Read the previous part ← Types and use of mineral fertilizers
A few practical tips: do not be afraid to use mineral fertilizers, following the rumors that this is some kind of "chemistry". All of them are obtained from natural deposits, from fossils, you just need to know why and how to use them.
However, negative habits persist for a long time and cause significant harm to practical vegetable growing and gardening. It turns out that gardeners and vegetable growers often become victims of stereotypes, false information, fables or inventions about mineral fertilizers.
We advise you to forget about it and use mineral fertilizers more widely to enrich the soil in practical vegetable growing and horticulture.
The fifth rule is the correct choice of fertilizer doses.
Organic fertilizers are applied in a wide range of doses from 7-8 kg / m² to 20-40 kg / m². The optimal doses are considered to be annual doses of 10-12 kg / m². Doses of micronutrient fertilizers boric acid, copper sulfate and cobalt sulfate are about 1 g / m², ammonium molybdate, potassium iodate - 0.5 g / m², all micronutrient fertilizers are applied once every four to five years. Doses of lime fertilizers range from 400 to 1200 g / m², the average optimal dose is 600 g / m². More accurately, you can determine the dose by pH (see table 1).
Table 1. Recommended doses of lime fertilizers depending on pH values
|Soils by mechanical composition||Dose of lime at pH, g / m2|
Mineral fertilizers are applied in the range of optimal doses for nitrogen and phosphorus - 4-12, for potassium - 4-8 g / m², for magnesium - 2-6 g / m² of active ingredient. Doses of mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can be more accurately determined based on agrochemical soil analysis taking into account the removal of nutrients from the soil by plants, based on the planned yield of agricultural crops in accordance with the cycle of plant nutrients in nature.
Hence, fertilizer doses should always be no less than the level of nutrient removal from the soil by plants. An approximate calculation of the doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers is given for potatoes in Table 5... Fertilizer doses for other crops are determined in a similar way. Reference data are shown in Tables 2-4.
Table 2. Reference data on the removal of nutrients by plants
|Culture||Carrying out the harvest based on 1 kg, g d.v.|
Table 3. Corrections to the removal of nutrients by plants, taking into account soil fertility
|Fertilizers||Corrections for the level of soil fertility: the dose is multiplied by the appropriate factor|
|at low||with an average||at high|
Table 4. Coefficients of possible losses of nutrients from fertilizers in the first year
|Fertilizers||Losses of batteries: multiply by the appropriate factor|
Table 5. An example of determining the doses of mineral fertilizers for the planned potato yield 3 kg / m².
|1.||The removal of nutrients by the potato crop is determined per 1 kg / m² (found in the reference book, table 2), g d.v .:|
nitrogen - 6.0, phosphorus - 2.0, potassium - 9.0
|2.||The actual removal of nutrients is determined by the planned yield of potatoes 3 kg / m2, gd:|
nitrogen - 18.0, phosphorus - 6.0, potassium - 27.0
|3.||There are adjustments to the doses in connection with the level of soil fertility, according to the reference book, table. 3, for example, with average nitrogen fertility, average phosphorus and high potassium fertility:|
nitrogen - 1.0, phosphorus - 1.0, potassium - 0.3
|4.||The removal of nutrients is determined by the planned yield of potatoes, taking into account amendments for soil fertility, g.v .:|
nitrogen - 18.0, phosphorus - 6.0, potassium - 18.1
|5.||There are adjustments to doses in connection with possible losses of nutrients, according to the reference book, table. four:|
nitrogen - 1.2, phosphorus - 1.5, potassium - 1.2
|6.||The removal of nutrients by the planned yield of potatoes is determined, taking into account possible losses of nutrients, by multiplying by the loss factor, g.v .:|
nitrogen - 21.6, phosphorus - 9.0, potassium - 21.72
|7.||The final dose of specific mineral fertilizers (taking into account the content of nutrients in them) is determined for the planned potato yield, g / m2:|
ammonium nitrate (34%) - 63.52, double superphosphate (45%) - 20.0, potassium chloride (53%) - 34.47 g / m².
|8.||Doses are determined for the main, pre-sowing and fertilizing fertilizers. When planting, it is necessary to add 7 g / m² of superphosphate, in top dressing - 7 g / m² of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. The rest is the main fertilizer for digging before planting.|
Thus, in order to obtain the planned potato yield of 3 kg / m², on soil with an average level of nitrogen fertility, an average level of phosphorus and a high level of potassium, it is necessary to add 10 kg of manure, 57 g of ammonium nitrate, 13 g of double superphosphate, 28 g potassium chloride, 400 g of dolomite flour, 1 g of boric acid, 1 g of copper sulfate, 1 g of cobalt sulfate, 0.5 g of ammonium molybdate and 0.5 g of potassium iodate per square meter of potato field when digging the soil before planting to a depth of 18 cm.
When planting potatoes, it is necessary to add 7 g / m² of superphosphate, in top dressing - 7 g / m² of ammonium nitrate and 7 g / m² of potassium chloride. In the same way, you can determine the dose of fertilizers for any other vegetable or fruit and berry crop.
The sixth rule of fertilization is the correct timing of fertilization.
This rule is also called the rule of advance in time. In order for the plants to receive nutrients from the soil in a timely manner, it is necessary to take care of the advance introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers into the soil, that is, fertilizers must be applied in advance, ahead of time, a few days before the moment when the plants require nutrients. During this time, the necessary physicochemical reactions will take place between the fertilizer and the soil so that the fertilizer turns into nutrients for plants, and they become available to them.
Plants cannot wait for nutrients to appear at the request of the owner, because they cannot stop the process of absorption of elements by the roots, since their lifespan is very limited. Therefore, fertilizers must be applied 7-30 days before the time when the plants need nutrients for their life. Therefore, all the main fertilizers are applied before sowing in the stock with the expectation that the nutrients from these fertilizers are available to the plants during the period of their intensive growth.
To improve the germination of seeds and the growth of a young seedling until the formation of 2-3 true leaves, a pre-sowing phosphorus fertilizer is necessary. It is required to apply when sowing or planting plants so that the fertilizer can be used after about 3-10 days at germination and emergence.
When applying fertilizers for top dressing, nutrients can be available to plants only after 1-2 weeks from the moment of their introduction. This is also a lead time. It is also necessary for the transfer of nutrients from fertilizers. into the soil, and for regrowth of roots. In agrotechnical measures, for example, during cultivation or when digging a furrow for line fertilization, you have to prune the roots of the plants by hand. It takes time for the roots of the branch to be able to absorb nutrients. Therefore, fertilizers are always applied ahead of time - a few days before the time when the plants enter the phase of intensive growth and they need a lot of nutrients for this.
Therefore, in order to choose the right time for fertilization, it is necessary to know well the biology of plant nutrition, their growth and development phases, in order to apply fertilizers in advance and provide them with favorable growing conditions.
Thus, all gardeners and vegetable growers need to know the timing of the consumption of nutrients during the entire growing season, it is necessary to take into account the age rhythms in plant nutrition in order to correctly apply fertilizers. And first, you need to remember that, taking into account the age needs of plants, fertilizers must be applied in three terms. The first period is before sowing, that is, 20-30 days before the period of maximum absorption of nutrients by plants from fertilizers in the phase of intensive growth.
The second period is when sowing, that is, 2-10 days before the elements are absorbed by plants during seed germination. And the third period is after sowing, that is, 15-25 days before the beginning of the absorption of elements from the fertilizing fertilizer. Moreover, all three periods of fertilization must be fulfilled, otherwise the nutrition of this plant will be disrupted or defective.
Errors of non-observance of the advance rule are as follows:
There are other errors as well. Often gardeners and vegetable growers ask: how to feed the plants, otherwise they grow poorly? This formulation of the question is wrong, erroneous. Delayed application of fertilizers is usually useless, it is just that the plants have already passed into another phase of their development, and now they already require other nutrients.
Read the next part. Soil pollution control, lime fertilizers →
Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
Photo by E. Valentinov
Read all parts of the article "Golden rules for the use of fertilizers"
- Part 1. General information on fertilizers
- Part 2. Specificity of various fertilizers
- Part 3. Types and uses of organic fertilizers
- Part 4. Types and uses of mineral fertilizers
- Part 5. Combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers
- Part 6. Control of soil pollution, lime fertilizers
It is almost impossible to imagine a modern garden or vegetable garden where fertilizers are not applied. Indeed, without their use, it will not be possible to get large yields of vegetables and fruits, lush flower beds or a healthy emerald lawn. Today's range of fertilizers is large, so understanding it is not an easy task.
The nutrition received by the plant from the soil consists of ions of mineral substances, which are absorbed by the roots from the soil solution and are then used by the plant along with carbon dioxide and water to support life. But the roots of plants not only passively absorb water with substances dissolved in it - they produce various secretions and enter into complex interaction with particles and microflora of the soil, due to which the plant receives the necessary substances from the soil. The soil with all the animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms inhabiting it and their interactions is a complex structure that easily adapts to changing environmental conditions, but just as easily it is disturbed. This is what happens in agriculture of any scale, even on 6 acres - it interrupts the course of natural processes and destroys the natural biocenosis (that is, the community of plants, animals and microorganisms with all their interrelationships), creating an artificial one instead. We remove fallen leaves, old grass, weeds, destroy pests, water the soil with chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Finally, we use a variety of geo-coverings - for example, we cover the soil with a black film so that weeds do not grow on it. All this leads to the fact that the natural process of soil restoration does not occur, and it, sooner or later, is depleted and degraded. In order to prevent this from happening, a number of measures are needed, such as crop rotation, the introduction of earthen mixtures, mulching and, of course, the competent use of fertilizers, because if they are applied illiterately or excessively, they can ruin the soil for many years. In addition, fertilizers are also vital to create and maintain a high agronomic background on the site, because few summer residents will be satisfied with natural harvests: give the gardener a scattering of strawberries, bunches of tomatoes, record harvests of apples, from which branches bend to the ground, a riot of flower beds and piercing green of the lawn ...
What organic feeding are meant? You can use compost, sapropel, bird droppings, vermicompost, but at home this is not always possible for a number of reasons. Therefore, it is more convenient to use ready-made, packaged organic fertilizers.
In just a few years of my home experiments with organic matter, Ideal proved to be the best, as a universal means for feeding soil and flower-pot crops. "Ideal" is created on the basis of vermicompost, that is, on the basis of the waste products of earthworms. In this regard, it can be considered natural and completely safe. And plants respond well to it, and it is inexpensive.
It is very simple to use "Ideal": the manufacturer recommends 1-2 tablespoons of the product, without diluting it, pour it under the plant. Once every two weeks is more than enough. There is also a good remedy "Palm", which is suitable for all palm and ficuses.
Each plant has its own fertilizer needs. For example, a plant bought in a store can not be fed for 2-3 months, since the soil already contains all the necessary substances. The minimum period after which you can start feeding is 6-7 weeks.
When introducing fertilizers, remember that the principle "you cannot spoil porridge with oil" in this case is not suitable: excessive use of organic fertilizers can harm plants, because the higher the content of organic fertilizers in the soil, the higher the nitrogen assimilation, and an excess of nitrogen can lead to slower growth young plants and even chlorosis.
In solving the problems of increasing the productivity of agricultural crops in collective, farm and subsidiary plots, an important place belongs to the chemicalization of agriculture. Studies have established that about 50% of the yield increase can be obtained through the use of fertilizers, and the rest - due to soil cultivation, the quality of the seed, crop rotations used, etc.
TYPES OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS
Organic fertilizers. Farm animal manure (a mixture of feces, urine and bedding), poultry droppings, peat, straw, sapropel (lake silt), municipal wastewater sludge, sawdust, organic food waste not used for feed are used as organic fertilizers in farms and households. livestock, green fertilizers (green manure).
Pig manure contains more nitrogen and phosphorus, but significantly less potassium than cattle manure. Poultry manure has the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content.
Mineral fertilizers. In agriculture, simple, complex and complex mineral fertilizers are used.
The simple ones include: nitrogen, phosphorus, as well as individual micronutrient fertilizers (molybdenum, boric, etc.). To complex, consisting of two, three, and sometimes more nutrients - ammophos, nitrophos and others.
In practice, two or three fertilizers are often applied simultaneously.In this case, simple fertilizers are pre-mixed with each other in order to avoid repeated operations on their application on the same area. You can use ready-made complex fertilizers (ammophos, nitrophos, etc.), as well as complex ones.
Preparation of organic fertilizers
On garden plots for the accumulation and preparation of fertilizers from organic waste and materials by composting (microbiological decomposition), a variety of technological methods and devices are used. A common method of composting is the so-called "layer-by-layer method", in which compostable organic materials (waste) are placed in a pile in layers of 15-20 cm, bringing the pile to a height of 1.5-2.0 m, the width of the pile is 2.0-2, 5 m. The top is covered with peat or earth. In the upper part of the pile, recesses are arranged for collecting rainwater and irrigating the compostable mass with slurry. Lime, phosphoric flour, kainite can be added to the compostable organic mass (at the rate of 4-5 kg per 1 m 3 of the compostable organic mass). The scheme of composting organic waste by layer-by-layer stacking is shown in Fig. 1-a.
Fig. 1. Compost heap (a) and various containers (b, c, d, e) for the preparation of organic fertilizers in a garden plot.
In garden and household plots for the preparation of organic fertilizers from all types of organic waste, various containers (containers) are used, into which animal excrement, weed stems, kitchen waste, leaves, and litter of domestic animals are loaded. When composting organic waste, do not put in containers: stems of diseased plants, contaminated with herbicides or poisonous (poppy, snowfield). The latter in poorly decomposed compost inhibit beneficial microorganisms. Containers also do not include inseminated weeds and weeds such as wheatgrass and sow thistle. They are burned after drying.
Plant residues are decomposed by bacteria and yeasts, which are always present in the soil.
Decomposition of organic waste requires air, water, heat and nitrogen. Therefore, containers for composting them have perforated surfaces through which air enters the organic mass (Fig. 1 b, c, d, e).
Sometimes compost is made from straw or plants by sprinkling with slurry, liquid droppings, or feces.
Such compost is very valuable as its nitrogen content reaches 14%.
Straw compost is not clogged with weed seeds and is one of the fast-acting organic fertilizers.
Food waste is a valuable addition of organic matter to compost. To scare away rodents, nettle leaves, black roots, prickly rose hips are placed on food waste.
The container (compost bin) is covered with foil, and the mass in it is poured with water once or twice during a month in warm weather.
The compost readiness time depends on the composition of the components, weather, compliance with composting technology. It ranges from six months to one and a half years.
The organic reserve of soil in the backyard is also maintained with the help of green fertilizer. These are plants grown in order to dig them up in the soil or mow and leave them on the surface: This is often done in orchards: grasses are sown under the trees and mowed as they grow. The beveled part serves as both mulch and top dressing, which, gradually decomposing, gives nutrients to the plants.
After harvesting part or all of the crop, it is advisable to sow mustard, annual lupins, rye, vetch or clover on bare ground in a warm autumn. The green carpet of the new sowing protects the soil from washing away, restricts the growth of weeds. Places for the preparation of composts on garden plots are located in the shade of trees at a distance of at least 15-20 m from residential buildings.
Mineral fertilizers are stored in household plots in cellophane bags, stacked on racks in dry utility rooms (sheds).
On household plots, in collective and farms, a highly effective alternative to the chemicalization of soils is the use of biohumus - a product of the vital activity of earthworms that are widespread in nature. Living in the soil, earthworms structure and reclaim the latter.
For a day, an individual of the worm consumes an amount of food equal to its body weight - about one gram. After digestion, 60% of vermicompost is released, which contains all the nutrients necessary for plants in a well-balanced form. It has a high moisture content and is able to hold up to 70% water. Each ton of food processed by worms produces 600 kg of fertilizer containing 30% humus and 70% ash residue. The composition of humus includes nitrogen, phosphorus pentaoxide, potassium oxide, calcium, magnesium, iron and other trace elements necessary for plants.
To obtain vermicompost, it is necessary to properly prepare an organic substrate (food for worms). It is prepared from various organic and mineral components (animal manure, dung, peat, straw, lignin, sawdust, bark, lime, defecate, zeolites, etc.). The moisture content of the mixture for preparing the substrate should be within 70-80%, it should not contain solid inclusions (stones, metal, wood, glass, etc.), the acidity should be neutral. The main condition is the presence of air in the substrate and its homogeneity, as well as the required ratio between carbon and nitrogen (20: 1). For the course of biothermal processes, the mixture is placed in piles 1.5-2.0 m wide and up to 2 m high. collars. The cyclic time of stirring the substrate in the piles is determined by the period of time during which the mass is heated to 50-60 ° C. The exposure of thermal treatment at a steady temperature of 50-60 ° C should be 5-10 days.
The full maturation period of the substrate in the summer period is 2-3 months, in the winter - 3-5.
The prepared substrate is spread with a layer 20-30 cm thick, 1.0-1.5 m wide, moistened to 70-80% and allowed to stand for 10-15 days. Before moistening, crushed lime, chalk, etc. (5-10 kg / t) are applied to the surface and worms are populated from 1.5 to 2.5 thousand individuals of the uterine brood per 1 m 2, evenly distributing them over the surface. Resettlement of worms is performed at sunset.
During the night, worms gradually burrow deep into the substrate. The surface of the substrate inhabited by worms is covered with chopped straw or burlap. 3-5 days after settling, the substrate is moistened to 50-60% humidity. Subsequently, the substrate is moistened within 65-85%. The temperature of the substrate is maintained at 17-27 ° C after 23-35 days, a layer of new substrate 6-7 cm thick is applied to the substrate inhabited by worms, while ensuring that its moisture content is within 70-80%.
The preparation of vermicompost can be carried out on personal plots, using prepared organic waste (plant residues, animal manure, kitchen waste, etc.) as a substrate for worms. Vermicomposting in personal plots can be done by stacking the substrate in heaps or loaded into containers.
When composting in heaps, waste is stacked in layers: coarser material at the bottom (cuttings of branches, grass), on top - smaller organic residues. The waste is moisturized and left to rot. After 1-1.5 months, when inside the heap, the processes of strong heating of the mass end and the temperature drops to 20 ° C, it is populated with worms. To do this, holes are arranged over the entire surface of the heap, which are populated with worms (about 100 copies in each hole). To improve the nutrition of the worms, kitchen waste is periodically added to the compost heap. After 3-4 months, organic waste is transformed by worms into vermicompost. To separate the worms from the compost, a new heap is formed from fresh waste next to the compost heap, where the worms crawl in search of food.
It is also possible to arrange so-called movable vermicompost heaps. At the same time, fresh waste is placed from time to time at one end of the pile, and ready-made compost is collected at the other. In such piles, the worms gradually crawl for new food.
For vermiculture processing of organic waste that accumulates in the personal plot, you can also use various containers with holes for air exchange. They are placed in the garden, in places protected from direct sunlight.
In order to comply with sanitary and environmental requirements in the garden area, structures are located in the far corner.
Fig. 2. Scheme of the facility for the accumulation and preparation of organic fertilizers:
I, II, III - chambers for accumulation and preparation of fertilizers
A, B - conditional zones of the compost mass
1 - wall
2 - reinforcement in the partition
3 - beam
4 - barn
5 - compost mass
6 - toilet
7 - the bottom of the structure.
In the excavated foundation pit 2000 mm deep, the straight and inclined sections of the floor are concreted (Fig. 2). The walls of the pit are laid out of rubble stone, brick, or made of concrete. The wall thickness is 120-130 mm. The volume of the concrete tank is divided by concrete walls into three compartments I, II, III. A barn and a toilet are being built at the top of the tank. The process of preparing organic fertilizers from all types of organic waste that accumulate in the garden, including feces, is carried out as follows.
A layer (about 10 cm) of peat or previously prepared compost is placed on the bottom of the middle chamber II, and then organic residues. Subsequently, chamber II is loaded as household and plant waste accumulates (kitchen, weed vegetation after weeding the site, etc.). Gradual loading of chamber II with organic waste contributes to their good decomposition.
Feces from chamber I enter chamber II (zone A) and are absorbed by decomposing organic waste loaded into chamber II. If the summer is dry, 1-2 times the organic mass in chamber II is moistened with water until the latter appears in chamber III. In autumn, the compost mass is discharged from chamber III through the lower slot and in the partition between chambers II and III. Compost from chamber III can be partially unloaded in summer. Waste should not be accumulated over several years in chamber II, since a large volume of compost after excavation in zone "B" does not decompose and the chamber overflows. If chamber II is loaded with a large amount of green mass, it is better to distribute kitchen waste evenly over it - decomposition is faster. And with a large accumulation of kitchen waste in the upper layer, it is advisable to cover them with a small amount of grass.
For those owners of garden plots who contain rabbits, nutria, chickens, etc., compost can be prepared based on the use of animal excrement and chicken droppings, as well as feces, according to the following scheme. Next to the shed for keeping small animals or chickens, two wooden containers (1.0x2.0x1.1 m) are equipped in which manure or dung is collected.
The layer of manure formed in 15-20 days is sprinkled with phosphorus flour, ash, feces from the toilet are added and sprinkled with grass, weed stems collected during weeding of the site. When the thickness of the mass in the container reaches 50-60 cm, 5-6 holes are arranged in it, which are filled with water to speed up the process of composting organic waste. Then this operation is performed when the layer height reaches 0.75-0.80 and 1.0 m. The organic mass in the container does not loosen and does not mix. Within 3.0-3.5 months, organic waste is completely decomposed and can be used to fertilize trees, shrubs, vegetables.
When growing various crops, earthworms are often much more effective than many fertilizers. But not many people know that they can be bred quite simply.
It is done like this: Dig a hole 50x50x50 cm in size, put there leaves, some small waste paper, pieces of corrugated cardboard, fill it with kitchen waste and put some earthworms. In a short time, their number will increase hundreds of times.
"Bioconversion of organic waste in a biodynamic economy", N.М. Gorodnim, I.A. Melnik, Lorand Nagy and others. Publishing house "Harvest", Kiev, 1990
"Small-scale mechanization in households and farms", Publishing house "Harvest", Kiev. 1996 year
"TOLOKA-AGRO - collection of folk agro-tricks", Vadimir Kobets, Publishing house "Master", Kharkov. 1996 year
"Agrochemistry and fertilizer system", M.P. Petukhov, E.A. Panova, N.Kh. Dubina, Kolos Publishing House, Moscow, 1979
"Microfertilizers - Reference Book", P.I. Anspok, Kolos Publishing House, Leningrad, 1978
For owners of garden plots, a facility for the preparation of high-quality fertilizers from all types of organic waste, including feces, is of interest (see the magazine "Household economy", No. 6, 1985).
Consultations on the preparation of vermicompost and the solution of issues on, the acquisition of worms can be obtained in the cooperative "Fertility" (Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk, street Garkushi, 2).
– Note: the address of this cooperative may have changed, since I prepared the material for this article in the early 90s. I would be grateful to everyone who will send you the addresses of organizations dealing with these technologies at the present time. My address: 440039 Russia, Penza, PO Box 1510 Patlakh Vyacheslav Vladimirovich.
Compiled by: Patlakh V.V.
Plants remove a significant amount of nutrients from the soil, and in order for the soil to retain its fertility, it needs systematic replenishment. fertilizers ... Sandy, sandy loam, loamy soils especially need them. Without fertilization, plant growth slows down, yields decrease.
Depending on the chemical composition, fertilizers are mineral ( nitrogen , phosphoric , potash , magnesium , complex, calcareous), organic (manure, bird droppings, compost, peat, feces, green fertilizers and others), organomineral and bacterial. Some directly affect the plant, others indirectly.
Fertilizer application improves the nutrient, water, thermal regime of the soil, its chemical and microbiological properties and generally increases its fertility.
Correct, competent use of fertilizers - a very important norm of farming when growing fruit trees, shrubs, berries, vegetable crops. Both the yield and the quality of the fruits, including the taste, depend on this. When applying fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of plants, the composition of the soil, the presence of nutrients in it, its moisture content, air saturation, etc. For example, on light sandy and sandy loamy soils, the greatest yield increase is achieved with the combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers. In turn, on both light and heavy soils, the use of organic fertilizers enriches the soil with humus, thereby creating conditions for increasing the doses of mineral fertilizers and growing intensive varieties of crops that require a lot of nutrients. But we must also take into account the fact that during the growing moon, the earth "does not want" to perceive liquid. The best effect is achieved when fertilizing, especially in a dissolved state, on a full moon or when the moon is waning.
On rich chernozem soils, plants often lack phosphorus on podzolic loamy soils - nitrogen, and then phosphorus on light sandy loam - both nitrogen and potassium, and phosphorus.
The gardener is obliged to constantly observe the plants.They are able to signal a lack of certain nutrients in the soil, which should be replenished immediately.
Plow well. Manage. Pigeon droppings should be scattered over a meadow, vegetable garden or field.
Save it carefully. any dung.
... What will you get manure from?
Straw, lupine, legumes, chaff, leaves ..
Lupine will be good on red ground, on loose and dark ground, on heavy, gravelly, sandy.
Cato the Elder, Roman Senator (2nd century BC)
Depending on the composition, organic, mineral, organo-mineral and bacterial fertilizers are distinguished. Among the mineral fertilizers, lime fertilizers are often distinguished. Among organic fertilizers, a separate group is made up of green (green manure) fertilizers.
Agrovit-Kor can be used with other organic and mineral fertilizers. This will make it possible to reduce the application of other fertilizers by 25-30% of the norm without Agrovit-Cora.
"Agrovit-Kor" is certified for safety by regional and state organizations of sanitary and epidemiological supervision, does not contain weed seeds, pesticides, plant pathogens, eggs and larvae of insects, helminths, and is a highly concentrated organic fertilizer. Fertilizer "Agrovit-Kor" is included in the State Register and approved by the State Chemical Commission of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Industrial Complex throughout Ukraine.
The raw materials for the production of various brands of Agrovit-Kor are the following types of fertilizers and biologically active materials:
The fundamental basis of "Agrovit-Cora" is the active centers of soil formation (CPO) - microscopic colloidal systems that regulate the mechanism of biological circulation of organic and mineral substances. The action of the CPO is as follows:
- interacting with the parent rock (clay), they ensure the transition of forms of macro- and microelements (potassium, nitrogen, etc.) inaccessible to plants into accessible
- in combination with other constituent components, it is possible to form in the soil in one growing season up to 30 t / ha of specific organic substances and highly active organic acids in the arable soil layer (0-40 cm), an increase of humus is formed from 0.2 to 1.3 % (1 kg of "Agrovit-Kor" forms 2-5 kg of humus) 1t of agrovit-kor = 100t of manure.
- CPO continuously regulate the organomineral balance in the root layer of the soil, disturbed by the vital activity of plants.
Thus, the use of Agrovit-Kor fertilizers allows to grow high yields without depleting the soil, but on the contrary, increasing the agrochemical level of the arable horizon.
When applying fertilizer doses of 0.5 t / ha and higher in the first year, the next year it is not applied for subsequent crops, and an increase in yield is provided due to the aftereffect. A light bloom formed on the fertilizer during storage, when fertilizing the soil, has a positive effect on plants, increasing their resistance to infectious diseases.
The combined use of "Agrovit-Kora" fertilizer and mineral fertilizers allows you to get high-quality and lowest cost agricultural products. At the same time, we recommend that you adhere to the following proportions: for 1 hectare - 250-500 kg of Agrovit-Kor and 20-30% of the recommended doses of mineral fertilizers. For 1 hundred square meters for digging - 5 kg, when making a bed for 1 stack - 0.5 kg or 1 glass per 1 running meter of a bed.
Composition and physical properties of "Agrovit-Kor"
"Agrovit-Kor" ® is a product containing:
Fertilizer "Agrovit-Kor" is a crumbly mass of dark brown color. Its main characteristics:
When working the soil, the main amount of fertilizer is applied. Do this in the fall or early spring before sowing the seeds. It should be 2/3 of the total required volume. Dry mixtures are buried in the ground to a depth of 15 cm, where the root zone of most plants is located.
When sowing crops, it is useful to add nutrient mixtures. This contributes to good germination of seeds, the formation of a powerful root system, and protects against diseases. Mineral fertilizers are mixed with the soil to reduce contact with the seeds or roots of the seedlings.
The presowing dose should be no more than 9% of the total requirement. Root dressing is carried out during the entire vegetative period. They are brought directly into the growing zone. A combination of mineral fertilizers, organics and microelements is useful. Pre-moisten the soil and only then add dry mixtures.
Liquid dressings are convenient. The required amount of mineral salts is dissolved in 10 liters of water, after which they are completely absorbed by the plant.
Foliar dressing is performed by spraying the stems and leaves with a solution of mineral elements, which contributes to their rapid absorption. Often the procedure is combined with pest control.
If you add useful mineral elements to the water for drip irrigation, you get a kind of liquid top dressing, and the plant will constantly receive nutrition.
Fertilizers play an important role in the cultivation of cultivated plants. In this case, one should adhere to certain rules, take into account the needs for chemical elements of different cultures. Doses and proportions must be observed so that these actions do not do more harm than good.