Chamomile, or matrix (lat.Matricaria) - a genus of flowering perennials of the Astrovye family, combining about 20 species, among which the most famous is chamomile, widely used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. Representatives of the genus are widespread in Eurasia, South Africa and America, they were also brought to Australia. Plants of other genera of the Asteraceae family, similar to matricaria, are called chamomiles: pyrethrum, umbilicus, daisy, gerbera, aster, doronicum, since in all these plants the inflorescences are a basket.
The scientific name of the genus Matricaria comes from the Latin word translated as "uterus": chamomile is traditionally used to treat gynecological diseases. And the Russian name is borrowed from the Polish language and is derived from the word romana, which translates as “Roman”: in Poland in the 16th century, the matrikaria was called “color novels”.
Read more about growing matricaria below.
Matricaria are low herbaceous perennial plants with pinnately dissected leaves, consisting of a large number of small lobes. Hemispherical baskets with a diameter of 4 to 20 mm are collected in corymbose inflorescences. Each basket consists of yellow tubular bisexual flowers, collected in the center in a disk, and of white pistillate false reed flowers surrounding this disk. The fruit of the matricaria is the achene.
The plant has a mild, but characteristic aroma and is usually pollinated by wasps or bees. Matricaria seeds remain viable for up to three years.
Ornamental varieties of matricaria are best grown in seedlings. In March or April, seeds are laid out at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other in boxes or containers on top of wet, loose, light, but fertile soil, they are buried by 1 cm, sprayed from a spray bottle, covered with film or glass and kept awaiting shoots in a warm and well-lit place, regularly ventilating, removing condensation from the film and spraying the surface of the substrate as necessary.
In the photo: Growing matrix
As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are transferred to a cooler room, otherwise the seedlings may stretch out. At this stage, seedlings also need bright diffused light. At the stage of development in seedlings of two true leaves, the seedlings are dived into a large container with a step of 4 cm or are seated in separate cups.
Before planting chamomile in open ground, it is necessary to carry out hardening procedures. They begin in early or mid-May, in order to transplant seedlings into a flower garden in two weeks. You can place the seedlings on the loggia and open the window every day, letting fresh air into the room and gradually increasing the ventilation time. By mid to late May, the plants should adapt to the living conditions in the garden. When the return frosts pass, warm weather sets in and the soil warms up, you can start transplanting hardened seedlings into the ground.
Matricaria flower prefers well-drained and fertilized soil in an open, sunny location. Chamomile has no special requirements for the composition of the soil: it can grow and multiply by self-seeding on any soil.
Matricaria bushes are planted together with an earthen lump in holes located at a distance of 25-30 cm, so that each plant has the necessary nutritional area. After a time, when the seedlings begin to branch, they will close, and there will be no gaps between the bushes.
After planting, the plants are watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, the area is sprinkled with compost or dry soil. Matricaria transplantation from seeds is easy to tolerate.
Chamomile Matricaria is undemanding to care for and undemanding to growing conditions. Planting and caring for the matrix is within the power of even a novice gardener. You will need to water and feed the plant, loosen the soil around the bushes and weed the weeds. Withered flowers must be removed so that the flower garden looks well-groomed and neat. After flowering, you need to cut off broken, injured and dried shoots with a sharp sterile tool, and if you want the matrix to grow in the garden next season, before the onset of frost, cut off the bushes and cover the area with a layer of peat, leaves or sawdust, and throw spruce branches over the area.
Cultivation of matricaria involves regular watering of the site, especially during hot seasons, but moderation should be observed in moistening the soil, since chamomile tolerates drought more easily than excess moisture in the roots. Watering is carried out with cold water early in the morning or after 16.00, when the sun's rays are no longer so burning.
In the photo: How Matricaria blooms
The first top dressing is applied to the soil in the area with the matrix 2-3 weeks after the seedlings are transplanted into the flower garden. Mineral complexes or organic solutions are used as fertilizers. In the future, fertilizing is applied every 2-3 weeks until the plant completes flowering.
The Matricaria plant is resistant to both pests and diseases, but problems can arise with it. In unfavorable conditions, chamomile is affected by powdery mildew, rust, fusarium and gray rot.
You can destroy fungal infections by two or three times treatment of the matrix with solutions of Oxychom, Fundazol, Topaz, Cuproxat and similar fungicides, but you cannot cope with gray rot, therefore, as soon as you notice a gray fluffy bloom on the plants, immediately destroy the affected plants, and the rest on in any case, treat with a solution of fungicide.
Among harmful insects, star-winged flies, aphids, thrips and wireworms can pose a danger to chamomile. For preventive purposes, weeds should be destroyed in the flower garden as soon as they hatch, but if thrips, aphids or flies nevertheless, a flower garden appeared and occupied, the matrix is treated with Actellik, Karbofos or Agravertin: these insectoacaricides have proven themselves well in the fight against insects and arachnid pests not only in the garden, but also on indoor plants.
Concerning wireworms - the larvae of the click beetle - they live in the ground, damaging the root system of plants. Most often they settle near the potato field. Traps are arranged for wireworms: they dig holes in different places, put pieces of carrots, beets or potatoes in them and cover the bait with a board, plywood or a piece of metal. After 2-3 days, wireworms will gather in the hole, and they can be removed from the trap and destroyed.
If the site is heavily infested with wireworms, then you will have to lay traps for them regularly.
For decorative purposes, the daisy, popovnik, gerbera and other plants of the Astrov family are usually grown, but there are several types of matricaria among the popular garden plants.
Or chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), or peeled chamomile (Chamomilla recutila) - a typical species of the genus, a short plant with a mild characteristic odor, a tap-branched root and hollow inside, highly branched, erect single stems up to 40 cm high. The leaves of chamomile are sessile, alternate, double-pinnately dissected into narrow-linear pointed lobes. Small baskets of tubular yellow and white ligulate flowers are located singly at the ends of the stems. Hamomilla matrix grows in nature on sandy soils, and in gardens it is grown with wildflowers or in areas that are supposed to be dug up in the future.
Photo: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
This is an abundantly flowering beautiful plant native to Asia Minor, forming branchy bushes with a height of 15 to 30 cm. Baskets in this species are formed singly on a long leafless peduncle. In culture, the species is grown in rock gardens or in rocky areas where other plants do not take root.
Photo: Chamomile Chikhachev (Matricaria tchihatchewii)
Or tongueless chamomile, or chamomile green or fragrant chamomile native to North America and the Far East, but now it grows everywhere like a weed. In height, this plant with a characteristic aroma reaches from 10 to 30 cm. Its stems strongly branch in the upper part. The leaves of fragrant chamomile are alternate, sessile, twice pinnately-divided into flat pointed linear lobes. Small inflorescences-baskets, sitting on short pedicels, consist exclusively of tubular greenish-yellow flowers and are formed on short peduncles. This plant is widely used in folk medicine and for cosmetic purposes, in particular for hair dyeing.
In the photo: Chamomile (Matricaria discoidea)
Or excellent matrix (Matricaria eximia), or chrysanthemum parthenium - a European species that, with its carved lobed leaves and smell, really resembles a small chrysanthemum. The plant forms compact, but strongly branching bushes up to 40 cm high, on which numerous baskets up to 2.5 cm in diameter with a yellow center and white ligulate flowers of an oblong-rounded shape bloom. Baskets are collected in dense corymbose inflorescences. Flowering lasts from mid-summer to late autumn. Chamomile maiden has many garden forms and varieties:
In the photo: Chamomile maiden (Matricaria parthenium)
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Compositae (Asteraceae) Plants on M
Planting a lobularia and caring for a plant in the open field is an easy task. It is a vibrant, showy annual plant that is grown as a groundcover. It belongs to the Cruciferous family and is common in the Mediterranean. Lobularia Maritima (Lobularia Maritima) is used as an ornamental plant in temperate climates.
To decorate your garden with attractive flowers, it is not at all necessary to use outlandish and whimsical plants. After all, caring for them requires care and strength, and the result does not always meet expectations. Even simple flowers can be a very beautiful bright spot on a backyard. Matricaria flower belongs to such easy-to-grow crops, we will discuss growing it from seeds, clarify how planting is carried out for a given plant, and what kind of care it needs in the open field.
Matricaria is a representative of the Aster family. This plant came to us from the countries of North Africa and Southern Europe. It belongs to perennial crops, but is usually grown as an annual. Matricaria is a short plant, the length of its stems most often does not exceed thirty centimeters. However, some varieties can grow up to half a meter in height.
Such a garden pet grows like a dense and spherical bush. Simple or double flowers can appear on it. In the first case, they have one row of round delicate petals, while terry inflorescences form an attractive ball, about three centimeters in diameter. The color of flowers can be very different, but most often they grow yellow, white and beige varieties. Matricaria delight flower owners from early summer to late autumn.
Growing matricaria from seeds?
Such a plant can be grown from seed by direct sowing into the ground or through seedlings. The planting material remains viable for three years.
Growing a flower for seedlings should be done in March-April, for this it is worth preparing the boxes, filling them with sufficiently fertile and light soil. The seeds of the matrix should not be buried very much - by about one centimeter. And the interval between individual plants should be two to three centimeters. With more heap sowing of flower seeds, readers of Popular About Health will have to dive the seedlings later. After sowing, you need to spray well the planting.
The box should be sent to a warm and fairly lit place where the plants will receive a sufficient amount of fresh air. It is necessary to carefully monitor soil moisture and irrigate it periodically to prevent drought. But at the same time, it is worth remembering that excessive moisture can greatly harm small plants.
After the first shoots appear, it is advisable to move the boxes to a slightly cooler room so that the seedlings do not stretch too much. But the lighting must remain good.
If you prefer to grow the plant directly in the open field, you can start sowing closer to the beginning to mid-May. At the same time, the first shoots can hatch literally after ten days, and after another three months flowers will appear on the matrix.
The planting of the matrix in open ground is carried out closer to mid-May. Young plants should be moved with an earthen lump and placed at a distance of twenty to thirty-five centimeters.
In order for the flower to please the eye in the open ground and does not need constant supervision, it is worth choosing a suitable place for it in the garden in advance. It is best to place such a flower in a sufficiently bright and open place. Indeed, with strong shading, the bushes, although they will bloom, will stretch out strongly, which will make them not compact and not neat. At the same time, the flowering intensity will decrease.
As for the requirements for the soil, then in this matter the matrix is not very capricious. She does not need to prepare a special soil mixture and can normally exist on the land that is on the site. Moreover, even on rather poor soils, such a plant easily reproduces by self-seeding, due to which the bushes become more powerful and stronger over time.
Most of the matrix grow normally on both arid and moist soil. But at the same time, full drainage is extremely important for them.
It is best to plant a flower in moist soil with excellent water and air permeability. With sufficient soil nutrition, the flower will develop more actively. And to reduce the excess acidity of the earth, it will not be superfluous to dig it up with a small amount of ash.
Features of care for the matrix
The matrix is not very capricious, but, nevertheless, it needs supervision and some care. Caring for a flower does not require frequent watering, but in extreme heat it will not be superfluous to irrigate it periodically. Excessive moisture can harm it.
Shortly before flowering, it is necessary to feed the matrix with mineral fertilizers. It is also important to gently loosen the soil near the bushes so that the roots have access to air. Top dressing will allow you to achieve a longer and more abundant flowering.
Faded and wilted flowers must be systematically removed. So the flower bed will remain really well-groomed and beautiful for a long time. Soon, new shoots will develop in place of the dried buds plucked, and flowers will also appear on them.
After waiting for the end of flowering, it is necessary to carefully examine the plants and remove injured, dried and withered shoots using sharp garden shears.
To prepare the matrix in an open space for winter, it is necessary to mulch the soil near the plants. You should also cover the planting with spruce branches or some other suitable material for shelter.
How to split the erigeron bush photo
It is much easier to propagate the plant by dividing the bush. Choose an overgrown large bush (2-3 years old), dig it up in early spring and divide it into several shares and plant it in the ground immediately. Young shoots with their roots (called heels) also root well. Such rejuvenation should be carried out every 5 years, which also helps to overcome excess vegetation.
The distance between plants should be at least 35 cm so that the roots grow normally and do not impoverish the soil.
Monarda is not very demanding and rarely causes problems when growing. The plant prefers sunny positions (then flowering is more abundant, but monards also grow well in partial shade).
The soil should be fertile, rich in humus, nutrients, moderately moist. As a soil, you can use a peat substrate with the addition of clay (15-30%) and loosening material (0-20%), for example:
Soil pH should be between 5.8 and 6.5.
Monarda obtained from seeds or cuttings should be planted in open ground in autumn or spring at a distance of 50 × 50 cm (even more space should be allocated to the fistous monarda).
Plants can be planted in pots:
3-4 weeks after planting the monarda, it is recommended to cut the shoot above the second pair of leaves, which stimulates the plants to tiller better.
It is preferable to add to the substrate a multicomponent slow-acting fertilizer with an additional iron content in a dose of 1.5-3 kg / m³. In the case of young seedlings, after the formation of the first true leaves, it is recommended to feed them with multicomponent fertilizers in the dose indicated on the package of the preparation. From the end of September, plants should be introduced during the rest period, reduce the amount of watering, and do not feed.
During drought, plants should be well watered. An important treatment is mulching, which limits the evaporation of water from the soil and inhibits the growth of weeds.
These perennials root very shallowly, therefore, during a drought, with insufficient watering, the lower layer of leaves turns yellow and falls off.
In order for the monard to bloom, it does not require the obligatory passage of a period with low temperatures, but the cold during the dormant period has a positive effect on its early and abundant flowering and compact crown. Cooling should last 9-12 weeks at 0-5 ° C.
Monarda is a long day plant, requiring 14 hours of daylight to flower. In March, you can begin to accelerate the onset of flowering, maintaining a temperature of 15-18 ° C during the day and 8-13 ° C at night for 7-10 weeks. Growth retardants can be used once during cultivation.
After flowering, the faded inflorescences should be cut off, then the plant can bloom again in the fall. Regular removal of faded buds will prolong the flowering period.
Frost resistance of monarda depends on the species - as a rule, the plant tolerates the climate of the Middle zone well. However, in any case, it is recommended to add mulch before frost.
Monarda is quite resistant to pests. Unfortunately, she can be threatened by fungal diseases.
The biggest disadvantage of plants is poor resistance to powdery mildew. The symptom is a white bloom visible on the leaves. Monarda especially suffer from powdery mildew when the ambient temperature changes frequently. It is important to constantly observe the leaves and react immediately if the first lesions are found.
To prevent the disease you need:
The following varieties are more resistant to powdery mildew:
If monarda is transplanted every 3-4 years, they will bloom well and will not get sick.
Cultivars susceptible to powdery mildew are pruned shortly above the ground immediately after flowering. This significantly reduces susceptibility to disease and helps maintain a compact shape. Parts of plants contaminated with powdery mildew should not be placed in compost.
Wreckers attacking the monard: