Ferocactus


Ferocactus (Ferocactus) is a cactus from the desert and hot corners of Mexico. This representative of the cactus family is also found in the southwestern regions of North America. The roots of this type of plants are poorly developed and go not in depth, but in breadth. Their depth varies only from 3 to 20 cm.

In the homeland of ferocactus, these plants are widely used by local residents for household needs. The pulp is extracted from the cactus, which goes to feed the livestock, and the stem itself is thoroughly dried and used as a storage vat. The hooked thorns turn into tackle for fishing, and the sharp ones are used as an awl.

The cylindrical ferocactus has another interesting ability: it can become a living compass. The stems of this plant are always slightly inclined towards the sunny south side.

Description and characteristics of ferocactus

The genus ferocactus includes over 30 different species, differing in the shape of the stems. Some of these cacti can be spherical, resemble a candle, or be slightly flattened. The sizes of the representatives of the genus vary from medium to gigantic four meters. There are ferocactuses with single stems, but among them there are also plants that form many children or even create entire colonies from their own shoots.

Ferocactus with straight, thickened triangular ribs is considered the most common. Despite the large size and pubescence of the areoles, there is no down on its top. These cacti are also remarkable for their thorns: they can have an impressive size of up to 13 cm, bends and bright colors. The shape of the spines may vary depending on the species.

Cactus flowers are located on a short scaly tube. Several flowers can open at the same time, the period of their appearance usually falls on the summer. After flowering, oval fruits with black seeds appear. But only adult specimens, whose height reaches at least 25 cm, will be able to please the owner with flowers. Due to the slow growth rates of such cacti, flower growers will have to be patient.

Ferocactus care at home

Ferocactus is one of the unpretentious plants that are easy to care for.

Lighting

For ferocactus, a very bright place is required; a southern window sill is well suited. Some species may require light shading on hot sunny days. In the summer, when the heat is finally established on the street, you can transfer the pot to the open air: to the balcony or even to the garden.

The lack of light will have a bad effect on the appearance of the cactus: its thorns will become smaller and pale, and sometimes even fall off.

Temperature

Heat-loving ferocactus prefers temperatures up to 35 degrees in summer. The lower threshold is +20 degrees. In winter, the temperature of the content is reduced by almost 2 times: in a room with a cactus it should be 10-15 degrees. In dry ground, cacti are able to withstand temperature drops of up to +5 degrees. But a colder room can destroy the flower.

The supply of fresh air is very important for the normal development of the cactus. It is necessary to air the room with it regularly, but the plant should be protected from cold drafts.

Watering mode

Ferocactus is rarely watered: for this it is necessary to wait until the earthen coma is completely dry. For irrigation, slightly warm and well-settled water is suitable.

If during the dormant period the cactus is in a cool room, from late autumn to early spring watering is completely stopped. If it is warm in the room with him, you need to water the plant in the same way as in the summer.

When watering, you should try to direct the water towards the sides of the pot. In order not to flood the root part of the cactus, you need to overlay the plant with a drainage layer. For this, pebbles or gravel are suitable.

Humidity level

Dry room air is not terrible for ferocactus: it tolerates such conditions very well. But dust can accumulate on the plant. To remove it, the cactus can be periodically given a warm shower, or cleaned with a small brush or a brush with soft fibers.

Planting soil

The natural habitats of ferocactus are rocky or calcareous. The same soil must be chosen for him and at home. Ideal soil for a cactus will be fairly acidic (pH 7-8). Usually sand and small pebbles or broken brick are added to the mixture of turf and leafy earth. This will provide the plant with the necessary drainage and air flow to the roots. To prevent them from rotting, you need to add a little charcoal to the soil.

For planting, you can also use specialized soil for cacti. Drainage elements and sand are also added to it. This will prevent moisture from stagnating in the ground.

Top dressing

Ferocactus does not need a lot of fertilizer: it usually grows on poor, barren land. To maintain the health of the potted plant, you can feed it only once a month during the period of active growth. To do this, apply half the dose of a standard liquid fertilizer for cacti or succulents. If the cactus is already growing in soil rich in trace elements, then it will not need additional fertilizing.

Transfer

The slow growth rate of ferocactus and the small size of its root system eliminate the need for the owner to frequently replant the flower. They do this only if absolutely necessary. This plant does not tolerate moving to a new place and adapts to the pot for a very long time. In addition, the hooked long spines make this procedure especially inconvenient. This cactus is very difficult to pick up or wrap with paper without harming its appearance. If the rhizome has grown, a wide, low pot is selected for the plant.

Reproduction of ferocactus

Ferocactus can be propagated in two ways. The first one is seed-like, light and simple enough. The seeds must first be held in warm water for a day. As a substrate, a universal cactus soil mixed with sand is used. After moistening it, seeds are placed at a depth of 0.5 cm. The pot with them is placed under a film and left in a warm and bright place. Every day the film is opened for airing. The sprouts can appear within a month. When they are a few weeks old, the cacti are planted in different pots.

The second way is to separate the “kids”. It is most suitable for cacti that form them in significant quantities. The cut points will need to be sprinkled with ash and the process should be kept in the air for several days. Then it is planted in a slightly damp mixture of sand and charcoal. The planting container can be covered with a jar or bag. As soon as the shoot takes root, they are removed.

Diseases and pests

The main cause of cactus diseases is overflow. Especially often, frequent watering during cold wintering becomes the cause of decay of its roots.

Aphids, mealybugs or spider mites can harm the plant. As soon as a harmful insect has been found, you need to rinse the ferocactus under a warm shower so that water does not fall on the ground. If the procedure does not help, it is necessary to treat the flower with special preparations.

The main types of ferocactus

Wide-spiked ferocactus (Ferocactus latispinus)

The most elegant of all the species of ferocactus presented is also called the "devil's tongue". This cactus is quite compact: the diameter of an adult plant is about 40 cm.

Its stem resembles a slightly flattened ball of greenish-blue color. The number of its ribs can reach 23 pieces. They are quite tall. On large areoles there are up to 4 reddish wide spines up to 8 cm long. Near them there are up to 12 light pink thin radial spines about 2 cm long. The largest spine is bent down and resembles a protruding tongue in shape. It is to her that the plant owes its popular name.

Wide-spiked ferocactus has large red or purple flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. They resemble bells in shape.

Ferocactus Ford (Ferocactus fordii)

Another variety of ferocactus has a similar small size - up to 40 cm. It differs from its wide-spined counterpart in that the central spines of Ford are much thinner and paler. The flowers of this cactus are 1 cm larger and have a light yellow color.

Ferocactus powerful (Ferocactus robustus)

Due to the abundance of basal "babies", this cactus is able to form large cushion colonies. With a meter in height of individual plants, together they can reach 5 meters in width. The stems of the powerful ferocactus are spherical, with clearly marked 8 ribs. They have a dark green hue. The flat spines are brown and vary in length. Light yellow-orange flowers up to 4 cm in size.

Ferocactus rectispinus

The cylindrical stem of this species can grow up to a meter in height. In diameter, it usually does not exceed 35 cm. A distinctive feature of such a ferocactus is the most impressive spines up to 25 cm long. They are yellowish-brown in color, and at the ends, bent with hooks, are painted in pale pink. The size of its light yellow flowers is about 5 cm.

Ferocactus cylindrical (Ferocactus acanthodes)

Because of the huge number of long curved reddish thorns, the cactus was called the "devil's bed". Radial spines of this type can overlap a pair of adjacent edges. Due to their length, they become entangled, almost completely hiding the surface of the cactus itself. The size of the central spines is up to 10 cm.

Particularly frightening appearance of cylindrical ferocactus is given by its size. In nature, it can grow up to three meters in height with a width of 60 cm. The color of its stem is dark green. The flowers are yellow-orange in color and up to 5 cm in diameter. Sometimes such a cactus has lateral offshoots, but it does not form too large colonies.


Ferocactus - gardening

Gardening »Houseplants with the letter F

  • Garden
    • Berries
    • Flowers
    • Trees
    • Shrubs
  • Garden
    • Cucumbers
    • Tomatoes
    • Spices
    • Roots
    • Potatoes
  • Garden plot
  • Useful plants
  • Greenhouses
  • Diseases and pests
  • The calendar
  • garden tools

Houseplants

Celery is a unique medicinal plant
Europeans began to eat celery as a vegetable only in the XV-XVI centuries. He came to Russia during the reign of Catherine II, but the nobles for a long time bred him for purely decorative purposes. It was only in the 18th century that the rhizomes of the plant were found to be the most fragrant and delicate of all white roots. Since that time, celery has occupied a special place among root crops and is valued for its high content of vitamins, mineral salts and a specific pleasant smell. Nowadays it is known for certain that it is also a unique medicinal plant in which it contains.

Nigella
At home - in the Mediterranean - nigella from ancient times was perceived not as a flower, but as a spice. And nowadays, in many countries of the world, nigella seeds, which have a pungent peppery taste and spicy aroma, are used as a seasoning in cooking, bakery and confectionery, and the canning industry. Crushed seeds are added to dough, sauces, gravies, used to flavor fish and meat dishes, when pickling cabbage, pickling cucumbers, tomatoes and watermelons. They are used to flavor various vegetable dishes, salads and soups. Immediately.

Landscape design
Perhaps everyone dreams of a cozy corner where he can relax, have a cup of tea or a glass of wine, and relax. It is especially good if such a place is somewhere in nature, for example, in the country. Clean air, birdsong is an idyll. But unfortunately, in the modern world, it is almost impossible to find untouched, by the hand of a person, areas, so people have to refine themselves and create nature with their own hands. Or change it as you like. Landscaping copes with this task. Some may snort contemptuously, they say, give such.

The use of eucalyptus in traditional medicine
For medicinal purposes, plant leaves are used, which contain essential oil and tannins. They are harvested in summer or autumn, but the best are considered to be collected from about November to February. Traditional medicine recommends taking an infusion and tincture of eucalyptus leaves for acute gastrointestinal diseases, as an expectorant for bronchial asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and acute respiratory diseases. For bronchitis, pleurisy, and tracheitis, kidney diseases, you can use a pharmacy tincture of 15- eucalyptus 30 drops in a quarter cup.

Peppermint
In the wild, peppermint is not found anywhere, but in culture there are two main forms of it: black, which has a dark red-violet shade of the stem and leaves, and white with light green stems and leaves. Peppermint is a valuable medicinal plant widely used in both scientific and folk medicine. The herb collected in the budding phase and the beginning of flowering is used for neuralgia, inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract, rhinitis, bronchitis, angina pectoris, migraine and toothache. Mint preparations are part of validol, cor.

Growing tomatoes
The familiar and beloved tomato is a very unpretentious plant. The main thing is to choose a variety or hybrid according to your needs and desires, and then choose the right soil. For sowing and growing tomato seedlings, a peat substrate made of deoxidized peat is well suited. As a container, cassettes or seed boxes are most convenient. The seedling method will give you the opportunity to speed up the harvest. The timing of sowing tomatoes should be chosen based on the fact that the seedling period of tall tomatoes will take about two months. For early varieties, warm.

Optimal garden layout
The fruit garden and vegetable garden are best arranged in the warmest places protected from the wind. You need to carefully select the plants for the garden - after all, the trees will stand here for many years. These areas should be comfortable to work with. It is great if benches are installed there in shaded places, so that in between weeding the beds or picking cherries, you can relax and admire the results of your labor. Not far from the garden and vegetable garden there should be at least a small room in which tools and garden equipment are stored. After all, every river is inconvenient.

Celery
Celery is root, leaf, and petiolate. Root celery, from which a wonderful salad is made, grows to a weight of 400-800 g. These root vegetables are used for forcing greens in winter conditions on a windowsill. Leaf celery does not have a developed root crop; it is cultivated to obtain fortified leaves during the summer-autumn period. It is dried for the winter and added to food for aroma and flavor. Petiolate celery is grown to obtain fleshy stalks, their thickness can be up to 3-5 cm. This is a type of root celery.

Basic methods of dealing with slugs
In late May - early June, young slugs are born from eggs overwintered in the soil, which develop for two months, reach a mature age during this time and begin to reproduce. The female lays eggs in the most humid places - under heaps of grass, debris, under lumps of earth, near the root collar of plants. Slugs are nocturnal. During the day, pests crawl under lumps of earth, hide under the plants, and at night they get out of their shelters and damage the plants. They harm the plantings of cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, potatoes. I eat slugs.

The healing properties of raspberries
Raspberries are rich in minerals, trace elements, they contain vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, provitamin A, which is necessary for good vision, skin nutrition and normal metabolism. However, taking into account the fact that the latter is not assimilated without fat, the fat component must be introduced into the composition of the medical dish.For example, when preparing desserts with the addition of raspberries, use sour cream or whipped cream. Raspberries are rich in iron, therefore, with iron deficiency anemia, it is useful to consume it two to three times a day thirty minutes before meals.

What should be a greenhouse
Now professionals and amateur gardeners have developed many "smart" and at the same time simple devices to maintain the required microclimate in greenhouses. Airing machines - hydraulic, electrical, bimetallic. Drip irrigation with precise dosing and non-clogging hoses made of a special material that is not afraid of direct sunlight. And about the material for covering greenhouses, you can talk indefinitely. Let's take a greenhouse film. Previously, there was no variety on the market. And now it is stabilized.

February
In February, the fight against mice and hares continues. Continue checking the integrity of the harness on the trees. If you notice traces of a mouse stay on the tree trunk, then additional measures should be taken to destroy them: mouse traps, poisoned baits. It is quite simple to check whether mice harm the trees: dig out the snow on one side of the trunk and conduct an inspection. After that, you should return the snow to its place and trample it. In the basement, cuttings prepared for grafting in the fall are checked. If the sand in which the cuttings are stored is dry.


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Wild West witnesses - ferocactus

The vast areas of highland semi-deserts in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico are home to one of the largest members of the Cactaceae family on the American continent, the plants of the genus Ferocactus. Ferocactuses have long been very common on these lands, being almost their visiting card.


Ferocactus gracilis v. coloratus
Photo and plant of Vladimir Fomenko (Zaporozhye)

Since ancient times, Indian tribes have willingly used this gift of nature, finding application in almost every part of it. The top of the thick stem was carefully cut off and the soft inside was cleaned out. The juicy sweetish pulp of ferocactus, mixed with flour and spices, was used to prepare various delicacies, ripe fruits were also used for food and were valued on a par with the fruits of prickly pears. The seeds were ground into flour, from which cakes and other culinary products were baked. The long, strong thorns of this cactus were used to make needles, awls and fishhooks. Even the stems, from which the pulp was scraped out, served people as containers for storing food - the barbed surface of the barrel-shaped stem and the lid of the cut off top of the ferocactus reliably protected food from the encroachment of rodents.


Ferocactus chrysacanthus (young plant)
Photo and plant of Ivanova Elena (Kiev)

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, human use of ferocactus did not disturb the natural balance. The total number of plants was replenished by natural growth. But when the production of sweets from ferocactus reached an industrial scale, the massive felling of large adult specimens hit the natural population hard. It took the adoption of special laws to save the plants from complete destruction. Ferocactus is now protected by the state in the United States and Mexico. So nowadays, natural populations are slowly recovering due to the fact that the collection of these plants in their natural growing environment is punishable by law.

Despite the fact that ferocactuses were known to man long before the conquest of America by European colonialists, the description of this genus was made only in 1922. It was added to the botanical nomenclature by prominent succulent specialists Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose. He was given the generic name Ferocactus, reflecting the appearance of the cactus. In Latin, "ferus" means "wild, fierce" - just such an impression is made by ferocactus with its long spines.


Ferocactus gracilis
Photo and plant by Gennady Burzak (Kiev)

Unfortunately, keeping these plants in a collection, it is almost impossible to achieve that beauty and spectacular appearance as in natural conditions. The level of solar illumination, even when the plants are exposed to the open sun in summer, cannot be compared with the insolation of high mountain regions. In collections, ferocactuses invariably lose the length of the spines and the density of the hair-like pubescence, and their appearance as a whole turns out to be very impressive, but nevertheless somewhat poorer than that of their "wild" brethren.

Despite this, ferocactuses are an adornment of any collection and keeping them is not as difficult as it might seem. Bright lighting, correct watering and temperature conditions, suitable potting substrate are the key to good health of these plants. They do not like too nutritious soil - the mixture should contain at least a third of the mineral component of the total volume. Ferocactus should be watered with care, they need a rest period in summer, and in winter they are kept dry at a temperature of 8-12 ° C.


Ferocactus (Hamatocactus) longihamatus
Photo and plant by Oksana Rudenko (Odessa)

If you follow these rules, then cases when ferocactus lose roots will be extremely rare. You should be especially careful about species that are small in size - Ferocactus fordii, F. latispinus, F. alamosanus and the like.

The main breeding method for ferocactus is sowing seeds. Many firms sell seeds of various species of this genus. But the collector must be prepared that ferocactus grow rather slowly. They begin to bloom at the age of 8-10, small-sized species a little earlier. But even without flowers, these succulents have a very showy look.

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"What's in a name. »Ferocactus

Ferocactuses belong to the "old-timers" of the Cactaceae family and unite a large group of large in size and intensely ringed barrel-shaped cacti, as evidenced by the very name of the genus Ferocactus (from Latin ferus - wild, fierce). The etymology of the most common species in the collection is given in this article.

F. acanthodes (F. acanthodes) - the name comes from the Greek. acanthodis is prickly, which applies to the entire genus.

F. alamosanus (F. alamosanus) - the species is named after the place of growth in the area of ​​Alamosa (Mexico).

F. chrysacanthus (F. chrysacanthus) - the name of the species is composed of lat. chryseus is golden, which refers to the color of its spines, although it can change to reddish brown. One of the most spectacular views.

F. coloratus (F. coloratus) - the specific name is given from lat. coloratus is colored, which is associated with the variegated attire of the spines of the species.

F. echidne (F. echidne) - in Greek "echinda" - viper, snake, which is most likely due to the frightening appearance of the cactus.

F. emoryi (F. imori) - the species is named after the head of the border service of Mexico - Major W. Imori (Emory William).

F. flavovirens (F. flavovirens) - the name is made up of lat. flavus is golden yellow and virens is green, which corresponds to the variable color of the spines of the species.

F. fordii (F. Ford) - the name is given in honor of the discoverer of the species. It belongs to the smallest (up to 12 cm in diameter) representatives of the genus with variable coloration of the prickly plumage of the stems.

F. geitesii (F. Gates) - the species is named after a prominent cactus grower, specialist in Baja California cacti - H. Gates (Gates, Howard E.). Now referred to as synonyms of F. gracilis.

F. glaucescens (F. glaucessens) - the name of the species comes from the comparative degree of lat. glaucum is gray-blue, which emphasizes the color of its stem.

F. gracilis (F. gracilis) - the name is given from lat. gracilis is slender and slender to emphasize the shape of the stem. One of the most vividly colored ferocactuses. Its subspecies, according to the latest change in the nomenclature, was F. coloratus.

F. (Hamatocactus) hamatocanthus (F. hamatocanthus) - the species previously belonged to the genus Hamatocactus. The name is derived from lat. hamato - bearing hooks and the Greek word for "prickly", which corresponds to the hook-like character of the stem's spines.

F. herrerae (F. Herrera) - the species is named after Professor F.L. Herrera (Herrerae, Fortunato L.) from Mexico.

F. histrix (F. histrix) - the name is given from lat. histrio is a charlatan, a bouncer, and must be indirectly tied to the edible quality of all its organs except the thorns.

F. horridus (F. gorridus) - a specific epithet taken from lat. horridus - shaggy, scary, which speaks of the powerful spines of the stem. Unfortunately, this bright name of the species was lost due to its transfer to the synonyms F. peninsulae.

F. latispinus (F. latispinus) - the name is made up of lat. late - wide and spina - thorn, which emphasizes its flat shape. A very decorative species, synonymous with which F. recurvus is referred to (from Latin re-curvo - to bend back, which characterizes the bending of the thorns).

F. lindsayi (F. Lindsay) - the species is named after a connoisseur of the genus and the author of a monograph on it - J. Lindsay (Lindsay, George), the former director of the Academy of Sciences of California.

F. orcuttii (F. Orkutta) - the species is named after a prominent cactus grower from San Diego (California).

F. peninsulae (F. peninsule) - a specific epithet comes from lat. peninsula is a peninsula associated with the growth of plants in Baja California.

F. pilosus (F. pilosus) - the species is named from lat. pilosus - covered with hair, which refers to the presence, along with powerful central spines, horizontally directed hairs on the areoles of the stems.

F. recurvus (F. recurvus) - see F. latispinus.

F. robustus (F. robustus) - the name is given from lat. robustus - strong, powerful, which characterizes the ability of the species to bush, grow in the form of turf up to 5 m in diameter.

F. viridescens (F. viridescens) - a specific epithet from lat. viridis is green (comparatively), which refers to the color of the stem.

F. wislizenii (F. Wislizen) - the species is named after the famous cactus collector, supplier of plants for Engelmann - F. Wislizen (Wislizenus, Frederick Adolph) - German by origin.

Photos and plants of Elena Ivanova

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Types of succulents with a name, photo - Agro-Market

Harsh and beautiful succulents came to us from Africa and South America. They are known for their unpretentiousness and unique beauty. Due to their undemanding conditions, these plants are very popular.

1. Haworthia
The exotic beauty is especially spectacular thanks to its leaves. They form bulges of pearlescent color, which are very reminiscent of pearls and make Hawortia a decoration of the house and the pride of any florist.

2. Sedum
Leaves in the form of needles, balls or cylinders of different colors: from red and purple to bluish green or even cream. The variety of species of this succulent allows you to find a plant to your liking. Bonus: Its leaves are used to heal wounds or burns.

3. Graptopetalum
Or a Mexican star on the windowsill. Its peculiarity is that you can control flowering a little. The shade of the flower depends on the brightness of the lighting. If the flower grew in direct sunlight, the flowers will be red. The more shaded the plant's habitat, the more yellow the flowers will be. There is an opportunity to experiment.

4. Echeveria
It owes its original name to a Mexican artist. The leaves, bright green or with a bluish tint, form a semblance of a water lily, which is why the locals called Echeveria "stone rose" or "stone flower".

5. Pachyphytum
The miniature succulent is popularly called the "moonstone" because of its thick leaves in the form of bluish-blue drops.

6. Aichrizon
A distinctive feature of this plant is its special leaves in the form of hearts, thanks to which it was nicknamed "the tree of love". The flowers look like small red or yellow stars.

7. Fat woman
The second name is the money tree. Succulent is associated with money because of its small leaves that look like coins. According to Feng Shui, the well-being of a tree is directly related to the financial position of its owner. Due to its unusual rounded shape, it is believed that the tree has unique properties: it can accumulate negative energy, be a source of positive energy, creating a positive atmosphere around.

8. Lithops
Many people know it as a "living stone". An interesting feature: the color of this succulent changes, repeating the color of the soil. Such is the chameleon in the plant kingdom. Therefore, the color of the plant can be from brown / purple to gray / green. Usually, on a piece of paper, you can see different patterns or spots that are original for each type. During the flowering period, lithops "splits" into halves, between which there is a flower.

9. Monantes
Originally from hot Spain, a small succulent is capable of forming rugs and turf if the stems are creeping, or grows as a shrub if the stems are erect. The flowers of this species are very bright: pink, pistachio or brown-green.

10. Brigamia
"Hawaiian palm", "volcano palm", "cabbage on a leg" - as soon as this unpretentious plant is not called. The peculiarity of brigamia is flowers with a pronounced vanilla smell.

Since minimalism has become fashionable, succulents are at the peak of their relevance today. They are loved by both novice florists and connoisseurs of everything original.


Ferocactus - gardening

Gardening »Houseplants with the letter F

  • Garden
    • Berries
    • Flowers
    • Trees
    • Shrubs
  • Garden
    • Cucumbers
    • Tomatoes
    • Spices
    • Roots
    • Potatoes
  • Garden plot
  • Useful plants
  • Greenhouses
  • Diseases and pests
  • The calendar
  • garden tools

Houseplants

The healing properties of the snake mountaineer
The name of the mountaineer serpentine or serpentine received because of its short, thick, serpentine curved and somewhat flattened rhizome. Popularly, the mountaineer is often called crayfish necks, since his rhizome with transverse folds vaguely resembles the tail of the crayfish (neck). Highlander grows as a rule in thickets in damp floodplain meadows, along rivers, along the shores of lakes, in sparse damp spruce forests. This tall, slender, winter-hardy plant with erect stems up to one and a half meters in height blooms in May-July with pale pink flowers, collected.

Nigella
At home - in the Mediterranean - nigella from ancient times was perceived not as a flower, but as a spice. And nowadays, in many countries of the world, nigella seeds, which have a pungent peppery taste and spicy aroma, are used as a seasoning in cooking, bakery and confectionery, and the canning industry. Crushed seeds are added to dough, sauces, gravies, used to flavor fish and meat dishes, when pickling cabbage, pickling cucumbers, tomatoes and watermelons. They are used to flavor various vegetable dishes, salads and soups. Immediately.

How to choose a garden pruner
Caring for plants includes not only timely watering, feeding and loosening the soil, but also their correct formation. And most often gardeners, florists and gardeners use pruning shears for this purpose. Moreover, in the arsenal you need not one, but several, because you have to solve various problems. When buying a pruner, make sure how easy it is thanks to the spring to converge and spread the blades, because your productivity directly depends on this.The spring is possible from a wire or plate. More reliable and durable than spiral wire.

Plum and plum cherry hybrids
Plum and plum-cherry hybrids are very location-specific, which must be taken into account even in a small area. Planting should be carried out in a place where snow accumulates no more than 50-60 cm in winter. If the site is located on a slope, the plum is planted in its upper part, where it will be better provided with air drainage. Planting in low parts of the relief, closed hollow is undesirable. Plum is appreciated for its early maturity, dessert taste of fruits, suitability for processing. In regions with a harsh climate, plum cultivation is not widespread.

Biological method of protecting plants from pests
Insect diseases can be caused by fungi that enter the body through the outer integument. Sick insects cannot eat, and then die. The most widespread is white muscardinosis, which is caused by the fungus Beauveria bassiana Vuill. This disease infects the codling moth, apple moth, and goldtail. After death, the body of the insect hardens and mummifies. In our country, the production of a biological preparation of boverin is being established, containing spores of the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Among the natural enemies of insects, the virus is known.

Growing seedlings in an apartment
Growing seedlings begins long before the warmth. So you can significantly increase the yield, especially since many vegetables in the northern regions (and not only in the northern ones!), Which love warmth, can only be grown with the help of seedlings. But if the planted seeds get cold enough, then there will probably be no harvest. you won't get it! So hybrids and vegetable varieties that are valuable to you, or those plants, the number of seeds of which is very small, should be bred with seedlings. Usually, seeds in a field will sprout half as bad as in your window. ...

Wormwood
The most famous among the people for its own medicinal properties is bitter wormwood. It stands out among its relatives, first of all, by its general grayish-silver color, yellow flower baskets, a specific aroma and a rather strong bitter-tart taste. Grass is harvested during the flowering period (July-August), cutting off leafy tops 20-25 cm long with a sickle or knife. The grass is dried in attics, under awnings in the shade, spreading it in a layer of 3-5 cm and periodically turning it over. The shelf life of raw materials is two years. Wormwood preparations stimulate the function of the same.

Greenhouse constructions
Now the most common are two designs of greenhouses: arched and hipped (house). The roof of such a greenhouse can be very different: flat, single or gable, etc. Tent greenhouses are assembled in separate blocks, the height is usually 2-2.5 m, the width is 2.5-3 m, and the length depends on the quantity sections. Such dimensions are considered the most convenient for most gardeners. If we compare greenhouses in terms of ease of use, then of course, an arched greenhouse is more convenient. An arched greenhouse made of cellular polycarbonate looks.

Planting an apple orchard
When placing trees, observe the basic methods of permissible thickening of trees and their compatibility with each other. The planting scheme must correspond to the intended shape of the crown of the trees. The apple tree loves good lighting, so tall trees should be placed on the north side of the site so that they do not shade berries and vegetables. First mark the distance between the rows, and then the seats in the row. Apple trees can be planted in spring or autumn. In central Russia, it is preferable to plant fruit trees in early autumn (1.

Green grafting method
The timing of green cuttings depends on the phase of development of the shoots. For stone fruit crops (cherry, plum, peach), green cuttings are most successful in the phase of intensive shoot growth, which is characterized by rapid growth, green color of the bark and weak lignification of the lower part of the shoot. In the middle lane, this phase usually falls on the first half of June. For crops such as apple, quince, gooseberry, lemon, and the like, the best dates fall at the end of the growth phase, when the shoots are semi-lignified, and the bark partially turns brown. Culture, ex.

How to make a pond in the garden
You can make a durable pond with a concrete bottom. For this, the earth is perfectly tamped and laid out with rubble stone. After that, concrete is laid in a layer of approximately 10 cm and smoothed with a float. It is important to make sure that no earth gets on it during the laying of concrete - this will make it fragile and reduce the level of waterproofing. For the construction of reservoirs made of concrete, cement of high grades (not lower than "400") is usually used. In the case of using low-grade cement, after the concrete has set, the bottom and walls of the pool should be coated from the inside with c.

January
The main thing that a gardener should do in January is to protect fruit trees from frost and rodents, which are no less dangerous - mice and hares. Firstly, you should periodically check the condition of the strapping of the boles, which are designed to protect fruit trees from rodents and sunburn. Timely correction of the untied harnesses will help keep the trees intact and safe.In order to protect the root system of fruit and berry plants from freezing, it is necessary to make special snow holders. This is especially true in winters with little snow. ...


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