Apricot is traditionally grown in the southern regions of the country, as it is a heat-loving plant. To promote this popular culture to the northern regions, it was necessary to increase winter hardiness. First of all, we had to take care of a hardy and compatible rootstock, which became a plum for the southern tree. The methods and rules for grafting apricots on plums are simple and accessible to a novice gardener.
Spring is the time when nature wakes up from winter sleep, plant juices begin to actively move from the roots to the crown, prompting the emergence of new shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits. In this condition, the grafts take root best, and wounds heal more easily and quickly.
Cuttings grafted in early spring, when the buds soon swell, take root better. And by the end of the season they will have time to give good, strong, shoots that will confidently go into the winter. The exact dates cannot be recommended, they fluctuate depending on the region and the specific weather conditions of the current season. They usually start in mid-March in the southern regions and continue until the end of April in the northern ones.
Sometimes novice gardeners ask the question - is it possible to plant an apricot on a plum in the spring.
The answer is yes, you can. This is done often when it is required to obtain a frost-resistant plant with non-boiling roots. Apricot takes root well on plum rootstocks; gardeners have been successfully using this property for a long time.
In the spring, the apricot is grafted only with cuttings. They are harvested in late autumn and stored in a cool place (for example, in the basement) until the moment of vaccination.
As a rootstock, both young shoots 1–2 years old and 3–5 years old specimens are used. In the latter case, it is better if the rootstock tree will already grow in a permanent place. Transplants at this age are associated with a slowdown in development and it is undesirable to resort to them, unnecessarily.
Of the large list of methods for grafting apricots on plums in spring, three are recommended. Copulation, in the split and under the bark. These methods are simple, available to a novice gardener and give a high survival rate.
Before starting the vaccination, it is worth practicing on a third-party biomaterial. For this, wild plants and shoots are suitable.
This method is used when the diameters of the rootstock and scion match, or when the difference is up to 10%. Copulation is used on diameters from four to fifteen millimeters.
The method consists in the fact that the ends of the spliced branches are cut at an acute angle and are aligned with each other in slices. Distinguish between simple, improved and copulation with a saddle.
This method is good for getting seedlings.
Important. The sections are aligned so that they touch the cambial layers. If the diameters of the rootstock and scion are not the same, then these layers must be joined at least from three sides.
Types of copulation: a - simple; b - improved; c, d - with a saddle; e - securing the vaccination with tape
This method is used in cases where the rootstock diameter is from 8 to 100 mm, and may not coincide with the scion diameter. If the scion is much thinner, then several cuttings are grafted onto one cut. They do it like this:
The trunk in the place selected, as described above, is cut at a right angle. If grafted onto a branch, then the cut is placed as close to the base as possible.
A split 3-4 cm deep is made in the center of the cut with an ax or a knife
By inserting the pointed ends of the cuttings, make sure that the cambial layers coincide
The method is similar to the previous one with the first step and result. It differs in that the wood of the trunk is not damaged; instead, the bark is cut and folded back, behind which the graft is placed. The method is suitable for large-diameter trunks, it is recommended to evenly graft up to four cuttings on it.
The order of execution is as follows:
Bark grafting suitable for large diameter rootstocks
In whatever way the vaccination is carried out, the following rules are observed:
The described methods of inoculation are simple and reliable, tested by agronomists and gardeners for decades. During the growing season, cuttings give strong, healthy shoots that can withstand even harsh winters. By planting an apricot on a plum in early spring, the grower is confident of the result.
Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
Rate the article:
(2 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
A graft is a type of vegetative propagation of plants. In other words, it is a method of obtaining a new plant variety by combining one part of it with a part of another plant. At the same time, there is no need to buy a new seedling, spending money - it is enough just to have a small cutting of a tree at hand. But why are they vaccinated?
Just imagine: you bought a plot where fruit trees are already growing. After harvesting in the fall, you realize that the quality of the fruit could have been much better. What to do in this case - plant new trees? But they will begin to yield crops only after many years.
And grafting is ideal, since grafted trees can be harvested in about 3 years.
In addition, this procedure will help to rejuvenate trees, make them more resistant to many diseases without the use of fertilizing or any means to fight diseases. This applies to all fruit trees, including plums.
Gardeners who are serious about growing fruit trees are certainly familiar with several successful grafting methods. Each of them has its own positive and negative qualities. The summer resident must choose one splicing method for himself, which seems to him the most convenient and simple. In doing so, he should take into account the characteristics of trees, such as age, size and thickness of branches.
The variety of apricot and plum is of no small importance. Based on the above factors, a suitable splicing method is usually selected.
There are such methods of grafting an apricot:
Only a healthy stalk can take root in a new place. Before carrying out the procedure, it should be prepared. This measure will allow the apricot to quickly adapt to non-standard conditions for it.
It is recommended to harvest cuttings for further grafting in the fall. It is best to select the material that has grown well and got stronger during the summer season. It must have a healthy color and good quality shoots. Thin and damaged branches are best discarded immediately. It is unlikely that anything will come of them. And also do not waste your time on cuttings that are not strong enough.
The ideal storage location for grafting material is in a pit or basement. It is necessary to give preference to places in which constant dampness and cold are observed. The survival rate of the cuttings depends on the correct storage of the cuttings. Spread apricot sprigs on wet sand or sawdust. Any substrate will do. So that the cuttings do not deteriorate, you must remember to moisten the material in which they lie from time to time. This will keep the branches fresh for a long time.Grafting an apricot to a fruit tree such as a plum is a really good option for revitalizing the garden at their summer cottage. You need to understand that the first time inexperienced gardeners may fail. But you shouldn't be upset. This business requires constant practice. In order for the splicing to be successful, the gardener must exactly follow all the rules that relate to the conduct of this work. It will be useful for him to visit Internet forums, where professionals give useful advice to beginners on the effective grafting of fruit trees to each other.
If the summer resident does not want to waste his time on inoculating an apricot, which may end in failure, then he should invite a specialist. He, after studying the characteristics of the variety of fruit trees, will choose the best way to merge them. He will show the novice gardener the technique of carrying out this procedure, so that in the future he will be able to vaccinate without outside help.
The methods and techniques of vaccination do not depend on the types of scion and rootstock, therefore, having mastered them, the gardener will receive a useful experience in any case. Sweet cherries in the inoculation are somewhat capricious, therefore it is necessary to follow the advice of experienced practitioners in the preparation and conduct of this operation.
The best way to take root is the grafting of sweet cherries by the "split" method, carried out in the spring in a short period after the end of frost and before the onset of sap flow (before the buds swell). The survival rate at this time is maximum - about 95% (we are talking about grafting on cherries and cherries, there is no data on plum stock).
And also summer budding goes well (the methods of vaccination will be lower), which are carried out in late July-early August with the beginning of the second active phase of sap flow and the end of the growth of young shoots. Vaccinations in the fall are not recommended, as they usually do not have time to take root well before the onset of cold weather.
There are currently quite a few vaccine options available. In the case of cherries, two of them have worked best.
This method is most expedient in our case, since it makes it possible to merge plant parts with a large difference in diameters. In this case, a strongly growing sweet cherry may not overtake the plum in thickness. You need to take a stock with a diameter of 25-40 mm and graft on it 2-4 cherry cuttings with a diameter of 6-8 mm - later you can choose the most well-developed of them. It is better to prepare cuttings in late autumn, when the plants have already plunged into winter sleep. Twigs are cut from annual lignified shoots 25-40 cm long from a well-lit part of the crown (from the southern or southwestern side of the tree) and stored until spring at a temperature of + 2-4 ° C. To do this, you can put them on the top shelf of the refrigerator, after wrapping them in a damp cloth and putting them in a bag. With the onset of spring, they begin to vaccinate. They do it like this:
Using a sharp knife, make a split in the middle of the cut on the rootstock
When performing grafting, the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock should be combined as much as possible.
After installing the cuttings in the split, the grafting site is tightly wrapped with tape
With this method, not a cutting is used as a scion, but only one bud ("eye") with a part of the bark (the so-called scutellum), cut from a young shoot of the current year. Seedlings at the age of 1-3 years are used as a stock; the grafting site is chosen as low as possible (3-25 cm from the ground). Cherry grafting into the crown is not practiced, since strong-growing branches usually have insufficiently strong accretion and break off. The procedure for performing budding:
Both for T-shaped budding and for budding in the butt, the scion flap is cut equally
When budding "in the butt", an incision in the bark of the stock is made in the shape of the letter P
Grafting cherries on plums is an activity for enthusiasts. Perhaps, having found the optimal combination of plum and sweet cherry varieties, someone will be able to get a positive result, which will be worth the effort and time spent on it.
What can you plant a peach on? The following crops are suitable for this:
Let us briefly note the features of these rootstock options.
The peach rootstock grows well on well-fertilized loams, it does not tolerate heavy, saline, gravelly and carbonate soils. It does not produce abundant root growth and has a long lifespan. The disadvantage is low frost resistance and drought resistance. Many gardeners do not see the point in such grafting and use seed-rooted seedlings for reproduction, as well as shoots, although in these cases the preservation of varietal characteristics is not guaranteed.
Wild apricot (pole) is an excellent peach stock with almost 100% survival rate (provided the operation is carried out correctly). Zherdel is unpretentious, tolerates difficult conditions well, does not require much maintenance. The plant obtained as a result of grafting a peach on an apricot is frost-resistant, high yield, neat crown, and no sagging. It enters the fruiting stage already two years after the operation.
Cherry plum and plum - these two crops are often used as rootstock for peaches due to their unpretentiousness. Rarely exposed to diseases and pests. Well suited for regions with frequent rains, as they are not afraid of waterlogging. When choosing a variety for a rootstock, preference should be given to the most hardy ones. An excellent option is a wild plum that grows in a specific area. The disadvantage of cherry plum is the abundant formation of root shoots, which will have to be dealt with.
Wild almonds are the ideal rootstock for peaches in the southern regions. The result is drought-resistant, vigorous trees.
Felt cherries and blackthorn rootstock produce peaches in a short bush form. Using them, you need to be prepared for the fact that it will be necessary to install supports for the branches, since they often do not withstand the load from bountiful harvests and break.
And besides, breeders create special rootstocks. All of them, to one degree or another, have frost resistance and are used for growing peaches in the middle lane.
|OP 23 23||Semi-dwarf||A hybrid of sandy cherry and Ussuri plum|
|Spring flame||Medium-sized||Hybrid of Chinese plum and cherry plum|
|Eureka 99||Hybrid cherry plum + cherry plum|
|Fortune||Chinese plum + peach hybrid|
|ВСВ 1||Weak||Felt cherry + cherry plum hybrid|
Peach grafting is a fun activity for real gardeners to produce plants with improved properties. But this is not an easy occupation and requires certain knowledge and experience. Therefore, before starting it, it is worthwhile to practice well on less valuable or wild plants, and even better - to be trained by an experienced mentor.