Sooner or later, every gardener is puzzled by the reproduction of raspberries. Planting material of new varieties is expensive, and you will not always allow yourself to buy 10 seedlings right away. Therefore, the conversation today is about how to get a plantation from 1 bush, but what is there from a bush - from a berry!
In spring, raspberries should be planted before their growing season.
Your own raspberries in the garden, and even in sufficient quantities, or better - in abundance (so that they can be sold) is the dream of any gardener. And believe me, breeding raspberries is not that difficult. To do this, it is enough to have the necessary tools, accompanying varietal material, good soil and growing conditions.
Three important factors to ensure good reproduction and high yields:
Video about the breeding of raspberries
Gardeners or just amateurs often wonder when raspberries should be propagated? The answer is simple: breeding can be done in spring, summer and autumn.
In spring, raspberries should be planted before the start of their growing season. This will increase the chance of successful survival of the bushes. If we talk about autumn, then planting or transplanting a plant in the middle lane should take place until the middle, and in the southern regions - until the end of October, but not later.
It is difficult to say unequivocally about how to correctly draw up an algorithm for effective cultivation of raspberries, because it depends on many factors: on the successful choice of planting material, its type, as well as climatic conditions and the landing site. There are several main methods of reproduction, and we will get to know them.
It is difficult to say unequivocally about how to correctly compose an algorithm for effective breeding of raspberries.
This method is considered the most difficult and troublesome. Seed propagation is mainly used for breeding work. From the seedlings, you are unlikely to get the variety from which you took the berry. But if you're curious, or if you're looking to grow hedge plants, why not give it a try! In addition, it is possible to select from the obtained material a unique one in taste, resistance to diseases and endurance to weather disasters.
Raspberry seeds do not germinate well, so they need pre-sowing preparation, stratification. They are kept in water for 24 hours, then mixed with wet sand and placed in nylon bags. The bags are covered with sphagnum moss or steamed sawdust, moistened and kept in the cellar or on the lower shelf of the refrigerator for about three months.
Raspberry seeds do not germinate well, so they need pre-sowing preparation, stratification
Then they are sown directly together with sand in a shallow box with finely sifted moist and compacted soil in grooves, no more than 5 mm deep. The grooves are sprinkled with a very thin layer of sifted peat or sand, cover the box with glass and put in a warm (+ 20 ° -22 ° C) bright place, away from drafts and direct sunlight.
If 50% of the seeds germinate, it is a success. When the seedlings reach a height of 10 cm, they can be cut into cups, and when persistent heat is established, they can be planted in open ground in a place protected from the sun, wind and cold.
After 2 years, you will receive full-fledged raspberry seedlings, which can be planted in a permanent place. Note again: we are not talking about the preservation of varietal qualities, which cannot be said when propagating raspberries by cuttings.
If you bought a varietal seedling, half the job is done. Grow a bush for at least a year, and it will give you not only beautiful berries, but also planting material in the form of green cuttings.
Reproduction of raspberries by green cuttings is a more advantageous way, it allows not only to reliably preserve the variety, but also to breed raspberries, does not take much effort and does not require investment. If you decide to propagate raspberries with green cuttings cut from root suckers, then it is better to do this in the summer on a cloudy day. To do this, cut the green young raspberry sprouts closer to the root using a pruner or knife. For better rooting, place the planting material in a solution with a rooting stimulator, according to the instructions on the package.
Propagating raspberries with green cuttings is a more winning way
After this procedure, they must be planted in a loose moist substrate under the film, keeping a distance of 7 - 10 centimeters between plants. Remember to water regularly and supplement the cuttings with the necessary micronutrients for enhanced growth.
If the required regimen is observed, the cuttings begin to grow rapidly after a month. This means that they have formed roots. Now they can be watered less often and the greenhouse can be ventilated more often. The stalk must be transferred to a permanent place along with the greenhouse soil. Observe the watering regime, and the raspberries should start growing again. And before planting raspberries, carefully prepare the site, following the recommendations for agricultural technology.
This method is especially productive when breeding remontant raspberries.
A root cutting is a part of a root with a lateral branch, capable of further independent growth. You can get these root chunks at a spring gardening fair when vendors show buyers how to prune a seedling before planting. Or if you are replanting raspberries in a new place in the spring, trim off the extra roots. If the root is more than 2 mm thick, it is capable of producing a new plant. To do this, you just need to plant it.
Root cutting is a part of the root with a lateral branch, capable of further independent growth.
Root cuttings in the spring are laid out in grooves to a depth of about 5 cm, sprinkled with earth, watered well and covered with foil. Such a shelter will allow you to retain moisture and accumulate heat. When young green plants appear on the surface, the film is removed, and the shoots are protected from wind and direct sunlight. When the plants are strong, the protection can be removed.
You can prepare root cuttings in the fall, since there will be enough varietal material, and the growing season will just come to its natural end. But you will have to keep them at constant temperature and humidity until spring.
A very effective and fast way to propagate raspberries. If at the beginning of summer you did not cut green cuttings, then by the end of summer they will already be root offspring, with an independent root system, but still in connection with the mother bush. In the fall, you should dig up such "children" together with a clod of earth and transplant them to a new place. Moreover, it should be as pure as possible (free from other plants). Remember to provide the plant with good watering and protect them from sunlight.
In the fall, you should dig out such "kids" together with a clod of earth and transplant them to a new place.
This type of reproduction is considered the most optimal for obtaining high results of reproduction, and then - and a good harvest.
After the first light frosts, when a leaf completely falls from the raspberry, prepare the planting material in the form of cuttings from annual shoots, 25-30 cm long.Wrap them in paper and then in a canvas cloth and bury them in the cellar in slightly moistened sand.
At the end of February, remove the cuttings, update the lower cut, soak for 12 hours in melted or filtered water. Then put in a jar of water (for 1 liter of water 1 teaspoon of sugar or honey), and place the jar in a warm place. Cover with a plastic bag and wait for the roots to appear. They should break through in about 3-4 weeks.
Video about growing and breeding raspberries
Next, we plant the cuttings in a light nutritious substrate in plastic cups with a capacity of 0.5 liters and take care of the seedlings as if they were ordinary seedlings: we regularly water, feed, ventilate, spray, if the air is dry, we temper them before planting in the ground.
Of course, these are not all ways to propagate raspberries, but only the most common ones. But if you learn how to propagate raspberries yourself, it can be a hobby, profitable and exciting activity.
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Repaired raspberries are often called continuously fruiting, or autumn-fruiting.
"Indian Summer" is the firstborn of the domestic selection of remantant raspberries. Although it was suitable for cultivation in the south of the country, it laid the foundation for the development of new varieties by the method of interspecific hybridization. Thanks to the invaluable contribution of Professor I.V. Kazakov, modern domestic remontant varieties of raspberries are distinguished by early ripening and high productivity. "Indian Summer" 1 and 2, "Diamond", "Golden Domes", "Augustine", "Elegant", "Hercules", "Apricot" - varieties included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.
In order for remontant varieties of raspberries to take root faster after planting and give a rich harvest, you must follow the rules for caring for bushes:
With proper care, raspberry cuttings will quickly take root in a new place, and the next year after planting they will begin to bear fruit.
The future yields of raspberries will largely depend on the choice of a place and the correct planting of seedlings.
For planting raspberries in central Russia, elevated, warm and sunny areas of the garden are allocated. In southern regions with a hot and dry climate, the shrub is planted in partial shade. To protect the berry from cold northerly winds, it is recommended to place it along a fence, hedge, and outbuildings.
Areas protected from the wind by a fence or outbuildings are taken under the raspberry tree
You should not plant raspberries in low-lying areas, which are often flooded after the snow melts, as well as in areas with a shallow level of groundwater. Excess moisture is detrimental to the root system of plants and provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Experienced gardeners always observe crop rotation and never plant raspberries where peppers, tomatoes, and strawberries were grown last season. The culture grows well after cucumbers, legumes, zucchini.
Loose fertilized soil with neutral acidity is suitable for remontant raspberries. Lime and dolomite are added to the acidic soil before planting. Over time, soil fertility decreases, so after 8-10 years the raspberry tree is transplanted to another place so that the yield does not fall. Raspberries get along well next to apple trees, cherries, red currants. But grapes, sea buckthorn, parsley are unwanted neighbors.
The culture is planted both in spring and autumn. In the spring, it is necessary that positive temperature values remain during the week. The seedlings take root quickly, build up their vegetative mass and begin to bear fruit in the fall. However, with spring planting, fruiting is not so abundant, because all the strength of the plant goes to survival. The most suitable period for planting is autumn, 20 days before frost: the seedlings will have time to take root before the cold weather, and in the spring all forces will be directed to the growth of shoots and the formation of the crop.
High-quality planting material is the key to a good harvest. Healthy seedlings are purchased in garden centers or nurseries, where there is a great variety of varieties. There you can also get advice on the features of the plant and its care.
Raspberry seedlings should have a well-developed fibrous root system.
When buying, you should carefully consider the seedling: it should have flexible, not dry shoots, without dark spots, as well as a fibrous root system without rot and damage. It is better to purchase plants in a container - they are planted together with an earthen clod, the integrity of the roots is not disturbed, therefore, the survival rate will be higher.
2 weeks before planting, a plot is dug up, freed from weeds, 2 buckets of humus, 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium nitrate or 300 g of ash are added to 1 m 2. Strongly acidic soil is brought to a neutral reaction by introducing 500 g of lime per 1 m 2.
You can plant raspberries in two ways: bush or tape. When forming single bushes, holes are dug 60x45 with a distance of 1 m from each other. In large areas, it is preferable to plant the crop in rows. To do this, prepare trenches 50 cm wide, 45 cm deep, leaving 1.5 m between rows, 70 cm between plants.
Raspberries can be planted in rows in 45 cm deep trenches
Before planting, the roots of seedlings should be kept for an hour in a solution of a biostimulant (Kornevin, Heteroauxin), which accelerates root formation and increases plant immunity.
Raspberry planting sequence:
The seedling is placed in the planting pit, carefully spreading the roots
After planting raspberries, add 5 liters of water to each hole
You have already read how to propagate raspberries by offspring (seedlings) at the beginning of the article. In June, you can start harvesting cuttings that can be rooted. This requires:
At an air temperature of +22 degrees in about a month, raspberry cuttings will take root and begin to grow. At this time, they need to be transplanted into pots with a volume of one and a half liters. Two weeks later, when the seedlings take root, they can begin to gradually accustom to fresh air. After another two weeks, accustomed to fresh air, young plants are transplanted to a temporary bed, and in the fall - to a permanent place.
Proper planting and good care is the key to a large harvest of tasty and juicy raspberries, which can be eaten fresh or harvested for the winter. After all, there is nothing better for colds than hot tea with raspberry jam.
For a good harvest, even such an unpretentious variety as Balsam needs additional feeding. They are carried out three times:
Raspberry Balm is easy to reproduce. It is bred in three ways:
One of the most popular methods is clipping. A young shoot 20 cm high is cut off from the mother plant. Without removing the earthen coma from the bottom, it is planted in a separate hole. The plant is then watered, protected from direct sunlight and covered with mulch.