I was prompted to write this article by the irresponsible attitude of many gardeners and summer residents to their environment. In spring and autumn, and quite often in summer, the wind carries an unpleasant, poisonous smell of garbage burnt in areas - plastic bottles, old film, car tires.
The mountains of garbage are also upset, which some throw away near the sites or from the windows of cars on the way to the city.
I wanted to convey to the consciousness of all vacationers and working in nature information about the harm of such actions, first of all, for themselves, as well as about the harm to nature.
Perhaps, after reading this article, they will at least think about their health and the health of their children and grandchildren. I will try to explain how the different types of waste we throw out affect the soil, air, water and people themselves.
Our the soil is a sorbent that absorbs everything that is formed as a result of human activity. It is home to microorganisms, lower animals, fungal spores that process organic waste - food waste, wood. Thanks to these helpers, organic substances entering the soil are mineralized, that is, they are processed and form nutrients available to plants. They are the orderlies of the soil. That is why throwing organic garbage (food waste, hay, grass, etc.) behind the fence - so useful for the soil of a garden plot - is simply a crime.
I often see how some neighbors carry trolleys to the outskirts of our village with fallen unripe apples, weeds, dry leaves and other organic debris. And that instead of sending it to compost heap to obtain the most valuable organic fertilizer there, which would help increase the fertility of the soil on the site and increase the yield of garden and vegetable crops.
In addition, when organic waste decays, carbon dioxide is formed, which plants need very much for the process of photosynthesis. This is why plants grow best on compost heaps, producing a rich harvest.
Plant debris thrown away near gardeners' sites creates unsanitary conditions that attract rats, mice, flies, snails, slugs, ants, fleas, woodworms, fruit flies, fungus spores and worm eggs develop there. Most of these pests are also carriers of diseases - dysentery, typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, tularemia, jaundice, hepatitis.
For example, discarded plant waste near summer cottages attracts such a pest that has rapidly multiplied in recent years as grape snail ... First, it feeds on this waste, and then crawls to our garden plots for more delicious food - a ripening crop, causing serious damage to it. In addition, snails find a suitable breeding ground among wet beds and bushes. It is worth noting that they are hermaphrodites (bisexual), and each snail simultaneously plays the role of a male and a female.
During the warm season, one adult individual of the grape snail is capable of making not one, but several clutches, in each of which it lays up to 40 eggs. In addition to eating our harvest, grape snails are also harmful because they are carriers of helminths. Therefore, it is not worth attracting them with thrown away plant waste, but, on the contrary, destroying them. I was convinced in practice that the most effective way to fight is to collect grape snails in a jar of salt water, where they die.
It is estimated that in St. Petersburg and its suburbs there are approximately 200-400 kg of solid household waste per inhabitant per year. And if in cities the problem of garbage disposal is solved, then in the suburbs, where more than half of the townspeople rush in summer, the garbage problem is solved by the citizens themselves, as a rule, not in favor of nature. Garbage is left behind by gardeners in unauthorized garbage dumps and is often thrown out of car windows on the way home.
And this is often not harmless rubbish. It contains objects and materials that are very harmful to nature and people: cans, batteries, various packaging materials, linoleum, plastic, detergents and their containers, old household appliances, etc. Tin cans, being in the soil for a long time, rust , as a result of which a new substance, alien to the soil, is formed.
The most dangerous are alkaline batteries, accumulators, which, according to the rules, must be taken out and disposed of separately from the main waste, since they contain toxic elements and heavy metals: zinc, manganese, lead, cadmium, etc.
Alkaline batteries are a very dangerous soil contaminant. For example, one alkaline battery can poison 20 m² of soil by contaminating it with heavy metals, and it can also poison 400 liters of water. The metal coating of the battery collapses while lying in the landfill, and the heavy metals that make up it first enter the soil, into the water in the soil, and then seep into the groundwater, falling into our wells.
After all, water in the soil moves both vertically and horizontally. Therefore, such a carcinogenic solution can easily migrate to any garden area. Since heavy metals are in a dissolved state, they are consumed by plants, which will then be eaten by gardeners. As a result, heavy metals, having reached a certain concentration in the human body, cause toxic poisoning, cancer, and various mutations.
Old household appliances thrown into a landfill are a time bomb, and if there is a lot of it, then, perhaps, a quick action. Old TV sets are especially dangerous, first of all, their CRTs, which contain heavy metals that can poison soil, water and air.
Plastic, polyethylene, glass do not decompose in soil for hundreds of years. For example, the decomposition of paper takes 2 to 10 years, a tin can - 90 years, a cigarette filter - 100 years, a plastic bag - 200 years, plastic - 500 years, glass - 1000 years! Pieces of plastic bags take the mice into their nests and use them as mink insulating material and bedding. Being in the soil, solid household waste is a foreign element that interferes with the growth of roots of plants and trees. In addition, such waste makes the natural landscape around us unattractive. Who likes to observe the mountains of rubbish behind their site?
Is it possible to treat household waste differently. It turns out that you can. Having visited a sanatorium in Belarus a year ago, I visited a neighboring city. And I was pleasantly surprised by the attitude of the local population towards household waste. It is very strictly sorted by type: plastic in one container, glass in another, and the rest of household waste in the third. And the sorting rules are strictly followed. Apparently, people were accustomed to this: for their non-observance, they ask the violators strictly. And on the sides of highways there are special resting places with benches, rain fungus and a trash can. By the way, it seems to be regularly collected because the trash cans are not overcrowded.
I also liked the funny beautiful homemade products that the locals make from plastic bottles - these are flowers, animals, fairy-tale characters. They make beautiful birds from old car tires. And they are installed on flower beds and lawns near the entrances of residential buildings or in garden plots. As they say, both cheap and beautiful!
I know that some Russian gardeners also skillfully use plastic bottles as drinkers for plants, covering, insulating material, as well as for decorative purposes. (Read another article in this issue about the use of plastic bottles in everyday life - ed.)
After washing or washing dishes, some gardeners pour water with detergents dissolved in it into the garden or under trees and bushes. In addition to detergents, such solutions contain salts of inorganic acids (phosphates, carbonates), bleaching agents containing active chlorine, disinfectants, dyes, fragrances, surfactants.
All this "cocktail" not only has a harmful effect on the skin of the hands, but also kills not only the microflora and other beneficial inhabitants of the soil, but also the plants themselves. In addition, soil salinization occurs. For the same reason, cars should not be washed near the house, and especially near bodies of water and wells. Detergent dripping from it or dirt will surely fall into the reservoir and well!
I know that it is not recommended to bring the contents of toilets - feces into the soil of the garden plot, especially if you add special chemicals for cesspools there. On the one hand, feces is a valuable organic fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, but on the other hand, they contain helminths that remain in the soil and then end up on your table with the harvest. And the worst thing is when uneducated gardeners, as a rule, take out the contents of the toilet in the fall, scattering it all over the garden, or, for example, as some gardeners do in our dachas, in planting raspberries.
Firstly, a fetid odor appears in the entire district, which the neighbors are forced to breathe, and secondly, due to the abundant amount of precipitation at this time of the year, the liquid components of feces seep first into the surface water, and then into the groundwater. Then they get to neighboring wells and to nearby bodies of water. The proof of this is the blooming of reservoirs. And if chemicals for cesspools are added to the toilet, then they are also added to this list.
Read part 2. Ecology rules at summer cottages →
Olga Rubtsova, gardener,
PhD in Geography
Vsevolozhsky district of the Leningrad region
Photo by the author
Gardening tool stores make it easy to find off-the-shelf incinerators to maximize safety.
By their design and functionality, all finished devices look like homemade stoves consisting of barrels. Many manufacturers install chimneys on their stoves, which help to significantly speed up the combustion of waste and vegetation.
Containers of this type provide a fast burning rate of waste (with the oven lid closed). The main advantage of a product from a store in comparison with a homemade one is considered to be high fire safety and an aesthetic appearance. Many users attribute their high cost to the main disadvantage.
Burning garbage in a barrel is the easiest and fastest method to remove all unnecessary vegetation and debris from the site. But each owner should use it at his own peril and risk, remembering the responsibility for possible consequences. Substances formed during combustion have a negative impact on the environment.
It is for reasons of fire and environmental safety that the Ministry of Emergency Situations prohibit burning garbage on the site, but the gardener himself must choose the method of dealing with waste. At the same time, he must remember about the law and equip his site in compliance with all the basic rules that will help to avoid disastrous consequences. When creating a barrel with your own hands, it is important to remember that after some time the structure will become unusable and will have to be re-created.
Ecology lesson “Spring. Planting dill "
Summary of training knowledge on ecology
Subject:Experience: planting dill.
purpose: Create a vegetable garden by the window, remember plant parts, teach children to care for plants and observe.
• learn to distinguish and name the seeds of different vegetables.
• lead children to understand the conditions necessary for the successful development of plants.
• to acquaint children with the methods of sowing seeds, depending on their size (one per hole, one per groove, Pinch) .
• foster interest in plant life, respect for nature.
•the seed: dill, sunflower.
•for experiments: disposable glass, cocktail tubes
•packaged: land for landing
• plant diagrams (parts)
• watering can, children's rake for loosening the soil, aprons
• box for planting seeds
• plant growth observation diary
• picture of a sunflower, flower dill
No. Stages Lessons Stage Requirements
1 Introduction to the game situation. - Today we will continue to play in the profession. Who were we last time?
Children's answers: (by the cooks)
- And today we will be vegetable growers. What are they doing?
Children's answers: (grow vegetables)
- What mood do they give us?
Children's answers: (joyful, kind, cheerful, sunny….)
The game "Vegetables are ..." Young gardeners, I would like to know your opinion on the benefits of vegetables.
The teacher offers the children a basket of vegetables. Having received the basket, the child says what vegetables are and quickly passes it to a neighbor.The rule of the game: do not repeat! (Vegetables are food, vitamins, healthy juices, delicious salads, cabbage soup, hodgepodge, health, beauty, strength, good eyesight, white teeth.)
Repeat after me the movements and lines from the poem:
Let's go to the garden, march in place
We will collect the harvest. walk in circles holding hands
We drag carrots, imitate how they drag
And dig up potatoes, dig
We cut off the head of cabbage cut
Round, juicy, delicious. show with hands
Pick a little sorrel "Tear"
And let's go back along the path. walk in circles holding hands
- So what are we going to do today?
2 Play activities. Guys, listen to the poem that Vika has prepared for us.
(A. Pleshcheev "The snow is already melting")
- What time of year does it say (about spring)
V-l: In the spring, in the southern regions of our country, work is in full swing in the fields and gardens. People start sowing crops planting cultivated plants.
-And now I offer you a crossword puzzle and find out where our vegetables grow?
- What word did we get?
Today in the group we will create our own mini garden.
- What do you think we need to create a vegetable garden?
(box, earth, watering can, small spatula, rake, water, seeds)
2 Let's go to the tables. Each of you has seeds on the table.
- Consider the seeds dill and sunflower... Compare them.
We will put your observations in a table on the board.
- How are they similar? What is the difference?
(Seeds vary in size and color) .
V-l: these seeds are suitable for landing... A plant will grow out of them
-What will grow from a sunflower seed?
-From the seed dill?
-What parts of plants do you know?
Make a diagram on the board and at home "Parts of plants"
-What does a plant need a root for?
- Tell me guys, why do we need plants at home, in kindergarten, on the street?
(they release oxygen, take carbon dioxide)
L: You know well the parts of plants. This knowledge will be useful to you when we observe how our dill.
Was in a hurry to visit you, friends?
1) Gently take a glass of water
2) Put a straw in a glass
3) You need to blow hard into the tube. What are you seeing?
-And now I invite you to be my assistants.
We will create a mini-city with you
1) open the package with earth
2) pour the earth into the pot
4) make a line. What do you think for what?
(to plant a seed of dill)
5) Take each grain carefully dill on the table and lay it on the line.
-We fall asleep with a small amount of earth and say an affectionate word to your seed
-Now, what should we do?
In order for us to have a good harvest dillwhat else should we not forget?
-What does a plant need in order for it to grow?
3 Summary classes... - From today we will be watching our garden.
Mark how dill grows
-What do you guys think Dill grows? Does he have flowers?
The gardener shows a picture with flowers dill.
(Its flowers are like umbrellas - shows the picture)
- Do you want to know more about this plant?
Story about dill.
Dill Is an annual plant from the umbrella family with a spicy scent. Its height sometimes reaches 1.5 meters. It has a straight stem. Yellow flowers that are collected in umbrellas. Blooms dill all summer... Fruit (seeds) .
In Russia, it is found in vegetable gardens, in summer cottages and even on balconies. Dill contains essential oils, acids and vitamins.
Thank you Varya and you guys for the meeting. You now know and can yourself at home plant dill... And then eat it. And it's time for me to go to the dacha, to prepare my beds for sowing.
L: Thank you gardener, goodbye. Until next time.
- Guys you liked our occupation?
-Did you like doing planting in a mini garden?
- What can you tell your parents?
Photo report "Planting dill" Purpose: the formation of elementary work skills and environmental ideas in preschool children. Tasks: 1. To form operating rooms.
Summary of the lesson on ecology "Spring has come" Purpose: to acquaint children with the signs of spring to consolidate knowledge about the life of migratory birds to expand the vocabulary of children to educate carefully.
Open lesson on ecology in the middle group “Spring. Migratory birds "Educator: It gets light early in the morning. Thawed patches here and there, The stream rustles like a waterfall, Starlings fly to the birdhouses. Drops are ringing under the roofs.
Project on ecology "Planting and growing onions" (photo report) Project type: according to the composition of participants - group. Project duration: three weeks (from March 15 to April 7) Project participants: parents, children ,.
Ecology project in the junior group "Planting and growing onions" (photo report. Part two). Ecology project in the junior group "Planting and growing onions" (photo report. Part two). The project ran from March 15th to April 12th. In a group.
Lesson on the outside world "Spring, spring on the street" in the senior group Program content: to acquaint children with the peculiarities of the life of the forest, meadows in the spring (it gets warmer, the snow has melted, formed.
Ecology lesson "Planting lilacs on a subbotnik" Municipal budgetary preschool educational institution "Teremok". Synopsis of the lesson in ecology "Planting lilacs on a subbotnik" Educator.
Ecology lesson "Ecological entertainment and leisure" "Our nature" Ecological entertainment and leisure (for children of the middle group) Objectives: - to expand and clarify ideas about the nature of central Russia.
Ecology lesson in the senior group "Spring has come" Ecology lesson in the senior group "Spring has come" Denisenko Natalya Aleksandrovna MBDOU # 22 "Sun" st. Petrovskaya Software content :.
The Sosnovsky hogweed was first described in 1944 by the botanist I.P. Mandenova in Georgia. I got to the European part of Russia as ornamental plant thanks to the gigantic size and umbrellas of snow-white colors. In the future, his selection was facilitated by such unique qualities as high fodder value, winter hardiness and productivity.
The low cost of cultivation and the high content of sugars and nutrients required for fattening farm animals turned out to be attractive. Therefore, in the postwar years, it was actively cultivated as fodder crop throughout the European part of the USSR (even on Sakhalin Island and in the present Komi Republic), as well as in modern countries of Eastern Europe, in particular in the Baltic States.
However, scientists did not pay enough attention to the toxicity of the plant, the juice of which contains biologically active substances - furocoumarins, which have photodynamic activity and increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation. Hogweed juice, getting on human skin, under the influence of sunlight causes dermatitis like chemical burns, especially if the juice gets on the mucous membrane of the eyes. Hogweed flower pollen provokes allergic reactions.
The action of furocoumarins is initially unnoticeable. After contact with the plant (just touching the leaves or stem), a burn may occur after an hour or more, and then blisters form. The more light, the more aggressive the reaction is. If hogweed juice gets on the skin, wash it with soap and water, wipe it with alcohol or cologne, avoid sunlight, keeping it out of the affected skin, and consult a doctor if necessary.
The effect of toxic substances of hogweed on animals has been little studied. When introduced into silage in large quantities, milk from agricultural cattle acquires a bitter taste and smell of essential oils.
In the 90s of the last century, due to the collapse of the agro-industrial complex, the cultivation of Sosnovsky hogweed was no longer given due attention. As a result, the natural biological diversity of the landscape was disrupted, and there was a threat to public health. Currently, at the federal level, methods have been developed to combat this weed, including on the lands of personal household plots.
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