There are many subtropical and tropical fruit plants, which for their beauty, decorativeness, and relative unpretentiousness were introduced into indoor culture. One of the prominent places among them is passionflower. In fact, there are a lot of them in the tropics, about 400; in our country, 9 are grown on the Black Sea coast, and only three are found in the rooms: occasionally brush and carmine, and mostly blue passionflower, synonyms: passion flower or cavalier star (Passiflora cerulea L.).
This is one of our most beautiful indoor vines. It grows very quickly, so it is suitable for creating graceful garlands over windows and doors. Loves space for both stems and roots. Stems are green, faceted, up to 6 m long. Evergreen leaves, alternate, with stipules, very graceful, 5-9-palmate-lobed, bluish-green, up to 10 cm in diameter. The leaf lobes are narrow, lanceolate, whole-edged. Long spiral tendrils grow from the leaf axils, with which the passionflower clings to the support on which the plant forms a solid green mass from the leaves.
In nature, it is shade-tolerant, but in room culture it grows well and blooms only in warm rooms with good lighting. Passionflower blooms on annual shoots, so it is cut short in autumn. In addition, for successful flowering and fruiting, the plant needs mandatory winter rest. And it should be at this time in a bright, cool room, but with a temperature of at least 7-12 ° C, with rare watering. Under unfavorable room conditions, passionflower sometimes overwinters in a leafless state.
In March, the plants are brought into a warm room. In addition, for better flowering in spring and summer, it is also necessary to remove all zero shoots extending from the base of the plant. With a lack of light and heat, passionflower forms a large mass of decorative leaves, but does not bloom. Plants that are not rested or cut off do not bloom either. For better flowering in spring, passionflower is cut into 3-5 eyes, from which shoots develop, bearing flower buds.
Passiflora flowers are axillary, very original, huge, single, in the form of a four-tiered star. Below are five green sepals, then a row of pale or bluish-blue, greenish-blue or yellow petals; five stamens and a pistil with three reddish-brown stigmas fused on the column, at the base of which there is a disc of numerous narrow lilac cilia. The diameter of the flower reaches 10 cm. It is very similar to some old order, for which the plant received one of its names. Unfortunately, each individual flower is short-lived, but the flowering of the whole plant is very long - from May to October. After flowering, the peduncle branches are greatly shortened, and the non-lignified shoots are cut out.
Passionflower fruit - large, the size of a hen's egg, fragrant and tasty yellow or orange berry with seeds inside; falls off when ripe. To grow passionflower, it is necessary to have a trellis or some other support made of wooden slats, bamboo, wire or cord. Passionflower should not be exposed to the open air. Although she loves to grow in well-ventilated rooms, she absolutely cannot stand drafts - she sheds buds and leaves.
Propagated passionflower seeds, layering, grafting stem and root cuttings (in April). Seeds are sown in February - March. The temperature for their germination is 20 ... 24 ° С, while sufficient humidity of the soil and air must be observed. However, in room culture, it is more often propagated by cuttings, in early spring - green, and in June-July - partially lignified. Cuttings are cut with two leaves and planted in a mixture of sand and peat (1: 1) or in clean sand. At a temperature not lower than 20 ° C, rooting takes place in one month. With good care, it can bloom as early as the next year after rooting.
Passionflower requires a mandatory annual transplant, it is carried out in the spring, in late March - early April. Loves rich but light soil mixtures. Usually they are prepared from turf and humus soil with the addition of sand and peat (2: 2: 1: 1), or from turf, heather and deciduous (1: 2: 1).
You can also grow passionflower in a hydroponic culture on a nutrient solution Gericke, or GDR - 2 (for a hydroponic culture of ornamental plants) at a pH of 5.6-5.8. Passionflower in room culture tolerates dustiness and gas pollution of premises well. Loves the sun and abundant watering, but does not tolerate stagnant moisture. And when it dries, the buds fall off. Watering in the summer should be frequent (almost daily) and plentiful, combined with spraying the leaves, and in winter - moderate (spraying is stopped). During the period of active growth, passionflower spends a lot of nutrients, in connection with which it must be fed regularly throughout the growing season, especially with phosphorus fertilizers. The main plant pests are aphids, scale insects and spider mites; control measures are standard.
Passionflower also has medicinal properties. The entire aerial part of the plant serves as a medicinal raw material. It contains about 0.05% alkaloids: harman, harmine and harmol, as well as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, coumarins, quinones, proteins and pectins. Liquid extract from leaves and stems (1: 2) is a sedative for neurasthenia, chronic alcoholism, climacteric disorders. The daily dose is 2-5 g of liquid extract or 20-40 g of a dry plant in the form of a decoction.
As a deciduous ornamental plant, passionflower is unpretentious, and it is not difficult to grow it, and in this form you will get an interesting and beautiful houseplant. But making it bloom, let alone bear fruit, is very difficult. Even in the open field, it bears fruit irregularly, and the yield is usually small. And if it blooms in your room, and even more so if it bears fruit, even if only a few pieces, then this will be a real reward for you for all your efforts and labors.
Vladimir Starostin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Many amazing plants live in the southern hemisphere of the Earth. Some of them are completely unfamiliar to us, but some, thanks to plant hunters and collector scientists, made it to our windowsills. It is especially interesting if these plants are of industrial importance in southern countries, not to mention their extraordinary and mysterious qualities. We occasionally receive scant information about some kind of outlandish fruits such as papaya, pitahaya, etc. Almost everyone has had the experience of eating peach-passionfruit yogurt, but few have ever wondered what kind of mysterious fruit this is - “passionfruit”. Many people think that passionfruit is a kind of peach ...
Passionflower, or passion flower
Once they brought us home a twig of an unknown plant, which was growing wildly with friends. We put it in the water and waited. The mysterious twig stood in the water for almost a month, and ... nothing has changed. Anxiety began to torment us, and when the cuttings began to turn yellow and the leaves began to fall off, we could not stand it and risked planting it in the ground. At the same time, however, a small whitish growth was noticed on the lower tip of the cutting. The stalk stood in the pot for a long time, until the long-awaited sprout appeared on it! Then he began to grow rapidly and show his ability to climb: antennae appeared, and long lashes spread to neighboring plants.
The plant was soon identified as blue-winged passionflower (Passiflora x alato-caerulea), or in Russian - passionflower... Its homeland is tropical forests, and in Brazil, passionflower is known as "yellow granadilla" and is grown on plantations as a vine for the sake of juicy and sweet fruits, which are also called passion fruit.
Actually the word "passionfruit" is the Spanish name for the passionflower family. Passion fruit Is a yellow-orange oval fruit, 6-12 cm in size, which grows on lashes passionflower edible (P. edulis). In indoor conditions, you will not get fruits from it, but flowers - completely.
In our catalog, representing the products of large garden online stores, you can choose passionflower seeds.
It is with flowering that passionflower captivates everyone. All of its young shoots in the spring give birth to buds, which turn into a kind of flowers, for which the plant got its name. It came to the mind of the Spanish missionaries, who first saw the vine in Brazil - in the flower they found a collection of symbols of the instruments of the Passion (suffering) of Christ: five cups and five petals represent devoted disciples (excluding Judas and Peter, who denied Him when Christ was arrested) the leaf symbolizes spear, which pierced the rib of Christ five stamens - five wounds (four wounds from nails on the hands and feet and one from a spear) antennae - ropes crown - crown of thorns cup - halo white means purity, blue - heaven.
The passion flower blooms for just one day. It all starts in the morning, with the first rays of the sun. Gently pink petals that have hatched the day before, framed by white-green bracts, open before our eyes. But the most interesting thing is in the middle!
The most interesting thing is in the middle!
In passionflower, the blue center of the flower is crowned with a variegated blue-violet crown of many pointed needles. Inside the crown, the embryo of the future fetus rises majestically, three pistils straightened in different directions on it. And on the sides are five stamens with bright yellow pollen.
The bloom of the blue-winged passion flower is accompanied by a subtle aroma that is felt immediately upon entering the room. But as soon as the last rays glow on the petals, they begin to gradually close, saying goodbye forever to the sun, air and glory. The next day, the closed bud disappears. And that's all.
But if the passion flower grows on a light window, and it is provided with regular watering, and in the spring and summer time it is also fed, then several buds ripen on the lianas at once - and not the same, but smaller is smaller - that is, by seniority. Then, in the spring, a series of bright and lush flowering begins, when from day to day wondrous flowers bloom one by one, like magic beads.
After flowering, passion flower grows intensively throughout the summer. In principle, if it is not limited and curled on any support (for example, an arc or a small trellis), then it will crawl in all directions, up the neighboring plants. A well-groomed and neatly shaped vine, of course, looks neater and more beautiful during flowering.
It is with flowering that passionflower captivates everyone
In summer time passion flowers blue-winged, blue (P. caerulie), red-white (P. incarnata) and glandular (P. adenopoda) can be taken out into the garden, while others are best left in a well-ventilated area. In winter, the most common and most suitable for indoor culture passion flowers are blue-winged and blue - need some rest. They need coolness at +15. +17 degrees and moderate watering. At the same time, they do not completely shed their leaves, like subtropical species (from. softest (P. mollissima), from. red-white and from. glandular), and do not suffer from dry room air as much as people from the humid tropics, in particular from. three-lane (P. trifasciata). The latter, however, we still advise you to try to grow for the amazing beauty of the tricolor leaves. He needs diffused light, constant uniform moisture of the soil and surrounding air. It grows compactly, which makes it easier to grow in the florarium.
As for the passion flowers of blue-winged and blue, in early spring all their old lashes need to be cut at least 2/3 of the length, young specimens should be transplanted, old ones should be transferred or simply fertilized. At the same time, remember that they do not like spacious pots, or rather love, but they grow fat in them, and then bloom badly. An earthen mixture can be made up of 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of humus and 1 part of sand.
Genus name comes from Latin words passio - "experiencing", "enduring" and flos - "flower". Given by missionaries in South America, who saw in a flower an allegory of the "passion of Christ": the flower itself resembles a crown of thorns, its anthers are wounds, and its stigmas are the nails of a crucifixion.
The genus unites more than 500 species of lianas that grow in America, Asia, Australia and the island of Madagascar.
Lignified evergreen climbing vine. Shoots up to 1–2 m long. The leaves are alternate, finger-dissected. The flowers are very beautiful and bizarre, usually in the shape of a five-lobed star. Between the perianth and stamens there is a special formation - a crown of numerous wavy, brightly colored blue threads. The fruit is a yellowish-orange berry. Flowers appear on young shoots, so annual pruning is necessary.
Heat-loving liana up to 4–4.5 m long with large oval leaves and very fragrant flowers 10–12 cm in diameter. Fruits 12–15 cm long, lemon yellow, with sweet pulp. The plant can withstand temperatures not lower than +5 ° С.
Heat-loving liana 4-7 m long with three-lobed leaves and red fragrant flowers. The fruits are edible, yellow, oval in shape, with a very aromatic orange pulp with a sweet and sour taste. The seeds germinate very slowly.
Heat-loving liana with finger-dissected leaves. Flowers without aroma, about 10 cm in diameter, with an unusual, multi-row, crown. Fruits are elongated-oval in shape, up to 8 cm long. Hibernates at temperatures not lower than +12 ° С.
A powerful vine with laurel-like leaves. Flowers with a diameter of about 10 cm. Fruits are edible, ovoid, about 5 cm in diameter, yellow, with juicy and sweet pulp.
The most cold-resistant species with shoots 6-10 m long, three-lobed leaves and flowers 6-7 cm in diameter. Fruits are ovoid, about 5 cm in diameter, yellow, with a delicate sweet and sour pulp. Grown as a fruit and ornamental plant.
Heat-loving liana with finger-dissected leaves. Flowers without aroma, about 10 cm in diameter, on very long, up to 30-40 cm, pedicels. Edible fruits, oval, up to 8 cm long, yellow in color.
Cold-resistant vine with tripartite leaves and flowers 7–8 cm in diameter. All vegetative parts of the plant are pubescent. Fruits are golden yellow, about 8–12 cm long, with delicate fragrant pulp. It has many varieties.
Heat-loving liana up to 4.5 m long with three-lobed leaves and flowers about 7 cm in diameter. Edible, ovoid fruits, about 5 cm long, yellow or reddish-brown, with aromatic sweet-sour pulp. Industrial fruit crop.
A heat-loving, small but aggressive liana with three-lobed leaves and small flowers about 2.5 cm in diameter.Ripe fruits are orange or purple in color, ovoid, and about 4 cm in diameter.
There are quite a lot of varieties on sale, both the listed species and various hybrids:
Passionflower Anastasia - the petals are bright pink, narrow, the threads of the "crown" are white, red at the base
Passionflower Blue moon - the petals are dark purple, the "crown" is white and purple
Passionflower Byron beauty - the petals are blue, the threads of the "crown" are longer than the petals, blue, at the ends are white, wavy
Passionflower Cary - flowers with narrow pale violet and petals and lighter threads of the "crown"
Passionflower Constance elliot - fragrant flowers, ivory petals, snow-white "crown"
Passionflower Imperatrica Eugenic - variety with very large bluish-pink flowers
Passionflower Ledy margaret - flowers are large, bright red, the threads of the "crown" at the base are white, further - red
Passionflower Red inca - flower petals are bright red, filaments are very long white wavy
Passionflower Victoria - flowers up to 8 cm in diameter pearl-pink with purple-white threads of the "crown" and purple pistil columns
Passionflower White queen - flowers with snow-white, strongly bent petals and a "crown"
Passionflower Cavalier star - medium-sized liana with five-lobed leaves, white flower petals and blue-violet "crown" threads.
For normal growth, passionflower should be placed in a bright, sunny room without drafts. The optimum room temperature in summer is +18. +20 ° С, in winter - should not fall below +12 ° С. In the summer, the plant requires abundant watering and monthly feeding with complex mineral fertilizers. In the fall, it should be prepared for rest: cut the lashes, leaving only shoots 20-30 cm high.
During the rest period, it must be kept at a moderate temperature of at least +5. +6 ° C. In winter, watering is reduced, but the earthen coma should not be allowed to dry out. The soil should always be slightly damp. Young plants must be transplanted annually in spring, and adults - once every three years into a soil mixture consisting of peat, humus and sod land (1: 1: 1). Passiflora love nutritious soil, clean air and frequent spraying.
What to do, if:
passionflower does not bloom - the reason is the high nitrogen content in the soil. Also, you should remember that many passion flowers do not like direct sunlight, but, nevertheless, they need a large amount of diffused light. After all, most of them grow in nature in the lower tier of forests along the edges and banks of rivers and streams.
on passionflowermold and soot - with cold wintering, lack of light and high humidity on the stems of passionflower, on the leaf petioles, on the pedicels and, less often, on the leaves, mold or soot fungi may appear. In such cases, it is necessary to treat the plant with any fungicides such as "Oxyhom", "Copper oxychloride", "Fundazol", move the plant closer to the light and limit watering
on passionflowerslugs- in greenhouses and greenhouses, passion flowers are often affected by slugs. It is very difficult to destroy them, especially if the area is large. Place containers (with a depth of 3-4 cm) and fill them with sweet beer, and in the morning just pour out with dead or drunk slugs
spider mite on passionflower- if you notice that the leaves began to wrinkle, crumble, on the underside of the leaf, not on the top of the shoots and at the base of the young branches, there is a thin cobweb - this is a spider mite. It can be seen with the naked eye. It looks like small moving dots of about 0.5 mm in red or black. Means of struggle - "Fitoverm"
scale insect and mealybug on passionflower - these pests can simply be washed off with soapy water and treated with Fitoverm once
on passionflowernematodes- the microscopic nematode worm penetrates into the tissues of passionflower and, with strong reproduction, completely clogs the vessels. Such a plant withers strongly, even with abundant watering. At the base of the roots and on the main roots, nematodes form nests. It looks like a shapeless white, yellow, or brown bump. It is urgent to remove some of the infected roots, to make sure to cut the passionflower (remove up to 30% of the branches) and to treat the plant with specific preparations against soil nematodes.
Passiflora reproduce mainly vegetatively. Many species develop many outgrowths from dormant buds at the base of the stem or directly from the main roots. Fortified young plants take root on their own and continue to feed and develop on their own. It is rarely propagated by seeds. All passionflower are dioecious plants. Sowing is carried out in the spring, before that the seeds are soaked in warm water for a day. Sow into loose soil mixture to a depth of 2 to 5 mm. Germination is slow, and the older the seeds, the longer you have to wait for germination. Seedlings dive when they have a pair of true leaves.
Substances that release passionflower are biologically active and serve as a source of improvement in the air environment. By creating "clean air", plants help to increase efficiency and overcome stress.
The Incas, Aztecs, Mayans and other ancient peoples inhabiting South and Central America have long been familiar with the beneficial properties of various types of passionflower. In its ability to calm the nervous system, it is stronger than bromine, but does not cause unpleasant consequences. In our country, the herb and extract Passiflora meat-red included in the State Register of Medicines. In addition, aerial parts of the plant and roots are recommended for the treatment of diseases of the nervous (hysteria, convulsions) and respiratory (asthma, pneumonia) systems. Serves as a sedative for neurasthenia, chronic alcoholism, insomnia, climacteric disorders.
Some species have an analgesic, sedative, diuretic, tonic, anthelmintic effect, can increase blood pressure, but all Passiflora preparations are contraindicated in sclerosis and heart disease. In medicine, a liquid extract from leaves and stems (1: 2) is used. The daily dose is 2–5 g of a liquid extract or 20–40 g of a dry plant in the form of a decoction. The whole plant contains a rich set of trace elements. There is especially a lot of nickel in it, which, as you know, activates enzymes involved in hematopoiesis. Large berries of greenish-yellow color and sweet and sour taste are edible, contain a lot of vitamin C.
Currently, passionflower is an integral component of many perfume compositions. Research is constantly being conducted on how best to preserve the natural aroma of lively passion flower, which you can feel in the exquisite and unique fragrances of Eau d'Amazoni, Boss Woman, Chanel Allure and others.
Passionflower is one of the most suitable plants for people with a subtle, sensitive soul. The healing energy of this plant is able to heal heart wounds from past grievances and helps to find true love. Several passionflower plants, placed side by side, are able to create a romantic mood around them. During the flowering of passion flower, do not forget to invite your chosen one for a cup of coffee and be sure to sit next to her - the energy of the flower will help to fulfill your desires. The energy of passionflower is characterized by wind-like vibrations. The force of rotation of the vibrations gives an impulse to vitality for people, animals and other plants, therefore such plants are quickly depleted and need regular rest.
The fruits of these plants with aromatic and juicy pulp are also of great value. The shell of the fruit in some species is thin, dryish, in others it is thicker, spongy. The pulp is usually very aromatic, sweet and sour. Inside the fruit are numerous seeds surrounded by juicy aryllus. In many tropical and subtropical countries, passionflower is bred as a fruit crop.
Most widespread and cultivated on an industrial scale Passionflower edible (Passiflora edulis), or passion fruit, - this is how the original inhabitants of the tropical forests of South America and, above all, the Amazon valley, called it. Passion fruit reaches a length of 8-10 cm. This passionflower is quite unpretentious, begins to bear fruit in the first or second year after sowing and, in good conditions, can give two harvests a year.
The orange-red fruits are considered the most delicious. Passiflora ligular (Passiflora ligularis). In Passiflora tetrahedral, better known as "giant granadilla" or "granadil", the fruits are similar in shape and size (up to 30 cm in diameter) to small melons. Their weight reaches 2-3 kg. Fruits are eaten fresh, juices, soft drinks, sauces are prepared from them. Here are some easy, delicious recipes.
Creme brulee with passionfruit and papaya... Cooking time: 10-15 min + cooling.
Ingredients: for 8 servings - 1 kg of ready-made custard 2 x 250 g pack of mascapone cheese 3-4 passion fruit 1 large papaya fruit, peeled and seeds 8 tbsp. l. Sahara.
1. Mix the cream with mascapone. Add passionfruit juice and pulp, removing seeds.
2. Slice the papaya and place in the bottom of eight ceramic tins. Put the cream mixture on top and refrigerate.
3. Sprinkle each mold with 1 tbsp. l. sugar and place under a very hot grill. Cook until sugar is melted and crusty. Let cool slightly and serve.
Tropical fruit salad... Cooking time: 40 min. Calorie content: in 1 portion - 240 kcal.
Ingredients: 6 servings - 85 g sugar 2 papayas 2 mangoes 2 passion fruit 4 pitted mandarins or small, easily peeled oranges 150 g pitted green grapes 150 g pitted red grapes 300 ml sweet white wine 1/2 lemon.
1. Melt sugar with 125 ml water over medium heat. Bring the syrup to a boil and simmer for 2 minutes. Transfer to a large bowl and cool.
2. Peel the papaya, cut in half and clean out the seeds. Cut each half into wedges across and place in syrup.
3. Cut the mango in half, stick a knife into the bone and pull it out, cut each half with a net, not reaching the peel. Now if you run a knife between the peel and the pulp, you get a lot of cubes. Put them in syrup.
4. Peel the tangerines and halve them. Cut the halves crosswise and, together with the grapes, put in the syrup with the rest of the fruit.
5. Pour wine and stir salad gently. Squeeze out some lemon juice, cover the bowl with plastic wrap and refrigerate for 3 hours.
6. Before serving, cut off the ends of the passionfruit and spoon the seeds into the salad with a spoon.
Under natural conditions, many species of passionflower grow in mountain forests. The most stubborn "climbers" climb up to 2000 m above sea level, where there is a sharp change in daily temperatures. Such conditions formed the endurance of plants: despite their heat-loving nature, the underground part of plants of some species is able to withstand frost down to –16 ° С. Passionflower blue, Passionflower banana and some other species found wild in the high Andes mountains are also resistant to low temperatures. These lianas are grown in the gardens of the central regions of Europe, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and in the Crimea, where they winter safely with light shelter.
On the cast iron fence of Mikhailovsky Park, near the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood, there is a bizarre overseas flower with a strange name passionflower. He is one of the few whose name is associated with the Christian religion. Botanists-taxonomists liked to name new plants in honor of the gods of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. The Latin name of this botanical genus is composed of passio, which means "suffering" or in Slavic "passion", and flos - "flower" hence the Russian name - passion flower.
In Russia, among flower growers, he was known as the "cavalier's star" (there was a similarity with the order), and in Japan, passionflower is called a "plant-clock". The Spanish naturalist and physician Nicola Monardes, contrary to popular beliefs, has never been to the New World - this American continent, full of secrets, almost unexplored in his time. However, he was an inquisitive person and, collecting the impressions of his compatriots who had visited there, in 1568, on their basis, he described many unusual overseas plants. It is this year that can be considered the date of the first European acquaintance with an amazing flower - passionflower, noted in the literature. We clarify: with the plant itself, but not with its modern name, which appeared somewhat later.
The “godfather” of the flower is considered the Jesuit monk Giovanni Batista Ferrari, who lived in the first half of the 17th century. “The three bracts,” Ferrari argued, “symbolize the Trinity, the trinity of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Ten petals are ten apostles. " Why ten, if, according to Holy Scripture, there were twelve apostles? “The Apostle Peter denied Christ and therefore was absent from his crucifixion, and Judas betrayed the Savior,” explains the “godfather” of passionflower. The fringed circle around the pistil, the so-called crown, is nothing more than the crown of thorns of Jesus (according to another version - the whips with which the Roman legionaries tortured Christ). Five stamens symbolize wounds on the body, and three stigmas are nails driven into a cross. Perhaps the monks-missionaries who preached the Christian religion in tropical America were very useful such a living "visual aid." The Russian name - passion flower - is a very elegant and accurate translation of Jesuit Latin. In 1737, in his classic work "Genera plantarum" ("The Genera of Plants"), Karl Linnaeus "legalized" the common name of this vine, elevating it to the rank of the name of the genus Passiflora, which, according to the latest data, has about 500 species.
Passion fruit is a delicious and aromatic fruit. The sweet and sour pulp tastes like a combination of several of the more famous fruits and berries: peach, gooseberry and strawberry in one fruit. It is better to eat it immediately after cutting the thick rind, with a spoon, so that the juice does not have time to flow out. Eaten raw and added to some baked goods and desserts.
Passion fruit contains many essential vitamins and minerals:
But you should not abuse the exotic fruit, it can lead to allergies, and also act as a sleeping pill.
Passionflower is a plant of extraordinary beauty that requires careful care. Under favorable conditions it blooms very abundantly and beautifully, giving it its wonderful aroma. Many of its varieties produce delicious fruits, and the aerial parts are widely used in many areas besides cooking. Growing passionflower is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. One has only to want.
Botany distinguishes several types of this plant. Most of them are climbing vines, the rest are herbs. You can often hear about granadilla and passion fruit - these are delicious fruits of a few types of passion flower. During the flowering period (usually July), the passion flower is very fragrant, but it withers quickly. Inflorescences appear from July to October.
Passionflower is edible (its other names are passionfruit or crimson granadilla) native to Brazilian forests. It is a perennial herb, reaching a length of 10 m and having bare shoots. Distinctive features:
The plant begins to bear fruit in the second year after planting.
Blue passionflower arrived from the countries of South America. When cultivated, the passion flower height can exceed 8 meters. Flowering begins in spring and, due to its frost resistance, continues until late autumn.The name indicates the color of the flowers, sometimes white inflorescences are found.
There are also large purple flowers of hybrids, the diameter of which is more than 12 cm. The fruits are usually greenish-yellow and ovoid.
Banana passion flower has large, very beautiful flowers of bright pink tones. Their diameter is no more than 11-12 cm, the fruits are yellow in color with delicate sweet pulp. The stems of the plant have:
Banana passionflower can withstand temperature fluctuations down to -5 o C.
Laurel has leaves in the form of an oval with pointed ends, similar to laurel. Its fruits are edible, but mainly used for the manufacture of medicinal juices, decoctions and preparations, as:
But this species is very dependent on temperature conditions, therefore, it requires constant monitoring and control of the temperature in which the seeds germinate. Maintenance and care at home are possible.
The meat-red liana is also called apricot. It can grow in height up to 6 meters, flowers are of medium size, about 7-8 cm, fruits with a sour taste, color from yellow to orange.
Like its relative, Laurel Passionflower, is widely used in the preparation of medicinal infusions that help in the fight against neurosis and burns.
The tetrahedral passionflower is the largest plant species. Its length can be more than 19 m in length, and flowers with a 15-cm diameter are not inferior to it. Big fruits:
This passion flower is suitable for cultivation in greenhouses, and it is very difficult to get fruits at home. This size has its consequences - the vine will have to be watered constantly and a lot, fertilizers containing nitrogen or potassium must be applied.
One of the few annual passionflower is graceful. It is so called for its elegant look. Success in growing a plant depends on access to light, this species is photophilous and it is better not to plant it in the shade.
In terms of taste, they are much inferior to others: dry inside and very hard.
The last species worthy of attention is the three-lane passionflower. Unlike everyone else, its flowers are not at all striking, they are pale and small, so it can be difficult to find them on the stem. The flowering period begins in May and lasts until November. The color of the leaves is deep green or light green, and the main part of them is painted in a bright multi-colored pattern.
All leaves can have their own color, even if they are from the same plant. These shades depend on the care of the passion flower and access to the sun's rays. But this does not mean that you need to leave it in the sun: no more than three hours a day. Like laurel, the air temperature is very important to it, at 10 ° C the plant dies. Every year it needs to be fertilized, carefully monitor watering so that the leaves grow beautiful and large.
Long stems of vines grow quickly, so they need support. Shoots should be regularly directed towards the support. Without it, under the weight of leaves and flowers, the shoots will break.
Home care for passionflower involves pruning. It is held every year, which stimulates intensive growth and branching of the vine. The first time pruning of shoots is carried out when the plant reaches three years of age.
Passion flower is often grown at home: this is due to the fact that passionflower blooms continuously from early spring to early autumn, and certain species in indoor conditions can give bright fruits with fragrant pulp.
In addition, an adult passionflower is not as difficult to care for as other exotic species from the rainforest. Before you decide to grow passionflower at home from seeds, you need to be patient.
In order for sprouts to appear "from seeds", it is worth taking care of good planting material. Collecting seeds from the fruits of their own adult plant, take into account their peculiarity: the germination rate of freshly harvested seeds is about 30%, and last year's - only 2-3%.
They are sown at the end of February or in the first month of spring. To begin with, the seeds should be scarified: gently damage the hard shell. You can do this with any hard object, but it is better to use a piece of tough rind. In order for the cultivation of homemade passionflower from seeds to be effective and give the expected result, the planting material is soaked for two days in water with a temperature of + 25˚С.
It is better not to use tap liquid, because in the general water supply it can be disinfected. Distilled water of the correct temperature will do, in which the seeds are placed.
After the end of the soaking time, those seeds that remained floating on the surface are thrown away: they will not sprout. The swollen seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil, pressing them a little. The optimal substrate is a flower soil mixture, which must be kept moist at all times. To achieve this, the container with the inoculation is covered with a transparent film or glass. In this case, the air temperature for seeds should be from +21 to +25 ˚С.
To grow passionflower seedlings from seeds at home, good lighting is required: it should be bright, but at the same time diffused. Seedlings can appear in a time range from one month to a year. When the first shoots become visible, the glass or film is carefully removed. Fragile plants need eleven hour daylight hours, the absence of which is compensated for by additional lighting.
After the first young leaves appear on the sprouts, the seedlings dive carefully, making sure that the earth remains on the roots. Exotic seedlings should not be planted too deep in the ground: the roots should be near the surface.
There is no quick way of how to grow beautiful passionflower from seeds - it is a long and laborious process. You need to be prepared for such a seedling to bloom not earlier than in 7-8 years.