Frerea is a plant genus which contains only one species, Frerea indica, a small succulent native to the Junnar hill forest in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra state in India.

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Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Family life
  • 3 India
    • 3.1 Commissioner in Sindh
    • 3.2 Governor of Bombay
  • 4 Africa
    • 4.1 High Commissioner for Southern Africa
    • 4.2 Attempt to federate Southern Africa
    • 4.3 Resistance from the Cape and the Xhosa
    • 4.4 Outbreak of Zulu and Boer Wars
    • 4.5 Outbreak of the Basotho Gun War
    • 4.6 Recall
  • 5 Death
  • 6 Memorials
  • 7 Biographies
  • 8 Popular culture
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Frere was born at Clydach House, Clydach, Monmouthshire, the son of Edward Frere, manager of Clydach Ironworks, and Mary Ann Green. His elder sister, Mary Anne Frere, was born circa 1802 in Clydach, and his younger sister, Frances Anne Frere, was born circa 1819 in Clydach. He was the grandson of John Frere and a nephew of John Hookham Frere William Frere Bartholomew Frere James Hatley Frere and Temple Frere – canon of St Peters, Westminster. He was educated at the East India Company College, the precursor of Haileybury and Imperial Service College. [1]

On 10 October 1844, he married Catherine Arthur (born c. 1821 in Honduras), daughter of Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, who was the Governor of Bombay and to whom he had been appointed private secretary two years earlier. Their children were: Mary Eliza Isabella Frere, born 1845 at Bitton, Gloucestershire Catherine Frances Frere, born 1849 in the East Indies, who edited The Cookery Book of Lady Clark of Tillypronie in 1909 Georgina Hamilton Chichester Frere, born c. 1850 in the East Indies Bartle Compton Arthur Frere, born c. 1855 in Paddington, Middlesex and Eliza Frederica Jane Frere, born c. 1857 in Wimbledon, London. [2]

After leaving the East India Company College Frere was appointed a writer in the Bombay (now Mumbai) civil service in 1834. Having passed his language examination, he was appointed assistant collector at Poona (now Pune) in 1835, and in 1842 he was chosen as private secretary to Sir George Arthur, Governor of Bombay. Two years later he became a political resident at the court of Raja Shahji of Satara on the rajah's death in 1848 he administered the province both before and after its formal annexation in 1849.

Commissioner in Sindh Edit

In 1850 he was appointed chief commissioner of Sindh. In 1851 he reformed the Scinde District postal system on the model of the British postal service, to provide better service with Rowland Hill's "low and uniform" postal rates. This system became the basis for India's postal system, designed to provide public service. In 1857, he sent detachments to Multan and to Sir John Lawrence in the Punjab in order to secure those locations during the Indian Mutiny. These services were fully recognized, as he received the thanks of both houses of Parliament and was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB).

As the chief commissioner of Sindh, in 1851, Frere issued a decree making it compulsory to use Sindhi language in place of Persian in Sindh. The officers of Sindh were ordered to learn Sindhi compulsorily to enable them to carry on day-to-day work efficiently. A committee was constituted (1853) under Asst. Commissioner & Chief of Education Department, with an equal number of Hindu and Muslim members, which unanimously decided on the use of Persio-Arabic Sindhi script with slight modifications. Frere not only gave Sindhi language one script but he even published different Sindhi books related to various streams of the literature, which encouraged impetus to Sindhi writers to move quickly with literacy.

Governor of Bombay Edit

He became a member of the Viceroy's Council in 1859, and in 1862 was appointed Governor of Bombay, where he continued his policy of municipal improvements, establishing the Deccan College at Pune, as well as a college for instructing Indians in civil engineering. A 5-mile road in Kirkee Cantonment was named after him circa 1865. [3] His order to pull down the ramparts of the old Fort allowed the city to grow, and the Flora Fountain was commissioned in his honour. During Frere's administration his daughter, Mary Frere, collected Old Deccan Days (1868), the first English-language field-collected book of Indian folklore. [4]

In 1867 he returned to England, where he was made GCSI, and given honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge. [5] He was also appointed a member of the Council of India.

In 1872, the Foreign Office sent him to Zanzibar to negotiate a treaty with the sultan, Barghash bin Said, for the suppression of the slave traffic. In 1875, he accompanied the Prince of Wales to Egypt and India, with such success that Lord Beaconsfield asked him to choose between being made a baronet or a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. He chose the former, but Queen Victoria bestowed both honours upon him.

High Commissioner for Southern Africa Edit

In 1877, Frere was made High Commissioner for Southern Africa by the London-based Secretary for the Colonies Lord Carnarvon, who continued to support the imposition of the unpopular system of confederation upon the southern Africa region. Frere accepted the position, on a salary double that of his predecessor, and on the understanding that successful implementation of confederation would result in him being appointed the first British Governor-General of a federated southern African dominion. [6]

Attempt to federate Southern Africa Edit

The idea of melding the states of southern Africa into a British Confederation was not new. It was seen as an easy way of uniting the region under British control, whilst preventing any future attempt among the remaining independent African states to unite against British rule. However an earlier plan by Sir George Grey for a federation of all the various colonies in South Africa had been rejected by the home authorities in 1858, as not being viable. [7]

Through Frere's elevation, Lord Carnarvon sought another attempt at implementing the ill-fated and locally unsupported confederation scheme, that was met with resistance by all the local groups involved. South Africans resented the perceived high-handed manner in which it was being imposed from London with little accommodation and knowledge of, or concern for, local conditions and politics. Cape Prime Minister, John Molteno, advised that under current conditions confederation was ill-suited to and badly timed for Southern Africa. It would lead to a lop-sided confederation with resulting instability and resentment. He advised that full union status was a better model, but only at a later date and once it was economically viable.

Timing was a key factor in the ensuing events, as the different states of southern Africa were at the time still suspicious and resentful after the last bout of British imperial expansion. The Afrikaners resented the recent annexation of the Transvaal, did not support confederation, and would successfully rebel in the First Boer War. The various Black South African states were also suspicious of this new effort towards British expansion. The ill-advised policies of both Frere and his local ally, John Gordon Sprigg, ended up causing a string of wars across Southern Africa, culminating in the disastrous Anglo-Zulu and Boer Wars. [8]

Resistance from the Cape and the Xhosa Edit

The new governor was initially welcomed by the local (Molteno-Merriman) government of the Cape Colony, which was by far the largest and most powerful state in the region.

However Frere soon encountered strong political resistance against the unpopular confederation project. In particular, the local Cape government took a non-interventionist approach towards the neighbouring Boer and Black African states of southern Africa. It was also relatively liberal in its domestic politics. Its formal response to Carnarvon's confederation model, conveyed to London via Frere's predecessor Sir Henry Barkly, had originally been that any federation with the illiberal Boer republics would endanger the rights and franchise of the Cape's Black citizens, and was therefore unacceptable. [9] It now resolutely opposed British confederation as being an imperialist attempt to override the Cape's constitution and extend British control over the whole of southern Africa. They also saw that confederation would entail a British invasion of the remaining independent states of the region, such as Zululand and Transvaal, and they correctly predicted war and instability. [10] The summary of Molteno's message was that "the proposals for confederation should emanate from the communities to be affected, and not be pressed upon them from outside." [11]

At the time, the subcontinent was being afflicted by the worst drought in its recorded history and, as the historian De Kiewiet memorably said: "In South Africa, the heat of drought easily becomes the fever of war." [12] It had begun in 1875, and by 1877 it was affecting the greater region. In September 1877, a minor tribal conflict erupted on the Cape frontier, between the Mfengu and Gcaleka tribes. The Cape government viewed the dispute as a local police matter, but Frere immediately traveled to the frontier and declared war on the neighbouring independent state of Gcalekaland. Frere saw the dispute as an opportunity to annex Gcalekaland for the planned confederation. Frere also shared Carnarvon's concerns that the continued existence of independent African states posed an ever-present threat of a "general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization". The 9th Frontier War resulted. [13]

The Transkei Xhosa were subjugated and annexed early in 1878, by General Thesiger and a small force of regular and colonial troops. [14]

Frere appealed (February 1878) and received the authority from the British Colonial Office to overthrow the Cape's elected government. He then asked his political ally, Mr John Gordon Sprigg, to form a puppet ministry. This unprecedented move solved his constitutional hindrances in the Cape, but was overshadowed by a growing set of conflicts across Southern Africa and Lord Carnarvon's resignation in early 1878. [15]

Outbreak of Zulu and Boer Wars Edit

The Zulu Kingdom under King Cetshwayo remained independent of British control but Frere impressed upon the Colonial Office his opinion that if confederation was to succeed, Cetshwayo's forces had to be eliminated and Zululand annexed. While Carnarvon remained as Colonial Secretary in London the view had support but his replacement, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach strongly wished to avoid any war in southern Africa. Frere nonetheless used the delay in mail between London and Cape Town, to time his letters so as to circumvent the Colonial Office's opposition to war. Frere then sent Cetshwayo an impossible ultimatum in December 1878, effectively declaring war. [16]

Cetshwayo was unable to comply with Frere's ultimatum – even if he had wanted to Frere ordered Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand, and so the Anglo-Zulu War began. On 11 January 1879, British troops crossed the Tugela River fourteen days later the disaster of Isandlwana was reported, and that was enough for the House of Commons to demand that Frere be recalled. Beaconsfield supported him, however, and in a strange compromise he was censured but asked to stay on. Frere had severely underestimated the Zulus, whom he had characterized as "a bunch of savages armed with sticks." [17]

The Zulu trouble, and disaffection brewing in the Transvaal, reacted upon each other most disastrously. The delay in giving the country a constitution afforded a pretext for agitation to the resentful Boers, a rapidly increasing minority, while the defeat at Isandlwana had badly tarnished the reputation of the British Empire in the region. Owing to the Xhosa and Zulu wars, Sir Bartle had been unable to give his undivided attention to the state of things in the Transvaal until April 1879, when he was at last able to visit a camp of about 4,000 disaffected Boers near Pretoria. Though conditions were grim, Frere managed to win the Boers' respect by promising to present their complaints to the British government, and to urge the fulfilment of the promises that had been made to them. The Boers did eventually disperse, on the very day upon which Frere received the telegram announcing the government's censure. On his return to Cape Town, he found that his achievement had been eclipsed—first by 1 June 1879 death of Napoleon Eugene, Prince Imperial in Zululand, and then by the news that the government of the Transvaal and Natal, together with the high commissionership in the eastern part of South Africa, had been transferred from him to Sir Garnet Wolseley. Meanwhile, growing Boer resentment at Frere's policies erupted in December 1880 into the disastrous First Boer War. The First Boer War, with the humiliating British defeats at Bronkhorstspruit, Laing's Nek, Schuinshoogte and Majuba Hill led to the independence of the Boer Republics and the final end of Carnarvon's confederation scheme.

Outbreak of the Basotho Gun War Edit

Basutoland, home of the Basotho people, had been under the nominal control of the Cape Colony since 1872. However the Cape government had allowed the Basotho leadership to keep much of their traditional authority and independence. As allies and trading partners of the Cape, the Basotho were also well-equipped with firearms.

Frere pushed "The Peace Protection Act" (1879), during the Xhosa Wars, and decreed that all those of African descent had to be disarmed. The Basuto Gun War (1880) followed, as the Basothos rebelled at what they saw as a racist and high-handed ruling. Premier John Gordon Sprigg's unpopular attempt to enforce this disarmament of the Basotho was aggravated by his setting aside of Basotho land for white settlement.

The resulting war led to British defeats such as that at Qalabani, and ended in 1881 with a stalemate and a treaty that favoured the Basotho. The rebellion is a primary reason why Lesotho is now an independent country and not part of surrounding South Africa. At the same time as the Basuto Gun War broke out, unrest flared up once again among the Xhosa of the Transkei.


According to Kew Species Profiles

Boucerosia frerei is an endangered succulent restricted to Maharashtra in western India.

An attractive succulent with star-shaped flowers, Boucerosia frerei was first described as Frerea indica by Nicol A. Dalzell in 1865 from the Junnar hills of the Pune district of Maharashtra state in India. Dalzell dedicated the new genus to Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere (1815-1884) as a mark of esteem and respect, and to encourage scientific research in India.

Based on differences in habit, Dalzell concluded that F. indica should be treated under the genus Frerea rather than in Caralluma . However, in the 21 st Century the correct accepted name has been shown to be Boucerosia frerei.

Species Profile Geography and distribution

Restricted to Maharashtra in western India, at 750-1,347 metres above sea level. The distribution of Frerea indica in the wild is restricted to six localities, comprising only a few individuals in each population. The extended distribution of the wild populations has been reported only from the neighbouring districts of Pune: Satara and Raigad (all parts of Maharashtra state).

Overview: A fleshy, hairless perennial with branches up to 50 cm long, spreading on barren rocks or hanging from rock crevices.

Leaves: The elliptic-oblong leaves appear during the monsoon, and are up to 7.2 cm long.

Flowers: The star-shaped flowers are crimson to cherry red, and have different patterned markings in different populations. The flowers are solitary or in pairs the corolla is 2-3 cm across.

Frerea indica is unusual amongst its close relatives in having leafy stems, however the succulent leaves are shed in dry conditions to conserve water.

F. indica is often found growing alongside Euphorbia neriifolia , another succulent in the same habitat.

The main threats to Frerea indica populations are grazing and natural disasters such as landslides, fire, and insect infestation.

Although endangered in the wild, F. indica can easily be propagated in a greenhouse using stem cuttings, especially the rooted branches. Using this method, ex-situ conservation is being carried out in India, especially in the greenhouses of the Botanical Survey of India (BSI, Pune), the Naoroji Godrej Centre for Plant Research (NGCPR, Shindewadi), Satara district, Maharashtra, and the Botanic Garden of the National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI, Lucknow).

It is thought that the natural pollinators of F. indica are now extinct, so fruit does not set in the wild. When cultivated in greenhouses, pollination is carried out by insects such as houseflies and black ants and fruit-setting is common. The plant produces a foetid-smelling secretion, which attracts pollinating insects. Seeds germinate readily under nursery conditions. Plants multiplied from cuttings can be planted out in the natural habitats of the species in Maharashtra.

Frerea indica is sought after by succulent-plant enthusiasts, and makes an unusual subject for the greenhouse in temperate climates. A number of hybrids have been developed with Caralluma species.

There are three Herbarium specimens of Frerea indica in Kew including one type collected by Dalzell.

Three alcohol-preserved specimens are held in the Spirit Collection of the Herbarium and the Spirit Collection details can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

The Tropical Nursery, another behind-the-scenes area of Kew, houses eight hanging baskets of live F. indica plants.

Distribution India Ecology Rock crevices on hill cliffs. Conservation Rated as Endangered (EN) in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Hazards


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