Detailed description of the apple variety Grushovka


Pear is an old apple, obtained by natural evolution. Apple trees of this variety are of value among summer residents and amateur gardeners for the excellent properties of apples, for frost resistance and high yield.

Apple trees of the Grushovka variety are distributed throughout all regions of the Russian Federation. But if you are planning to plant seedlings, it is worth studying the characteristics of this variety of fruit crops.

Description of apple variety Grushovka

Breeding history

The Grushovka variety is a variety of apple trees that appeared by natural selection, that is, in a natural way. This variety is one of the oldest, more than 200 years old. Even in ancient Russia, there are references to these apples. In 1797, the Grushovka apple tree was described in detail by the famous scientist A.T. Bolotov in scientific work.

On the basis of Grushovka by crossing, other varieties of apple trees were obtained - Early Grushovka, Winter Grushovka, Moscow Grushovka.

Description of the apple tree

Trees of the Grushovka variety have the following characteristics:

  • Large in size. The height of the tree is 6-7 meters;
  • The crown, branched with a round appearance, young trees have a pyramidal crown;
  • Apple trees Grushovka is an upright plant with a sympodial type of branching, branches without thorns;
  • The bark of the branches has a yellowish-orange color;
  • Shoots of the vegetative type have a bark with a reddish-brown color;
  • Shoots of the generative type or ringlet are located in large numbers, their color is much darker than the main branches;
  • Leaves are arranged on long petioles, elliptical shape;
  • The color of the leaf blades is green or yellowish-green;
  • The leaves of young trees have an edge on the surface, in adults, there is a sparse fluff on the leaves or their surface is smooth;
  • During the flowering period, flowers with pink petals appear, after a while they change their shade to light pink or white.

Description of fruits

At the time of fruiting, fruits appear on the trees of the Grushovka apple trees that have the following characteristics:

  1. Small ripe apples... The weight of one fruit at the time of ripening ranges from 60 to 80 grams. The maximum weight is 100 to 120 grams;
  2. The fruits are round in shape with a flattened structure;
  3. The surface of the apples is greenish-yellow with a lot of stripes and blotches with red or pink color;
  4. The skin has a fine structure with a smooth surface. The top is coated with natural wax;
  5. The fruits have a soft pulp with high juiciness, which has a bright and pleasant aroma.

This variety can be used for dietary meals. The calorie content of apples is low - only 47 kcal per 100 grams.

Growing region

Apple trees of the Grushovka variety grow in all regions of Russia. They are widespread in the following regions:

  1. All regions included in the European part of the territory of Russia;
  2. Ural;
  3. Western regions;
  4. East of Siberia.

In addition, the variety grows in other CIS countries - in Belarus and Ukraine.

Productivity and storage of the Moscow and winter varieties

Grushovka is an early variety. The ripening period of the crop begins in late July and early August. Apple trees can live up to 50-60 years. The fruiting period starts from 4 years after planting. The yield in the first year of fruiting reaches 10 kilograms, and if the tree is 15 years old, then the yield level reaches 80-100 kilograms from one tree.

Fruit picking begins in early August.... The shelf life of the crop is 2-3 weeks.

Since the pulp and peel of Grushovka apples have a soft structure, they are not suitable for transportation. For this reason, this variety is not used commercially.

Pollinators

The Grushovka variety is self-infertile; for the fruit ovary, pollination with pollen from other varieties is necessary. For pollination of this variety, you can use pollinators such as Antonovka, Papirovka, Anis Polosaty, Cinnamon, Bellefleur-Chinese.

Advantages and disadvantages

The Grushovka variety has a number of advantages, of which the main ones should be highlighted:

  • Trees have high frost resistance and can withstand frost temperatures below 50 degrees Celsius;
  • Long life expectancy up to 50-60 years;
  • Have early fruiting;
  • Rapid appearance of ripe fruits;
  • High productivity;
  • A high level of useful components in apples;
  • You can make compotes, preserves, jams, juices, and jam from apples.

In addition to the advantages, there are also negative sides:

  1. Trees are susceptible to diseases, pests;
  2. High susceptibility to weather conditions;
  3. Irregular fruiting;
  4. Has uneven fruit ripening. On one tree, some fruits fully ripen and fall off, while others remain green;
  5. Short shelf life. The harvested crop will lie for a maximum of 2-3 weeks;
  6. Not intended for transport.

Photo of ripe apples

Below are the varieties of apples of the Grushovka variety:

Landing rules

Suitable growing bases are loamy, sandy and soddy.

Planting seedlings in the soil is done around the end of April at the beginning of May or from the beginning of autumn - September-October.

Rules for planting seedlings:

  • Holes should be made with steep slopes. The size of the holes must be 100 cm wide and 60 cm deep;
  • 4 days before planting, fertilizer mixtures need to be placed in the pits. In each hole you need to fall asleep 25 kilograms of humus;
  • In the dug hole, a depression should be made for the branched roots of young trees;
  • Planting must be done with pegsand, to which the planted seedlings are tied;
  • The pegs should be driven in from the north side;
  • After planting, the tree is immediately watered. One seedling requires about 30 liters of water;
  • After watering, the holes are mulched with humus and compost.

Care rules

Care instructions:

  1. For good development of the tree at the time of the first flowering, 85% of the flowers are cut off, 50% of the fruits are in a green state;
  2. Apple-trees varieties Grushovka do not tolerate severe drought, therefore, be sure to water them at least 2-3 times a week. A complete cessation of watering should be done in late August and early September, so that the tree has time to prepare for wintering;

    Fertilizing the tree is required in the second season. In the first year of its life, it can be loosened and watered constantly.

  3. In spring, rotted horse manure or humus should be poured into the ground to fertilize trees. For 1 square meter 8-12 kilograms. For mineral fertilizers, 400-600 grams of urea is used;
  4. In the autumn, trees must be fed with complex-type fertilizer mixtures. "Kemira overshadowing". For 1 sq. meter will need 30-40 grams;
  5. In the autumn, to improve the winter hardiness of the tree, mulching with horse manure is carried out, the layer thickness should be 5 cm;
  6. To make the trunk straight and form, the tree is trimmed one year after planting. During pruning, the upper branches are cut into a third part. The trunk is shortened by 30-40 cm. Further trimming is done as needed.

It is imperative to whitewash the trees in late autumn. This will protect the apple trees from damage by lichen, moss, and also destroy pests and spores of pathogens in the bark.

Whitewashing recommendations:

  • Before starting whitewashing, all cracks and various holes in the bark of the tree must be covered with garden pitch;
  • For whitewashing, you need to prepare a solution, which should consist of 2 kilograms of quicklime, 6 liters of water and 1 kilogram of oily clay. All components are mixed, add a little skim milk so that the whitewash adheres to the wood better;
  • Whitewashing of trees should be done in November, after the end of autumn showers%
  • The surface of the trunk and forks, which are the base of large branches, are whitened.

Pest control

In order to avoid scab damage to apple trees, every year in the autumn period, it is necessary to completely clean the garden of old foliage, volunteers. It is imperative to dig up the entire surface of the trunk circle, and also treat all wounds with special means, for example, garden varnish.

If the trees already have scab lesions, then they need to be treated with a Bordeaux mixture with a 1-3% solution. When preparing this mixture, it is necessary to mix a solution of copper sulfate and lime.

During the preparation of 1 solution, 100 grams of copper sulfate and 120 grams of quicklime should be poured into 10 liters of water. First, copper sulfate must be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water... Then slowly pour 5 liters of cold water into this mixture.

Lime also needs to be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. Then 5 liters of cold water are poured into this solution. Both solutions are individually filtered through a gauze material. Next, a solution of copper sulfate is poured into the lime solution. Everything gets mixed up. Trees need to be treated with this mixture on both sides.

Spraying trees should be done during bud break. The second treatment can be done after all flowers have fallen off.

Other remedies will help to get rid of scab lesions. The most effective are "Strobi" and "Speed". Apple trees should be treated with Strobi in early spring, and Skor in autumn. Both drugs are diluted in the same way - 1 ampoule in 10 liters of water.

Gardeners reviews

Olga: “An apple tree of the Grushovka variety has been growing in my garden for a long time. This variety is early. Ripe fruits are harvested at the beginning of August. Despite the fact that apples are small in size, they taste excellent. When fully ripe, they become green mud and yellow with a lot of red or pink blotches. The structure of the pulp is white. However, they don't last too long. "

Elena: “I have several Grushovka apple trees growing on my site. They are about 15 years old. I get a big harvest, I collect up to 3 bags of apples from each tree. The ripening period begins from the beginning of August. Ripe apples have excellent taste and high juiciness. However, only the shelf life is not long, only 3 weeks. "

Alexander: “One apple tree of the Grushovka variety grows in our garden. He is almost 20 years old. Ripening period is early enough. We already pick ripe apples at the beginning of August. The color of ripe fruits is light green with a lot of red blotches. They taste excellent - juicy, sweet and aromatic. "

The apple tree of the Grushovka variety is an old variety that has a high value. Trees take root well in a region with any climate, and also tolerate severe frosts. Ripe apples have excellent taste and health benefits. At the same time, almost every year you can get a high level of harvest.


Apple variety Moskovskaya Grushovka: description of the fruit tree, cultivation, photos and reviews of gardeners

One of the most popular varieties of summer apples for many decades has been Moskovskaya Grushovka - a fruit tree characterized by high fruiting, resistance to frost and many diseases.

Why this apple variety is so popular among Russian gardeners, despite the large number of apple trees with improved characteristics bred in recent years, will be discussed in this article.


Early varieties of apple trees

First of all, you pay attention to the summer varieties of apple trees. And there are also early summer ones. Another time it doesn't matter that they taste sour. After all, they are the first.

What is their feature and difference:

  • The ripeness of these apples occurs at the end of July and until mid-August. It is clear that you start eating them earlier.
  • And in different climatic regions, these periods are not the same. Where before. And where and later. But you know this yourself.

  • Removable and consumer maturity of these varieties practically coincides
  • Consider fast processing of early apples or their implementation
  • They are not stored for more than 2-3 weeks. And if the fruits survived, their qualities disappeared. They don't like apple and potatoes.

These can be varieties:

  • Domestic:
    • Cultivated for many years in most regions:
      • White filling
      • Grushovka Moscow
      • Golden early Chinese
      • July Chernenko
      • Korobovka
      • Borovinka.

    • New:
      • Arkadik
      • Kovalenkovskoe
      • Apple saved
      • Silver Hoof
      • Wonderful
      • First fireworks
      • Red hill
      • Aboriginal
      • Pavlusha
      • Zaryanka
      • Arkad summer yellow
      • Wine
      • Suislepskoe
      • July Petrova
      • Commemorative
      • Anise sweet
      • Early ripening red
      • Bel chernyshevskaya
      • Pearl
      • Early red
      • Candy
      • Golden summer
      • Lungwort.

    And this is not a complete list. There are local varieties and little-known ones.

    • Foreign:
      • Familiar:
        • Melba
        • Mantet
        • Stark Erlest.
      • Gaining popularity:
        • Airlie Geneva
        • Williams Pride
        • Quinty
        • Close.


Main characteristics

Grushovka Moskovskaya is an apple tree reaching a height of about 7 meters. The crown is branched and usually has a diameter of 8 meters, becoming more spreading as it grows, with drooping branches. If the plant is more than 10 years old, the crown becomes spherical.

The leaves are on long petioles, elliptical, elongated, with small denticles along the edges. They are usually colored green, less often yellow-green. There may be keeled leaves. Young foliage is pubescent, in an adult, fluff is either absent or insignificant.

The petals in the buds are colored pink, changing the hue to light pink, almost white as it blooms. Diameter - 2.5 centimeters. The bark of the apple tree is brown with an orange or yellow tint. The seedlings are more intensely colored. The branches are smooth, without thorns.

The tree lives on average for 60 years, bearing fruit already 4 years after planting.


Landing features

Grushovka is most common in the central part of Russia, but due to its resistance to low temperatures and early fruiting, it is often grown in colder regions. The most suitable soil for this variety is loamy, sandy loam or soddy. Let's move on to the description of the landing.

A pear tree is an unpretentious tree, therefore, the rules for planting and caring for it are not much different from other fruit trees. You should not choose a wet area for planting where water stagnates, or a place in the shade where, due to lack of light, apples can grow small and unsweetened.

Saplings are planted in the ground approximately in late April - early May or early autumn (September - October).

Pits for seedlings should be with steep slopes, 100 cm wide and 60 cm deep. Fertilizers are placed in the pit 4 days before planting. 25 kg of humus is introduced into each prepared pit. A recess is made in the dug hole so that the roots of the tree can be placed in it.

It is recommended to plant with stakes for saplings. This will give them stability at the beginning of growth. The stake is driven in before planting, placing it on the north side of the trunk to protect the seedling from frost and sun.

Planting should be in-depth, with earthen ridges along the borders of the pit. Immediately after planting, 30 liters of water are poured into the recess. After absorbing water, the holes are mulched with humus or compost.

Pollinators

The Grushovka variety is self-fertile, that is, for the fruit ovary, pollination with pollen of another variety is required. Good pollinators are such varieties as Antonovka, Papirovka, Anis Polosaty, Cinnamon, Bellefleur-Kitayka. For cross-pollination, 3-4 varieties are required.

Pollination in the orchard takes place with the help of bees. This means that the seedlings should be positioned so that the bees can easily transfer pollen from one apple tree to another. The optimal distance at which this condition is met is no more than 60 m.

Photo gallery: suitable apple-trees neighbors for Grushovka

apples of the Bellefleur-Chinese variety Cinnamon apples apples varieties Papirovka apples of Antonovka variety apples of anise strip

Care rules

  1. For good development of the tree at the time of the first flowering, 85% of the flowers are cut off, 50% of the fruits are in a green state
  2. Apple-trees varieties Grushovka do not tolerate severe drought, therefore, be sure to water them at least 2-3 times a week. A complete cessation of watering should be done in late August and early September, so that the tree has time to prepare for wintering

Whitewashing recommendations:

  • Before starting whitewashing, all cracks and various holes in the bark of the tree must be covered with garden varnish
  • For whitewashing, you need to prepare a solution, which should consist of 2 kilograms of quicklime, 6 liters of water and 1 kilogram of oily clay. All components are mixed, add a little skim milk so that the whitewash adheres to the wood better
  • Whitewashing of trees should be done in November, after the end of autumn showers%
  • The surface of the trunk and forks, which are the base of large branches, are whitened.


Testimonials

“Grushovka has been growing for me for many years. It is very important that this is a summer variety. Our whole family is not averse to eating apples at the end of summer, these are the best vitamins. They are small in size but taste great. Children love that they are striped and juicy. One thing is bad - the harvest does not happen every year, and the fact that they do not lie for a long time. "

“The apple tree Grushovka Moskovskaya on our site was planted by the previous owners, she is more than 17 years old. I read her description on the Internet, and it fully corresponds to reality. We collect the harvest in bags, we even have to distribute it to relatives and neighbors. Of the features of this variety, I like that it is early, but the apples ripen rather small. And yet - delicious cider comes out of them! "

“I love this variety for the most wonderful early apples. I am also satisfied with the fact that they make excellent compotes for the winter. I add some berries to them, maybe pears or apricots, and the family is happy. "

“The apple tree is only 8 years old, but it has been making us happy with a good harvest for 3 years already. 4 years ago we had severe frosts, we thought that the tree would die, but it survived. I noticed that Grushovka does not react well to both hot weather and excessive dampness. We also need treatment for diseases, especially for scab. "


Watch the video: Everything You Need To Know About Apple Trees - Including Growing from Seed vs Grafting


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