Due to their unpretentious care, peas are grown almost everywhere in Russia. The grains are not only tasty, but also very useful, therefore, almost on any personal plot there is at least a small garden bed. There are several varieties of culture that differ markedly from each other. You need to familiarize yourself with their description in advance in order to choose the variety or hybrid that will perform best in the given climatic and weather conditions.
Peas are an extremely unpretentious plant and one of the most cold-resistant horticultural crops. Such features make it possible to grow it in most of the territory of Russia, with the exception of areas with arctic and subarctic climates. Nevertheless, when choosing a variety for a specific region, it is advisable to give preference to zoned varieties and hybrids adapted to the peculiarities and whims of the local weather.
Pea varieties for a specific area must be chosen taking into account the local climate
The climate of Siberia, the Far East and the Urals is not very suitable for gardening. However, peas successfully take root in these territories as well. As a rule, low-growing varieties of an early or medium-early ripening period are chosen for cultivation in personal plots. They are distinguished by a very good yield, peas are perfect for fresh consumption, preparation of all kinds of culinary dishes and preservation.
Gardeners of the European part of Russia have been familiar with the plant for a very long time and well. Before the appearance of potatoes, it was peas that were the main agricultural crop here. For themselves, they choose varieties, focusing on the size of the peas, their taste, and yield. The appearance of plants for them does not really matter. However, it is important to have immunity to diseases typical of the culture.
The correct choice of variety is a guarantee of a bountiful harvest of peas in the future.
In Ukraine and Belarus, peas are widely grown not only on personal household plots, but also on an industrial scale. The most popular are modern varieties and hybrids with good yields. They also have other advantages - a high protein content, suitability for mechanized harvesting, and the presence of a large number of antennae that prevent lodging. Preference is given to hulled peas, which are suitable for processing into cereals.
Pea cultivars grown by gardeners in their backyard plots can be divided into three varieties.
In shelling peas, only grains are eaten. The pods themselves are inedible due to the tough parchment layer on the inside. The same variety is used to prepare dried peas, which are then sold in stores.
French variety, one of the smallest (the height of the bush does not exceed 40–45 cm). Does not require support. Belongs to the category of early ripening, the harvest ripens in 55-60 days after germination. The grains are characterized by a high protein content (over 25%), which means greater nutritional value.
Peas of the Petite Provencal variety, due to their high protein content, may well replace meat for vegetarians
The pods are deep green, pointed, reaching a length of 8 cm. The peas are small, very juicy. Fruiting is amicable.
A variety from the late ripening category, which is easy to recognize by the almost complete absence of leaves. They have transformed into a mustache, woven into a dense mesh that supports the bush. Therefore, he does not need support. Plant height is about 50–55 cm. The undoubted advantage is the innate immunity to powdery mildew.
Afill's peas still have leaves, but there are very few of them.
The pods are deep green, slightly flattened. Each has 6-9 peas, very juicy and sweetish in taste. The crop must be harvested regularly - this stimulates the formation of new ovaries, thereby prolonging the fruiting period.
A variety from Holland. In Russia, it is recognized as the most suitable for cultivation in the North Caucasus and Western Siberia. In terms of ripening, it belongs to the mid-season, the yield is massive. The seeds reach full maturity in 46-60 days. The variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting.
Abador peas are valued for the mass fruiting
Slightly curved pods, rich green color. The average length is 8–10 cm, the diameter is about 1 cm. The peas are rather small, lettuce-colored, sometimes with slightly wrinkled skin. The taste is excellent.
Suitable for cultivation throughout the European part of Russia, as well as in the Urals and Eastern Siberia. Bred in Crimea almost 30 years ago. The ripening period is mid-season. The harvest ripens in 68-73 days after mass germination. The height of the stem is 70–80 cm, there are few leaves, in contrast to the antennae. The variety demonstrates good resistance to powdery mildew and ascochitosis, but is not completely immune from infection.
Peas Adagumsky for almost 30 years of cultivation has proved that it has much more advantages than disadvantages.
The pods are almost straight, with a pointed tip, bright green in color. The length does not exceed 7 cm. Each has 6-9 lime-colored peas. The taste is excellent both fresh and canned.
One of the recent achievements of Russian breeders. Recommended for cultivation in the Central region. The crop ripens en masse, 56–57 days after germination. The stem height is no more than 60–70 cm. The variety is immune to ascochitosis and fusarium wilt. Seedlings can withstand temperatures as low as -6 ° C.
Even young shoots of Gloriosa peas show very high frost resistance.
The pods are light green in color, with a more or less pronounced bend and a pointed tip, resembling a saber in shape. The average length is 7–8 cm, each with 7–9 grains. The peas are small, greenish, slightly wrinkled. The yield is very good - 0.9–1.3 kg / m².
The variety is originally from Germany, in terms of ripening it belongs to the middle late. It is valued for its productivity, it tolerates drought very well, ripe pods do not crumble. Of the diseases, ascochitis and root rot are the most dangerous for him. Suitable for mechanized harvesting. Demanding on lighting, proper watering is necessary.
To achieve the highest possible yield, Madonna's peas need regular watering and enough sunlight.
The stem height varies from 53 to 95 cm. The beans are slightly curved, the top is blunt. Each contains 6–7 peas. The protein content is high - 22.5-23.7%.
A very popular mid-late variety. The crop ripens in 68–85 days. The stem height reaches 1 m. It is valued for its ability to endure heat and drought without much damage to itself, high immunity. Not prone to lodging. Can become infected with root rot and ascochitis.
Peas Pharaoh does not pay much attention to the heat and prolonged drought
There are practically no leaves. Flowers, which is not typical for peas, are collected in inflorescences of three. Pods are slightly curved, bright green, 8-9 cm long. Each has 6-8 rounded or slightly flattened peas.
A variety recommended for cultivation in the Volga and Stavropol regions. The peas are medium late, ready to eat in 74–88 days. The variety tolerates drought well, practically does not crumble, ripening. The stem height varies from 45 to 88 cm. The weak point of this pea is fungal diseases. The most dangerous are ascochitis and root rot, somewhat less often it suffers from powdery mildew, rust and anthracnose.
A significant disadvantage of Fokor peas is susceptibility to infection with pathogenic fungi
The pods are slightly curved, with a blunt apex. Each contains 4-10 peas, shaped like an egg. They are painted in an unusual yellowish color with a pinkish undertone. The skin is smooth, matte.
A very widespread variety of Dutch selection in Europe. In Russia, it is best suited for growing in the North Caucasus. Belongs to the category of early. The harvest ripens in just 45–55 days, massively. The variety does not suffer from fusarium wilt and mosaic virus. Resistant to lodging. It tolerates heat well.
Prelado is one of the most widespread pea varieties in Europe.
The pods are almost straight, short (6–7 cm), flattened, dark green in color. Each contains seven rather small peas. The taste qualities of both fresh and canned peas deserve only rave reviews.
The new variety comes from Denmark. In Europe, it is already considered the best production. Ripens in 65–81 days. Recommended in Russia for cultivation in the Central Region. Stem height - 46–86 cm. Leaves are practically absent. The cultivar shows excellent resistance to lodging and shedding. Of the diseases, it is most often affected by ascochitis. Drought does not tolerate too well.
Pea Jackpot is widely grown commercially
The pods are straight or nearly straight, the tip is blunt. The peas are almost regular spherical, yellowish on the cut. The protein content is very high - over 27%.
The variety is almost leafless, appreciated for its high yield. Recommended for growing in central Russia and the Black Sea region. Ripens in 68–96 days. The stem height varies from 60 to 95 cm. This variety can be sown earlier than others; returnable spring frosts do not harm the seedlings. Peas are relatively rarely affected by gray rot and ascochitis, but for some reason the pea weevil has a special love for it. It tolerates drought somewhat worse than other varieties.
Rocket peas are not harmed by returnable spring frosts
Pods with an almost imperceptible bend, blunt apex. Peas of irregular rounded-angular shape. The protein content is relatively low - 20.9-22.1%.
Variety of German selection, recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea region. Peas ripen in 70–90 days. Valued for lodging resistance, suitable for early planting and mechanized harvesting. The height of the stem is 55–90 cm. There are very few leaves. Of the diseases, the most dangerous are rust, ascochitis and powdery mildew, and of the pests - the pea weevil.
The greatest harm to the Belmondo variety can be caused by a pea weevil.
Pods up to 10 cm long, almost round when cut. Each contains 7-8 large oval-shaped peas.
Suitable for growing throughout Russia. The variety is early, the harvest ripens in 46-53 days. Plant height does not exceed 50–55 cm. This pea shows good resistance to fusarium and ascochitosis.
Alpha peas rarely suffer from fusarium and ascochitis.
The curvature of the pod is more or less pronounced, the apex is pointed. The average length is 7–9 cm, the diameter is 1.2–1.4 cm. Each has 5–9 peas. Grains in the form of a cube with rounded edges, greenish-yellow. In terms of calorie content, these peas are 1.5–2 times higher than other varieties.
This group of varieties owes its name to the wrinkled peel of the peas. Compared to other varieties, cereal peas have a lower starch content. Thanks to this, the palatability improves, the sweetness is felt more strongly. Peas acquire characteristic folding towards the end of the growing season or during heat treatment. It is the cereal peas that are used for canning on an industrial scale.
A time-tested variety, it has been listed in the State Register for over 60 years. It is advised to cultivate it in central Russia and in Western Siberia. Variety from the early category. Grains reach their technical maturity in 60–64 days, and complete in 68–75 days. The stem height is about 70 cm. Of the diseases for the variety, powdery mildew and ascochitis are the most dangerous.
Early 301 peas have been tested by several generations of gardeners and are still popular.
The pods are straight or slightly curved, with a blunt top, deep green in color. The average length is 6–8 cm, the diameter is 1.2–1.4 cm. Each has 5–7 peas, similar to a cube with rounded edges. The harvest ripens in large quantities.
Recommended for growing in central Russia and the Black Sea region. The variety is very early, the harvest ripens massively, in 42-54 days. The stem is 70–90 cm high. The use of supports is desirable. The most dangerous for this pea is Fusarium; it resists ascochitosis and white rot somewhat better.
Voronezh green peas can be seriously affected by fusarium
Beans with a slight curvature and a pointed tip, bright green. The peas are round, yellowish, with a white rib. The yield is not bad - 0.9–1.3 kg / m².
A variety from Germany. In Russia, it is recognized as suitable for cultivation in the North-West region. The crop ripens in 53–70 days. The stem height is about 95 cm. The cultivar is immune to fusarium but is susceptible to powdery mildew and mosaic virus infections. Of the pests, the most dangerous is the pea moth.
The pea moth has a special love for the Dinga variety.
The curvature of the pod is almost imperceptible, the tip is pointed. Average length - 11 cm, diameter - 1.2-1.3 cm. Each has 9-10 matte green peas.
The variety is advised to be cultivated in the Black Sea region and in the North-West region. It belongs to the early maturing category. The harvest ripens together, on average in 55-60 days, mechanized harvesting is possible. The variety has good immunity against diseases typical of the culture.
Peas Premium are suitable for mechanized harvesting, which makes the variety interesting for professional farmers
Pods with a noticeable bend, dark green, blunt top. Average length - 8 cm, diameter - 1.35 cm. Each has 9 peas. Average yield - 0.3-0.6 kg / m².
The variety is recognized as suitable for cultivation in the Black Sea region. Belongs to the category of early, peas reach technical ripeness in 44–48 days. The stem height does not exceed 45–50 cm. The cultivar is well resistant to root rot, ascochitosis, and fusarium. Of the pests, the most dangerous are the pea moth and tuberous weevil.
Peas Tropar have good immunity against most common diseases in the culture.
The pods are almost straight, with a blunt apex, 6-7 cm long. Each has 6-7 pale green peas of irregular rounded-angular shape. Average yield - 0.2-0.6 kg / m².
The variety is late ripening, tolerates frosts well (even for peas). This applies to both seedlings and adult plants. Differs in good drought resistance. It is appreciated for its high immunity.
Belladonna 136 peas are easy to identify thanks to the unusual coloration of the pods.
Pods up to 10 cm long, with a slight bend, inky purple. Each has 7-9 peas of an unusual bluish-green color. The taste is excellent, sweetish.
It differs from other varieties in that you can eat not only the grains themselves, but also the pods. They are devoid of a tough parchment layer. Peas taste, as the name suggests, sweetish.
Also found under the name The Miracle of Calvedon. A very common variety, one of the most popular varieties of sugar peas. It is valued for its high frost resistance even against the background of other varieties. In terms of ripening, it is considered medium early, the harvest can be removed 60–65 days after germination. The pods are 8–9 cm long, with a slight bend, each with 6–9 rather large peas. The yield is very good - 1.2–1.5 kg / m².
Peas Kelvedon Miracle - a very popular sugar variety
The bush is 50–70 cm high. It grows very interestingly, as if it clings to itself with its antennae. Does not need support.It practically does not suffer from diseases, demonstrating good resistance to ascochitosis and all types of rot.
Czech variety popular in Russia, one of the earliest. Recommended for disembarkation in the Black Sea region. Ripens in just 42–45 days. Stem no more than 0.5 m high. The variety is resistant to fusarium, mechanized harvesting is possible. Fruiting is amicable.
Oscar is a Czech pea variety that performs very well in Russia
The pods are strongly curved, the apex is pointed. The average length is 9 cm. The parchment layer is present, but very weakly expressed. The peas are bright green, each pod contains 10–12 of them.
Also sometimes referred to as Oregon Suga. The variety is mid-season, the fruiting period is long. The height of the stem is 1–1.2 m. The presence of a trellis is desirable.
Oregon Sugar Peas are characterized by a long fruiting period
The pods are slightly curved, almost flat, light green in color, the top is blunt. The average length is 9–10 cm. Each has 5–7 large peas. The yield is very good - 1.55 kg / m².
Russian is a relatively new variety. In terms of ripening - medium early or medium. It depends on the weather in summer. The harvest ripens in 53–62 days. Fruiting is massive. Stem height - 80 cm or slightly more. The variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting.
The ripening period of peas Sweet friend depends on how the summer is in terms of the weather
The pods are almost straight, elongated (9–10 cm) and wide, with a pointed tip. Each contains 7–8 peas with smooth skin. Its color and color on the cut are practically the same.
It is listed in the State Register for three years. Belongs to the mid-early category. The stem is about 95 cm high. Trellis is desirable. The flowers are unusually large.
Sweet peas for children - one of the recent achievements of breeders
The pods are slightly curved, long and wide, lettuce green. The peas are medium-sized, leveled. The yield is very good - 1–1.5 kg / m².
The variety is from the early ripening category, the harvest ripens in 55-57 days. The stem height is 60–70 cm. The yield is high (0.9–1.3 kg / m²), so the plants need support.
Peas A friendly family needs support - the stem bends and breaks under the weight of the harvest
Slightly curved pods, light green color. The average length is 8–10 cm. Each has 6–10 peas.
There are no restrictions on the growing region. The crop can be harvested 45–56 days after germination. The height of the stem is 50–70 cm. Installation of a trellis may be required. Immunity is generally good, with the exception of fusarium.
Ambrosia peas rarely suffer from fungal diseases, an unpleasant exception is fusarium
The pods are slightly curved, light green in color, the tip is pointed. The average length is 8–10 cm, each with 6–8 grains. The peas are medium-sized, oval in shape. The skin is green, they are yellowish on the cut. The variety has a very positive attitude to the introduction of potash and phosphorus fertilizers - the fruiting period is noticeably extended, the yield increases.
An old variety, tested by more than one generation of gardeners. It reaches its technical maturity in 45-60 days, and full in 70-90 days. The stem height varies from 75 to 115 cm. The flowers are very large, solitary. The harvest ripens in large quantities.
Pea Inexhaustible 195 stands out for its large flowers
The pods are almost straight, lettuce-colored, with a blunt top. Often, constrictions appear, turning them into something similar to a rosary. The average length is 8-10 cm, the diameter is 1.6-1.8 cm. They are noticeably flattened, angular, yellowish-green.
Another pea variety that has been popular for over 70 years. It can be grown everywhere except the Volga region, Eastern Siberia and the Far East. The ripening period of the crop is medium or late. Peas reach technical maturity in 50-60 days, and complete in 90-110 days. The stem is long (1.2–1.8 m), curly. Fruiting is amicable.
Pea Zhegalova 112 is a very common medium late variety in Russia.
The pods are almost straight, xiphoid, light green, very large. The average length is 10-15 cm, the diameter is 2.3-2.5 cm. Each has 5-8 flattened irregular peas.
One of the novelties of breeding. There are no restrictions on the growing region. The crop ripens in 65–70 days. The stem is curly, about 70 cm long. Support is desirable.
Peas Sugar Prince is suitable for growing almost throughout Russia
Pods are slightly curved, 12–14 cm long, with a pointed tip. The peas are rather small, dark green, with slightly wrinkled skin. The yield is very good - 1.2–1.4 kg / m².
On the territory of Russia, this pea can be grown everywhere. The stem is very long, 1.5 m or more. The flowers are large, with a rare red-burgundy hue.
Refined peas are very easy to identify during flowering.
The pods are almost without bend, very long and wide. The parchment layer is present, but weakly expressed. The peas are small. The average yield is 1–1.2 kg / m².
As the name suggests, it is used for livestock feed. Both the pods themselves and the green mass are eaten. These varieties are distinguished by high yields. They can be removed several times per season. With early mowing, the greens grow back rather quickly.
In Russia, the following varieties are most common:
Chickpeas are also called chickpeas. It is prized by gardeners for its health benefits. Pests practically do not pay attention to it. Its protein content is higher than in regular peas - it varies from 20.1 to 32.4%. Accordingly, these grains are more nutritious. They are also rich in essential amino acids - methionine, tryptophan.
A relatively new variety, it has no restrictions on the growing region. Belongs to mid-season, the harvest ripens in 65-106 days. Best of all manifests itself in Bashkiria. The bush is upright, 25–54 cm high. The variety tolerates drought well, plants do not lodge, mature pods do not crumble. During the trials, disease damage was not noted.
Chickpea Bonus was not affected by diseases during the tests of the variety
The peas are pale yellow, irregularly rounded-angular, slightly ribbed. Protein content - 22.3-25.8%.
Recent achievement of Ukrainian breeders. In Russia, the variety is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus and Crimea. The bush is rather compact, half-stemmed, the height reaches 55-60 cm. The variety has an average ripening period, peas can be harvested after 94-98 days. Possesses innate immunity to fusarium and ascochitosis. It tolerates heat and drought well.
Roseanne chickpea is a compact plant that is not particularly affected by heat and drought.
The pods are large, the peas are yellowish-beige, irregular diamond-shaped. The skin is very wrinkled. The protein content is 28-30%.
Bred in the 50s of the last century, but is still in demand. A variety of medium ripening. The crop can be harvested in 90-100 days. The variety is drought tolerant, the pods do not crack. The height of the bush does not exceed 35–45 cm.
Jubilee chickpea bushes are very compact, undersized
Fresh peas with an unusual pinkish-yellow color, turn beige after drying. The protein content is 25–27%. The yield is very good - 1.5–3 kg / m².
One of the latest innovations in breeding, suitable for cultivation in the Black Sea region. The bush is quite tall (about 63 cm), erect or slightly drooping. The variety is mid-season, the harvest ripens in 95-117 days. It does not tolerate drought as well as other varieties, it is resistant to lodging and cracking. Of the diseases, root rot is the most dangerous.
Chickpea Sphere cannot boast very good drought tolerance.
The peas are dark beige, almost smooth or slightly ribbed. Protein content up to 26%. Fruiting is amicable, the yield is high - more than 3 kg / m².
A new variety suitable for cultivation throughout Russia. The height of an erect bush is 38–62 cm. The average ripening period is 81–116 days. The variety is resistant to lodging, shedding, and tolerates drought well. Most often suffers from root rot.
A significant disadvantage of Sokol chickpea is susceptibility to root rot
The peas are amber-beige, irregular in shape, with weak ribs. The protein content is 24.7%.
Also known as mung beans. These peas are very popular in the cuisine of Southeast Asia, they are loved in India, Pakistan. The grains have a light nutty aroma and a pleasant herbal taste. They do not need to be soaked; cooking takes no more than 40 minutes. The protein content is quite high - about 24%. The peas are small, oval in shape. They are eaten raw, sprouted, and cooked.
Mung bean peas are practically unknown in Russia, but this crop deserves close attention of gardeners.
Starch is extracted from mung bean peas, which is used to make special glass noodles, known in China as fensi, and throughout the rest of the world as funchose.
Peas mung bean - raw material for the preparation of Chinese glass noodles, which in Russia are often sold as rice
For Russia, the culture is still very unusual and exotic, so there are no varieties of domestic selection. Therefore, those who grow mung peas identify it by the color of the grains - black, white, yellow, green.
Shrub pea varieties are appreciated by gardeners for their compactness. They are easier to care for and harvest than climbing varieties. Support is often not required.
An early variety recommended for cultivation in the Volga region, the Black Sea region, in the North Caucasus. The growing season is 48–63 days. The height of the stem is 55–65 cm, there are many antennae. The harvest ripens amicably. Mechanized harvesting is possible. The variety is resistant to lodging. Of the diseases, the most dangerous is ascochitis.
Vera peas often suffer from ascochitis
The pods are straight or slightly curved. The average length is 6-9 cm, the diameter is 1.2-1.4 cm. Each has 6-8 peas. The grains are one-dimensional, angular, lime-colored, the skin is wrinkled. Productivity - 0.3-0.9 kg / m². A versatile variety, but best suited for canning.
Dutch variety, in Russia it is cultivated mainly in the North Caucasus. Early in terms of ripening. From germination to technical maturity, 56–57 days pass. The height of the bush is up to 70 cm. The variety has an innate immunity to Fusarium.
Avola peas are not susceptible to fusarium wilt
The beans are almost straight, with a pronounced parchment layer. Length - about 9 cm. Each has 8 peas. They are one-dimensional, colored dark green.
Another variety from the Netherlands, suitable for cultivation in the North Caucasus. Refers to early and peeling. The harvest ripens in an average of 59 days. The height of the bush is about 70 cm. Worse than other varieties, tolerates cold. Does not suffer from fusarium.
Karina peas cannot boast of high frost resistance
The pods are curved, 7–8 cm long. Each has 6 peas. They are almost the same size, regular shape.
The variety is semi-dwarf, almost leafless, recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea region. The height of the bush is 75–80 cm. It is resistant to drought, does not lie down or crumble. Suitable for mechanized harvesting.
Peas Tsarevich stands out for the unusual color of the grains
The pods are almost straight, yellowish, the apex is blunt. Each contains 5-6 peas with smooth skin, painted in an unusual greenish-pink color. The protein content is high - 22–23%.
A variety of medium ripening. Suitable for growing in the Volga region. Shows good results in the Far East. The crop can be harvested 75 days after germination. Stem height about 65 cm. It is relatively rarely affected by diseases. Resistant to lodging and shedding.
Varis peas have very good immunity
The pods are rather short (5–6 cm) and wide (1.3–1.4 cm). Each contains 4–7 slightly flattened pinkish peas.
Best suited for growing in the North Caucasus. The growing season is 63–72 days. A variety from the peeling category, it is considered mid-season. Stem height - 70–80 cm. Resistant to lodging. It tolerates drought well, does not impose special requirements on the quality of the soil.
Berkut peas yield crops when planted in soil of almost any quality
Slightly curved pods, long and narrow, dark green in color. The peas are bright green, aligned. The protein content is 22.2-23.8%. Productivity - 0.6-0.9 kg / m².
Climbing peas are used not only for harvesting, but also for decorative purposes. If you run it over the trellis, the resulting green walls look very impressive. They can also play the role of a backstage, protecting other cultures from gusts of cold winds.
Also known as Alderman and Toll Telephone. It is considered the best tall variety in the world. The stem length reaches 1.5 m or more. Support is required. The variety is distinguished by the abundance of fruiting, even in a poor substrate. Does not suffer from fusarium.
Alderman peas - a clone of an old English variety
The pods are very large, thick, deep green, each with 10-14 peas. The crop must be harvested every 2-3 days.
Late variety, stem height - 2 m or more. Belongs to the category of late, the harvest ripens in 100-110 days. The fruiting period is extended. Immunity is good, but not absolute.
Pea Telegraph - late tall variety
The pods are about 11 cm long, each containing 10–12 peas. The grains are large and sweet.
The variety is mid-season, peeling. The crop ripens in 75–80 days. The height of the stem is 1.6–1.7 cm. The plants are very vigorous and sturdy. Fruiting is extended, lasts until the first frost.
Peas Miracle Shoulder bears harvest until the first frost
Pods 10–12 cm long. Each has 8–9 large (over 1 cm in diameter) peas.
Peas are a very popular garden culture among Russians. In addition to all the usual beans, there are more exotic varieties that are not inferior to them in taste and health benefits. There are quite a few varieties and hybrids bred by breeders, differing in the appearance of the plant and pods, the protein content in the peas, the yield, and so on.
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The list of leguminous plants consists of several thousand names. Among them there are both well-known and rare (for example, dalbergia, piscidia, robinia). When asked which plants belong to legumes, biologists give the following definition: legumes are all dicotyledonous plants of the order Legumes. Below are photos and names of legumes with a brief description of their features.
Legumes include peas, beans, soybeans, and clover.Among them there are forage grasses, and there are grains, the seeds of which are very nutritious. It is not for nothing that legumes are called vegetable meat: after all, the seeds hidden in a special fruit - a bean - contain a lot of protein and can replace animal meat.
Legumes are also called moths, although, strictly speaking, moths are only one of two subfamilies, the second is mimosa. In moths, the flower really resembles a butterfly or a boat. It has five petals: the upper large one is a flag, two side ones are oars or wings, and two lower ones, fused or stuck together, represent a boat.
Specifically, beans, peas, lentils, and soybeans are the most commonly mentioned beans.
Beans has many varieties and is grown not only for its seeds, but also for its flowers. Ornamental beans are called "Turkish beans".
Peas has a fruit typical of its family - a flat bivalve pod with pea seeds. They are usually round or slightly angular.
Lentils grows in the Mediterranean, Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and Central Asia. It has been very popular since ancient times. Lentil stew is even mentioned in the Bible.
Lupine known to people since ancient times. Its name comes from the Latin word "lupus" - "wolf". It is not for nothing that lupine is called wolf beans, because its seeds contain poisonous bitter substances. But the flowers of lupine are very beautiful, and he himself is extremely useful - the nodule bacteria that live on its roots enrich the soil with nitrogen. Therefore, lupine is an excellent fertilizer.
People have been growing soybeans since ancient times, perfectly understanding its value. Chinese archaeologists have found images of soybeans on stones, bones and turtle shells. And these drawings are from 3000 to 4000 years old. Today soybeans are cultivated all over the world and are highly valued both for their yield and for their high protein and vitamin content. The use of these legumes in cooking is very wide: soy is used to make pasta, sauces, meat and even milk. True, these meat and milk are vegetable, but they can partially replace animal products.
Carob trees are a legume native to the Mediterranean. It has served people for a long time. They used it entirely - they ate the fruits themselves and fed the livestock, made honey and wine from the juice, made notes on the leaves, extracted tannins from the bark, and made furniture and musical instruments from wood.
Pay attention above to the photo of leguminous trees - they are very tall (up to 6-12 m). Life expectancy is 80-100 years. It is amazingly clean - there are no parasites on either the trunk or the branches. Perhaps that is why some peoples considered it sacred. But most likely, the tree was honored for the benefits it brings.
Carob, or leguminous ceratonia, is the only plant in the Mediterranean that blooms in autumn.
In the XX century. from the hard and durable seeds of the leguminous tree, they made glue for the manufacture of parachutes, and the seeds served as the main material in the production of photographic and film films.
The carob tree is so named for the curved shape of its pods.
Carob seeds have an amazing property - they have the same weight - 0.19 g, and even with long-term storage it does not change. The ancient Romans used them as weights for accurate measurements. These seeds were called "karat". This is the origin of the measure that is used today when evaluating precious stones and as an indicator of the purity of gold. True, the modern metric carat is 0.2 g.
Pod Ceratonia grown today. And in the XX century. her beans were used to make parachute glue, materials for the production of photographic and film films. Today, ceratonia is used to make "carob" powder, which replaces cocoa and coffee. The weight of one grain is 0.19 g, which is the so-called "one carat". Liqueurs and compotes are made from ceratonia, a thickener for cooking is gum, and in medicine it is used to create various preparations.
If ripe ceratonia pods are broken, they begin to smell like baker's yeast. In addition, they contain juicy, nutritious pulp. Apparently, that is why ceratonia was nicknamed “John's breadfruit”. According to one of the legends, John the Baptist ate the fruits of the carob tree when he was alone away from people.