There are many varieties of grapes, including those bred specifically for the difficult climatic conditions of Russia. Nevertheless, not all varieties combine such advantages as good winter hardiness, high yield and long shelf life. If you are interested in these qualities, you should pay attention to the late table grapes Moldova, which, with proper care, will give a huge harvest of large and juicy, albeit slightly sour berries.
The grape variety Moldova appeared through the efforts of scientists from the Moldavian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking for quite some time - in 1974. The parents of Moldova are the varieties Guzal Kara and Seiv Villar 12–375. Since 1975, the new variety has been undergoing state tests. In 1986, Moldova grapes were included in the state register and recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus and Lower Volga regions. At the moment, it is widely grown both in Russia and in Ukraine. The variety has an alternative name - Codryanka Pozdnyaya.
Moldova belongs to the late table varieties. From the moment the buds open to the ripening of the crop, 160-165 days pass, so in cold regions the grapes sometimes do not have time to ripen completely. The bushes are characterized by intensive growth. The vines are covered with large, almost not dissected leaves, the lower surface of which is covered with a weak bristly pubescence. Moldova blooms with bisexual flowers, so pollinating varieties are not required.
The grapes are covered with a dense wax coating
The most intense clusters are formed at 5-6 nodes, counting from the base of the vine. Large clusters (on average 400–600 g, up to a maximum of 1 kg) grow on a stem 4–5 cm long and have a cylindrical-conical shape, sometimes with wings. The structure of the brushes is loose. Large (up to 6 g) oval berries are covered with a thick dark purple (sometimes almost black) skin with a dense waxy coating. Inside each berry 2-3 seeds are hidden, occasionally 4 seeds. The pulp has a dense, slightly cartilaginous structure. The taste does not have any peculiarities; it is rather sour at the stage of technical ripeness. The content of ascorbic acid in the juice is quite high (8-9 g / l), while the sugar content is 18-19%. During storage, the acidity gradually decreases, the taste improves.
Moldova grapes have a number of advantages that explain their popularity among gardeners:
Disadvantages of the variety:
To get well-developed bushes, you need to choose the right soil. Grapes do not like excessively moist soil, grows worse and are more often affected by fungal diseases. If your site has groundwater close to the surface, drainage must be provided.
Bushes require good lighting and a lot of warmth, so it is advisable to place them on the south side of the garden. Stagnant cold air and strong winds negatively affect the development of the plant. This must be taken into account when choosing a place and provide the necessary protection to the bush.
Like fruit trees, grapes are planted both in spring and autumn. You can plant at an air temperature of at least +15 aboutС, and soils + 10 ... + 11 aboutFROM.
When planting in autumn, it must be remembered that at least a month must remain before frost, and a young bush must be properly covered for the winter.
Many gardeners prefer to plant grapes in the spring so that the grapes have time to take root by the fall - this will make it easier for them to winter.
Moldova is suitable both for planting on its own roots, and for grafting stock onto an adult bush.
If you want to inoculate, the lower part of the cutting is cut with a wedge a few millimeters from the lower peephole and immersed in water for 24 hours. The old stock is cleaned of dirt and the serrations are leveled, the stalk is grafted into a split and the stem is tightly pulled together with a strip of strong fabric.
When purchasing a ready-made seedling, check its root system. Do not take planting material with dried out or sluggish roots.
The stalk must be placed in water so that it takes root
A sapling (chubuk with roots) can be prepared independently. To do this, the cut stalk is placed in water and waited for white roots to appear. You can plant the cutting in a flower pot with moist nutrient soil for growing roots. Before planting, the cutting can be dipped in a Humate solution - this increases the survival rate of the seedling.
You can prepare excellent seedlings by planting grape cuttings in a container with a nutritious substrate.
Prepared seedlings are planted in pre-prepared pits 60–70 cm deep and 90–100 cm in diameter. The bottom of the pit is loosened with a pitchfork, covered with 2/3 nutritious mixture of humus or other organic matter and upland soil. This layer is sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. The seedling is carefully placed (young roots are very brittle) in a hole and covered with soil. After planting, the plant should be watered with 2-3 buckets of water and the soil surface should be covered with peat. It is advisable to tie the seedling to the peg.
When planting grapes in waterlogged soil, a thick layer of drainage material must be poured onto the bottom of the pit
The distance between adjacent vine bushes should be at least 3.5 - 4 m, row spacing - 5 m.
The Moldova variety is prone to thickening, in which there is a shrinking of berries and a decrease in yield. So in order to obtain high-quality harvests, the bushes must be cut off, and also regularly watered and fed.
Although Moldova does not like waterlogging, it needs watering all the time to keep the soil constantly moist. Therefore, unlike other varieties, which are sufficient to water 2-3 times per season, Moldova needs to be watered at least 1 time per month, and even more often during heat and drought. The frequency of watering is regulated depending on the condition of the soil (when it dries up, the next watering is necessary). To avoid waterlogging, it is advisable to dig drainage ditches to drain excess water.
Organic fertilizers and a standard set of minerals - nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus - are optimal for feeding grapes.
Fertilizers are applied 3-4 times per season, preferably together with watering. In the spring, nitrogen compounds are added, in the summer - potassium and phosphorus. It is recommended to apply organics only in late autumn every 2-3 years. With the spring application of organic substances, the taste of the berries may deteriorate.
The grapes are pruned every year in spring or fall. It is important to carry out the operation during the rest period - before the buds open or after the leaves have fallen off. Pruning starts from the top shoot. On each vine, you need to leave 7-9 eyes, and when forming a high-stem bush 4-6 eyes. In total, no more than 70 buds should remain on the bush. Subsequently, if a lot of bunches are formed, you need to ration the crop in order to avoid overloading the bush. It is advisable to leave 1-2 bunches on each shoot.
For the winter, you need to cut off unripe shoots
In addition to formative pruning, it is necessary to remove dried and too thin shoots, and cut off non-lignified vines in the fall.
The winter hardiness of Moldova is quite good, but if there is more than -23 frost in your region aboutC, then shelter is required for the winter. After the autumn pruning, the vines are tied together, bent to the ground and covered with hay, foil or geotextile.
To save the bushes from freezing, it is advisable to lower them to the ground and cover them with a film on top.
If the bushes do not hide for the winter, it is necessary to mulch the soil within a radius of 1–1.5 m from the trunk with chips or peat before the onset of cold weather. In the spring, the mulch must be removed.
Moldova has good resistance to mildew and other diseases, but can be affected by mildew. This disease greatly impairs the quality of the crop, so it is advisable to carry out preventive treatments with Bordeaux mixture (proportion 1: 100) or other copper preparations. The first treatment is carried out 7-10 days before the beginning of flowering, the second - after the formation of the brushes. Bordeaux liquid is most often used for processing.
Of the pests, only wasps are afraid of grapes, but this does not apply to Moldova - by the time the harvest ripens, wasps practically do not exist.
Usually Moldova grapes ripen in September. The crop is harvested in the morning with a secateurs. It is advisable to put the brushes tightly in boxes. Thanks to the thick skins, the grapes are well stored and transportable.
Grapes can be stored in a cool place for 2-3 months or even longer. It is advisable to hang the bunches on ropes or trellises; you can put a small potato on the cut of the leg to reduce drying.
Part of the harvest can be left on the bush until frost, but it must be borne in mind that such grapes are worse stored.
When taken, Moldova is rather sour, but then, during storage, it gains sweets. Can be used fresh, for making raisins and wine.
Moldova table grapes are perfect for growing in the Russian climate. The variety is very easy to care for and produces excellent yields. You just need to regularly prune the bushes and regularly feed and water them. There is no need to be intimidated by the sour taste of the berries - when stored, they gain sweetness.
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Moldova grapes produce juicy and nutritious berries even when they are not fully ripe. It is thanks to this advantage that this type of plant is known far beyond the boundaries of the breeding region. The appearance of the bunches is exotic; they are used to decorate dishes on the table on any occasion.
variety "Moldova" is considered one of the best table species and is successfully cultivated throughout the country
grapes "Moldova" consistently deserve high tasting marks and pleases with large yields
The word "kishmish" comes from Persia. The literal translation is "dried grapes". The homeland of the variety is Central Asia, and the first mention of Kishmish is found in an old Uzbek fairy tale of the 13th century.
In Kishmish, unlike other types of grapes, the seeds are very small, or there are none at all. Such grapes owe their appearance to natural mutation. Winegrowers, noticing the results of natural "selection", continued their experiments. As a result, many varieties and varieties of Kishmish were obtained - white, pink, dark.