evergreen hedge. All species prefer partial shade, as direct sunlight burns the leaves. The soil loves fertile, loose, without stagnant water. For better growth and long flowering, it is watered with fertilizers for rhododendrons.
It is difficult to make a fence of the correct shape out of it.
Plantations of shrubs and trees do not necessarily need an additional fence, they create an impassable wall on their own. For climbing plants, the presence of a support is important, which can be a solid brick fence or a lightweight mesh structure.
The easiest way to make a climbing evergreen hedge is to plant ivy. It is easy to find in any forest, so the option is also free. Ornamental species with original color and leaf shape are sold.
All that is needed for successful growth is to plant it next to the support. Ivy climbs easily and grows rather quickly in the first year. This plant is unpretentious in care and soil selection. Watering is moderate, ivy is drought-resistant.
It is not afraid of frost and looks the same at any time of the year.
And in winter, the appearance does not change
In addition to ivy, you can find other evergreen vines for hedges. For example, one of the types of honeysuckle perfectly tolerates winter frosts, which can damage young shoots, but this is not scary for her.
It grows rapidly and reaches 6 m in length. Before growing an evergreen honeysuckle hedge, you should choose a place in partial shade. Unpretentious, drought-resistant. In summer, it will bloom profusely with exquisite flowers.
In autumn, it will attract the decorativeness of carved leaves.
Beautiful during flowering
What kind of evergreen hedge to plant on the site is an individual choice, but all the examples considered are suitable even for a novice gardener. A wall of fresh greenery cannot get bored, but if you want bright colors, you can put a low border of flowering shrubs next to a high fence.
Grafting of horticultural crops is the crown of the gardener's skill, his creations are comparable to the masterpieces of a talented sculptor, but only aesthetic return can be expected from a soulless stone or clay, and man-made living works will gratefully reward the creator with unprecedentedly generous harvests of excellent fruits.
Every gardener dreams of a beautiful garden with an abundance of fruits. Buying ready-made seedlings is expensive, and besides, you can run into deception. It is better to create a variety of varieties with your own hands.
Let's find out what grafting in plants is, how to graft fruit trees in the spring in various ways, what equipment will come in handy in this, and what role the weather plays.
Grafting is a combination of two parts of different plants, as a result of which they grow together and continue to grow already as a single plant. The grafted part of the plant is called the scion, and the plant onto which the graft is grafted is called the stock.
Grafting trees in the spring is the most effective method of propagation. The grafting of such trees is carried out for various reasons, but most often the main goals of this event are considered:
The best time for grafting trees in spring is from March to early June, when there is an active sap flow in the rootstock - a plant onto which a cutting (graft) of another plant will be grafted. The graft, on the other hand, must be at rest during the vaccination (the kidneys must still "sleep") for the fusion to be successful.
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It is recommended to plant stone fruit trees (apricot, cherry, plum) in late March - early April, and pome fruit (pear, apple, quince) in early April - mid June.
Currently, there is quite a lot of literature on fruit growing and home gardening, which describes methods of grafting woody plants. There are also a lot of vaccination methods themselves, but among them the most commonly used in gardening practice can be distinguished.
Vaccination methods can be classified by time (spring or summer), by the type of grafting material (kidney grafting - budding or grafting with a cuttings - copulating), according to the method of cutting (grafting into a split, into a side cut, behind a bark, improved copulation, simple copulation, budding in the butt and in the T-shaped incision).
The success of the procedure depends on the choice of rootstock and scion. A good stock on which a new crop will be grafted must be disease resistant. Pay attention to its location, check the soil fertility. For grafting, it is better to choose low-wind areas of the crown that are well illuminated by the sun.
As for the scion, fruit cuttings are mainly used for grafting, less often - the buds. To ensure survival, opt for proven combinations of varieties. For example, plant new resistant varieties of home apple on a home apple tree. If you already have experience with successful vaccinations, you can experiment and graft a pear on a mountain ash or a plum on an apricot.
The correct scion is harvested at the beginning of winter, but this can be done later. The main thing is that the buds have not yet swollen on the handle, and that it is at rest. It is best to store the prepared cutting in the basement or refrigerator.
For cherries, sweet cherries, plums, and other stone fruits, choose long, thick branches with fewer buds. Cut the cuttings into a couple of buds longer, because the lateral buds are often floral and do not form new shoots.
In order for the do-it-yourself vaccination to be correct, it is required to prepare special tools and devices for it.
In this case, the conduct must be careful so as not to damage important parts of the tree during this process.
Several instruments are usually used for vaccination:
Its peculiarity is a slight offset of the blade, which means that when trimming, the tool has minimal injury to the plant.
A ratchet pruner is suitable for pruning young and old branches.
Additionally, after pruning, it is recommended to use a garden pitch. This remedy will reduce trauma, accelerate the wound healing process. It will protect the tree from death.
Grafting trees is an important process in which all the nuances must be observed. For its implementation, different methods can be used, which may have some peculiarities.
For novice gardeners, they may seem difficult, but if you first consider their rules, then you can do everything competently and correctly.
If the rootstock diameter is too large, a split graft is used. First, the rootstock is cut off at the grafting site so that a smooth surface is obtained. It is recommended to cut a large scion 2 cm above the selected place.
The roughness of the cut means that the cut must be made slightly below the previous cut. Then they take a sharp tool and split the stock, sticking something into the split as a spacer. When installing the scion, the parent layers must be aligned. There is no need for strapping, as the split holds the scion.
The copulation site is lubricated with wax to prevent it from drying out.
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The lower end of the cutting is cut obliquely, in the form of a wedge. The length of the slanting cut is 3-5 cm, depending on the thickness of the cutting.
A longitudinal incision is made in the bark near the cut end of the stock, carefully move it away from the wood and insert the prepared cutting into this cut so that the cut part of it is in close contact with the wood of the stock and is pressed by the bark.
The inoculation is tightly tied on top with polyvinyl chloride film or insulating tape. The upper end of the grafted cuttings, the grafting site and the branch cut are carefully coated with garden varnish. With a large rootstock diameter, 2-3 grafted cuttings can be inserted under the bark.
In this case, one edge should be longer than the other.
If you need to graft an old tree that has a thicker bark, you should make straight cuts instead of oblique ones, and give the handle an even wedge-shaped shape with diagonal cuts 4 cm long.
Then you need to insert it into the incision and wrap it with foil.
It is necessary to prevent the death of a young tree, eaten by mice, damaged by sunburn or stripped during processing with tools.
In case of extensive damage, so many bridges are installed so that the distance from one to the other does not exceed 3 cm.
Accreted bridges connect the separated sections of the trunk or branches bark and provide recharge and water supply to the sections of the tree located above the injury site.
At the ends of the cuttings, beveled sections are made with a knife on one side - in the same way as in the "bark" grafting method.
Before inserting the bridges, the edges of the wound are cleaned, longitudinal cuts are made from above and below, and the ends of the "wood-to-wood" cuttings are inserted into them under the bark. It is important that the stalk is slightly longer and, after insertion into the incisions, spring a little.
The inserted cuttings must be tightly tied at the top and bottom with twine, you can even nail in with thin carnations and cover with soft garden putty.
We know that grafted plants require some care. Agricultural techniques differ depending on the goals and methods of vaccination. But there are rules that must be followed.
First. Timely removal of the harness. A professionally grafted stalk takes root within 1-1.5 months and begins to grow rapidly in length and width. By July, the strapping begins to tighten the grafting site, preventing the branches from growing in thickness. A banner appears. In the future, at the place of the constriction, the branch breaks off.
The harness is removed approximately 2 months after vaccination, when the shoots will grow back. As a rule, both buds grow from the cuttings. A good growth is encouraging, but a large windage is created on the branch, which is the main reason for breaking off the cuttings.
Or the bird can sit down. The safest way is to apply the splint after removing the harness as if it were on a broken arm, i.e. bandage a stick or chips and hold for another season, until the tissues finally grow together.
For poorly growing crops, this technique is necessary (pear, lilac, etc.).
When the constriction is formed, 2-3 longitudinal cuts of the bark are made to the wood with a sharp knife and again tied. After a month, the harness is loosened, but not removed. During the next season, the constriction is leveled due to the work of callus, wound tissue.
If grafting is done with a cuttings on the wild to obtain a seedling, then one shoot is left on the cuttings, the second is removed.
A harmoniously developed tree is grown from one shoot, forming 3-4 skeletal branches of the first order on it. For seedlings for sale, the second shoot is most often not broken out; 2 shoots are grown on the cuttings, i.e.
because "gardeners" love saplings more luxuriant. Only such trees break with age.
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Second. After grafting with a kidney or graft, the wild boar is cut off. From the dormant buds of the stock below the graft, wild growth grows, which greatly thickens the culture. She is a competitor for food and sun. Varietal shoots are oppressed, grow poorly and even die. The shoots must be regularly cut at the very base.
If the growths begin to turn black, signs of a bacterial burn appear, then such a seedling is easier to remove than to treat. The disease is transmitted by cuttings from the mother tree.
The seedling, and then the young tree, will have annual shoots blackening every year. The crown will lose its natural shape, acquire whorliness, growth will slow down, and winter hardiness will decrease.
As gardeners say, it does not grow, does not die.
Currently, there are no eradicating ways to combat this disease, only prophylactic ones: a healthy mother plant, high agricultural technology, growth regulators, trace elements, spraying with fungicides.