Creating a cozy and eco-friendly vegetable garden in your own home or in the country is not as difficult as it seems.
Some gardeners only plant fruit-bearing plants in their garden, avoiding others. For example, flowers. But it is they who attract more pollinating insects to the garden. And without them it will not be possible to collect a rich harvest.
Ornamental onions and chamomile are suitable as bait for pollinators. You can also plant a tenacious foxglove that attracts bumblebees and does not require serious maintenance. But be careful, it is poisonous and should be avoided by small children under 5 years old.
Garden paths are often assembled from paving stones, pouring in the base and edges of the concrete. On the one hand, this simplifies maintenance, since weeds do not germinate in closed joints. But such a base interferes with other plants, reducing access to water and air.
You can avoid this by making paths made of natural materials, for example, stone or wood. Use sand as a pillow, and you can fill the joints with pebbles or coarse ballast.
Under the rays of the sun, uncovered soil dries out faster, and during prolonged downpours it becomes more saturated with moisture faster. Mulching the beds will help to avoid drought and rotting. Mulch also protects the soil from temperature extremes and saturates the soil with nutrients necessary for plants.
It is better to take natural mulch. Grass cuttings, small branches of cabbage or rhubarb leaves left over from pruning will do.
There is rarely soil in the garden that does not need fertilization. And natural organic materials are excellent fertilizers - they are well absorbed and, unlike special store options, do not contain excess substances harmful to humans.
The simplest natural fertilizer is compost. Use fallen leaves, grass cuttings or branch trimmings as material for its preparation. Collect useful waste and keep the compost constantly moist. Use a compost pit or bin to speed up cooking.
Unlike their armored grass-eating cousins, slugs can cause serious damage to the garden. Some plants that scare away slugs with smell, taste and color will help get rid of them: geranium, narrow-leaved lavender, sedum and yarrow.
Also, animals, for example, moles, help in the fight against slugs. And although they are considered malicious pests, breaking through the ground, moles are still able to find and destroy insect larvae in large quantities - the May beetle, slug or wireworm.
It is forbidden to use unnatural means in an environmentally friendly area. And if you have already appreciated the value of plants and a mole in the fight against slugs, then it's time to learn how to deal with pests number one - weeds. Herbal infusions will help with this.
Leaves of potatoes, nettles, tobacco or tomatoes are suitable as a base. But be careful, after spraying, do not consume the fruit within 10 days. And don't idealize weed control, some of them are beneficial. For example, elderberry scares away mice, and wormwood and tansy - moth.
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There are a lot of vegetable crops, and they are very diverse in their appearance and growing characteristics. The gardener's desire to provide himself with early vegetables leads to the need to allocate an area for warmed soil. Now there are no problems in acquiring various greenhouses and greenhouses or materials for their own construction.
In cold climates, a greenhouse is not a luxury, but a necessity In greenhouses, thermophilic vegetables are grown in small quantities: tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini... To obtain early greenery in warmed soil, they are sown as compactors salad, dill, parsley and other herbs. To meet the need for early vegetables, 4-5 plants of each crop are usually sufficient.
The area under the insulated soil is usually not more than 100 sq.m... But in areas with cool summers, growing thermophilic vegetables outdoors is problematic, and they are grown only under shelters. In this case, greenhouses are needed, and their area will already be higher - up to 300 sq.m and even more. Of course, it is better not to grow related crops separately, for example: cucumber with zucchini in one building, and tomatoes, peppers and eggplant in another. But if there are few plants, then it is difficult to implement, and not too necessary.
The peculiarities of growing vegetables in greenhouses will be devoted to next lesson, where we will consider in detail all the important nuances.
The method of combining crops is very effective in practice if the companion plants are selected successfully. Therefore, the owners of the plots calculate according to a special table of the neighborhood of vegetables in the beds before planting. Some types of vegetables depress each other, others can improve the growth and development of neighbors, provide them with protection from pests.
When planning the beds, it is worth considering that companion plants give a greater yield if they are planted nearby.
Many summer residents note that thanks to the proximity of beans as a compaction for the garden bed where potatoes are grown, the number of the Colorado potato beetle is significantly reduced. Marigolds effectively protect cabbage from white butterfly. Despite this, a certain balance should be adhered to. After all, an excessive amount of marigolds in the garden can drown out the growth of cabbage.
Table of vegetable neighbors in the garden, creating a successful tandem:
|Vegetable name||Plants for a successful combination|
|strawberry||beans, spinach, marigolds, garlic, salad|
|kohlrabi||cucumber, lettuce, onion, beet|
|peas||carrots, corn, cucumber, calendula, eggplant|
|onion||tomato, celery, beetroot, savory, carrot|
|beans||potato, cucumber, tomato, strawberry, eggplant|
|cucumber||radish, pepper, peas, cabbage, beans|
|carrot||lettuce, onion, sage, tomato, peas|
|salad||strawberry, cucumber, carrot, radish|
|pepper||salad, cucumber, beans|
|a tomato||calendula, basil, beans, nasturtium, parsley|
Poor compatibility of planting vegetables in the garden is characterized by the following pairs of plants:
Even in a small area, you can get high yields by using the table of correspondence of neighboring plants when planting
Helpful advice! In addition to the main crops, it is recommended to plant spicy and ornamental herbs on the garden bed. Thus, the garden will not only be beautiful, but also useful.
A good example of the compatibility of vegetables in the garden is the combination of onions and carrots. As an independent crop, onions are capable of producing about 2.5 kg of yield from 1 m² of the garden. Carrots in the same area give about 6 kg of yield. When these crops are grown together, 9 kg of vegetables can be obtained from 1 m². These plants create protective barriers for each other from pests, so the efficiency of the area used increases.
Onions and carrots are great neighbors, so it is customary to plant them next to each other.
Of course, when planning a joint cultivation of crops in the garden, you need to group the plants taking into account their height so that neither of them blocks the light for the other. This is necessary because vegetables can not only have different heights, but also grow at different rates. It is desirable that the seals that are planted additionally be lower in height than the main vegetables. The principle of the multi-tiered neighborhood of vegetables in the beds allows you to create favorable conditions for the root system of crops, and also contributes to the rational use of solar energy.
High yields are collected from the beds where beets and late cabbage are planted. To do this, on an area of 0.8x0.8 m, beets (9 plants) and cabbage (4 bushes) should be planted, not forgetting to fertilize the holes with a glass of compost and a handful of eggshells (pre-grind).
By planting marigolds near the beds, you can avoid some pests in the garden
To get an excellent result when planting beans and tomatoes, it is recommended to place the plants in a row with a step of 0.3 m. A drip irrigation system is installed along the row with bush beans so that each plant is at the dropper. Tomatoes are planted in the central part of the garden. As a result, the bean and tomato bushes should be staggered.
Helpful advice! It is better to cut the stalks of tomatoes for the winter, and as low as possible. And beans, on the contrary, are recommended to be left intact.
Correct planning of planting of vegetable crops is the key to a rich harvest
The crop rotation of the plants can also affect the yield of the beds. If the annual change of crops grown in the same bed is carried out in the correct order, the vegetable garden will produce good yields.
Benefits of correct crop rotation:
To increase yields and restore soil, green manure and crop rotation should be used.
The most primitive way of organizing crop rotation in the garden involves planting plants from different families on the same area every year. The easiest way to divide cultures into four groups is:
Table of the simplest crop rotation in the garden:
|The order of disembarkation by year||Recommended crops for planting|
|1st bed||2nd bed||3rd bed||4th bed|
To get friendly shoots and accelerate seed germination, they must first be checked for germination. Such a check should be done both for seeds that you collected with your own hands and those that were bought in a store or in the market. After all, it often happens that with prolonged or improper storage, the quality of the seeds drops dramatically. It is for this reason that many of them ...