Grapes in our country are conquering new territories, moving north. This is due to the efforts of breeders who develop new varieties that are resistant to various vagaries of the weather. One of the varieties that recently appeared in the gardens of summer residents is the Furshetny grape, which is characterized by both beautiful and tasty berries and unpretentiousness, which allows it to be grown in relatively cold regions.
Furshetny grape is a fairly new hybrid obtained in the city of Zaporozhye by the famous breeder Vitaly Vladimirovich Zagorulko. The winegrower is known, first of all, for his approach to work and the desire to create early varieties that give beautiful, large and tasty berries with an excellent presentation.
The hybrid began its march through the gardens of Ukraine and our country in 2008. The buffet was obtained by crossing two well-known varieties: Kuban and Gift to Zaporozhye. And since the Kuban variety, in turn, originated from the Moldova and Cardinal varieties, it turns out that the juices of many ancestors flow in Furshetnoye, and from each he took the best features for himself. The Kuban gave him the shape and color of the berries, and the Gift to Zaporozhye - the dignity of the bush: strength and unpretentiousness.
Furshetny's mother - Kuban grapes - gave him the shape and color of the berries
The described variety is characterized by rapid ripening (no more than 4 months), the berries are ready for consumption by mid-August. Lovers describe the taste of berries as unique, professional tasters also highly appreciate it.
Since the Buffet grape (popularly already called the Fourchette) was bred recently, some of the nuances of its cultivation have not yet been sufficiently studied, and the history of this variety is literally being written before our eyes. It will take some more time to fully investigate its resistance to various diseases: while they say that it has an average level of immunity. The variety has not yet moved far north, therefore, the declared temperature resistance (up to -22 aboutC) may be adjusted.
The Furshetny bush is a very powerful plant with a well-developed root system. Annually it can give more than ten new shoots, as a result of which the bush without pruning can thicken strongly and, although it has enough growth strength for all the vines, the quality of the crop may suffer, including from a lack of sunlight. The bushes are highly branched, their foliage is high, the leaves are large, painted in a dark green color.
The strength of the bush allows you to give huge yields, but it needs competent care
With good care, Furshetny grapes yield very high yields of berries of excellent taste every year. Bunches of regular cylindrical-conical shape, their standard weight is from 500 to 800 g, some specimens are larger. Bunches weighing up to 2 kg are described. The berries are oblong, large, purple or dark blue, tightly planted to each other. The color from red-violet to dark blue changes as it ripens, so in one bunch there can be berries of different shades. The weight of each berry is from 8 to 12 g, some specimens can grow up to 20 g. The skin on the berries is dense, but thin, edible. This, as well as a stable wax coating, is an undoubted advantage in terms of the possibility of transporting grapes. The taste is sweet, rich, acid, in comparison with many familiar varieties, it is not felt enough. The juiciness is good. After consumption for a while, the mouth tastes like raisins, prunes or mulberries. The berries are well stored, practically do not crack, even in a damp summer. But you need to collect them on time: when overexposed on a bush, the taste deteriorates somewhat.
When the author of these lines Furshetny gave the first harvest (only two small bunches), we were in no hurry to harvest it, not knowing what it should be in a completely finished form. And the taste seemed mediocre. But the next year they began to try in advance. And it turned out that the berries picked on time really have an exquisite aftertaste!
The buffet variety is considered a mid-summer variety: depending on the climate of the region and the current weather, it can be classified as early or medium-ripening varieties. It takes about 4 months for the berries to ripen, but in the case of a bountiful harvest, the peak of its harvest may also fall on September.
Giving a general description of Furshetny, wine-growers and tasters give it much more pluses than minuses. The undoubted advantages include:
There are much fewer disadvantages of the variety. Critical, but which can be dealt with by proper care, are perhaps two:
Agricultural scientists estimate the resistance of Furshetny to such dangerous diseases as mildew and oidium, only 3 points out of 5 possible, which forces the gardener to be on the alert and have in stock chemical means of fighting diseases. But, as you know, it is better to prevent a disease than to cure it. Prevention is achieved by proper care. Proper care (in particular, timely and competent pruning) prevents the crop from overloading the bush.
The basic principles of planting and growing Furshetny do not differ from those in the case of any cultivated grape variety, there are only some nuances associated with its high shoot-forming ability.
For the successful cultivation of grapes in summer cottages, several factors determining success must be taken into account. Grapes are a light-loving plant, and with a lack of sunlight, good berries cannot be obtained. The second factor is heat: normal growth and fruiting occur at temperatures not lower than 20 ° C, the leaves of most varieties freeze at the slightest frost, and even perennial wood dies in frosts of -25-28 ° C. Grapes are a drought-resistant plant, but with proper irrigation, the yield increases several times.
The best time for planting grapes in most regions is the end of April. Autumn planting is also possible in the south. As for the Furshetny variety specifically, due to its high frost resistance, in most regions it can be planted even in March, for two months, or in the fall, in October and until mid-November. When planting in autumn, of course, you must carefully wrap it up for the winter.
The grapes grow both on level ground and on temperate slopes. It cannot be placed in the lowlands and on the northern slopes due to the danger of damage from spring frosts. Grapes grow on any soil, except for heavily swampy areas and areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. For planting grapes in the country, you need to choose places protected from the wind.
Pre-planting soil preparation in a garden plot consists in digging it with fertilizers. Unlike vegetable beds, when digging, you do not need to remove fragments of bricks, not very large stones, etc.: grapes grow well on rocky soils. They are planting grapes in the pits. Often, holes are dug near various buildings. The size is not less than 80 × 80 × 80 cm. A good layer of drainage should be laid on the bottom of the pit (gravel, broken brick, etc.), a well-mixed mixture of humus, good soil, sand and mineral fertilizers should be placed. But fertilizers are for the future, and the bush is planted in soil mixed only with compost or well-decomposed manure (3: 1). On very acidic soils, a little lime can be added.
When planting several bushes, the planting pits are essentially combined into trenches. And crushed stone and irrigation pipes resemble a serious hydraulic structure.
The bush is planted deeply so that the roots extending immediately from the heel of the seedling do not fall under the influence of temperatures below -5 ° C. If several bushes are planted at once, the minimum distance between grape bushes in a row should be 1.25 m, but Furshetny forms such powerful bushes that for him this distance should be doubled, and, if possible, tripled: up to 3 meters or more.
A mixture of soil and humus is poured into the prepared hole with gravel and fertilizers so that the seedling, placed with the heel on this mixture, looks out a little. Before planting, a strong stake is driven in for a garter of an intensively growing vine, as well as a piece of a strong wide pipe through which water is delivered to the roots for the first 1-2 years. A small mound of earth is poured and a bush is planted. The planting technique is common, but as a result, only 1-2 buds should be visible from the filled hole, and even they are covered with earth, making a hill 2-3 cm high above the upper bud.
Having planted grapes in the country, you need to realize that you will have to take care of it constantly. True, most of the work is quite accessible to a beginner, but something will also need to be learned. The main work is watering, feeding, pruning, shelter for the winter. Top dressing is done infrequently, but annually. Grapes are very fond of potassium, so potash fertilizers can be used in the maximum allowable dose, best of all in the form of wood ash. In autumn, organic fertilizers are used, to which superphosphate can also be added. In the spring, any fertilizers are possible, including nitrogen. It is often easier to make foliar dressing by spraying the bushes with diluted fertilizer solutions. In order not to burn the leaves, this procedure is carried out in the evening hours. The most important foliar dressing is a week before the blooming of flowers and immediately after flowering, as well as with the beginning of ripening of berries. It is best to take complex fertilizers and apply them strictly according to the instructions for the drug.
Now it is not difficult to find suitable fertilizers, it is difficult to choose the right one. It is convenient to use ready-made preparations for feeding
Often foliar dressing is combined with treatment with Bordeaux liquid to fight diseases. The best option, combining top dressing with prevention, is the use of wood ash, which is infused in water for a day (a handful of ash in a bucket of water). The main diseases of Furshetny are of fungal origin: mildew, anthracnose and powdery mildew.
The need for watering depends on the region and the weather. Watering of young bushes is mandatory until they have taken root well enough and have not taken deep roots. For fruiting bushes, watering is usually required immediately after flowering and, in dry autumn, just before winter. The norm in the summer is 2-3 buckets per bush, and more for the winter. However, Furshetny, due to its ability for strong growth and fruiting, requires more water, so you need to be prepared for the fact that in a dry summer you will have to drink a lot of it. Without enough moisture, the berries will not be as juicy as they would grow under ideal conditions. However, excess water can cause excessive growth of shoots, poor ripening, and the taste of berries will be worse. What exactly is impossible - to water the grapes before flowering or during it: the flowers will crumble, there will be much less berries. Watering is required when the berries are being poured, but they must be stopped one month before harvesting.
The most qualified of all things in the vineyard is pruning: you will not learn how to prune a vine right away, but without it there will not be a good harvest. Pruning is essentially a surgical procedure that requires skill and creativity. Until the beginning of fruiting, the bushes are cut in early spring, before the start of sap flow, and after four years - only in the fall. A buffet table is almost always formed according to a standard fanless principle, leaving up to 30 strong shoots per bush. Along with pruning, you should remove the old bark lagging behind the vine to allow the vine to breathe and allow the young bark layer to form.
First of all, you need to cut out frozen areas and shoots that strongly thicken the bush, which interfere with the growth of stronger ones. In general, there are so many options for forming a bush that you need to seriously study special literature before getting down to business. To facilitate the work of pruning, it is necessary to constantly break out excess young green shoots in the summer: the bush will treat the breaking of greenery painlessly. With a timely breakdown, the green shoot is removed simply by hand. You can not deal with breaking only during flowering.
Breaking off excess green shoots is easy and painless.
In most regions of the country, grapes of cultivated varieties have to be covered from frost for the winter. This also applies to the Buffet grapes. Before the shelter, a thorough pruning is carried out, removing broken and excess branches, as well as unripe parts of the vine. Well-ripened shoots are removed from the supports and laid on the ground, tied in compact bunches. The grapes are harvested at the end of October, and the methods of shelter depend on how severe the winters are in a particular region, how much snow there is. Perhaps the most correct for the Furshetny will be a reliable shelter of vines taken from the trellises with spruce or pine branches, or a thick layer of dry leaves of fruit trees. If there is no spruce branches, the vines laid on the ground can be covered with boards, slate and other flat materials: until it pours snow, the bushes will be blown by the wind, and the mice will not be afraid of them. And under the snow the bushes will be warm, if only it fell on time.
Of all the possible ways of arranging vines for Furshetny, due to the power of its bush, only trellis growing is suitable - on any suitable supports. They can be different: from the device of vertical and horizontal pipes to any mesh with large cells. The uniform distribution of vines in the space provides optimal lighting and airflow of the bush.
For the installation of trellises, strong posts or metal pipes are driven into the ground. The number of them is chosen so that they firmly hold the taut strong wires and the load of bushes with the harvest on these wires. Usually, several horizontal rows are pulled: the first at a distance of 50 cm from the ground, the next - every 30-50 cm. In the spring, overwintered vines are tied horizontally to the lower wire. The growing young shoots are tied up in an upright position, while breaking out the excess ones. Leave 25-30 shoots per adult bush.
The grapes of the Furshetny variety are still not familiar to all gardeners, but true lovers of grapes have already managed to highly appreciate the Furshetny for their yield, great taste and unpretentiousness in cultivation. High frost resistance allows you to cultivate Furshetny not only in the south, but also in the middle lane, but provided there is sufficient space: grape bushes grow powerful and fertile.
Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor.
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