The experience of growing arrow-shaped garlic in the North-West region


"Home doctor"

For a practicing vegetable grower, scientific taxonomy is not so important. Rather, some of the features of growing plants are more interesting. But to make it clear what kind of plants will be discussed in a series of articles I have conceived, I will say: the kingdom is plants; department - angiosperms; class - monocots; order - asparagus; family - onions; subfamily - Allioideae; genus - bow. The scientific Latin name given by Linnaeus is lat. allium - comes from the Latin name for garlic, so I would like to start the description with the form - Garlic (Allium sativum L).

I will not dwell on the botanical features of garlic, you can read about this in special literature. About him and will be discussed further. There are also non-arrowheads - with a spiral arrangement of cloves in 2-3 circles. Spring garlic has no core in the middle of the head. In the conditions of the Northwest, it rarely attracts the attention of gardeners.

Garlic is a cold-resistant plant, begins to germinate at a temperature of 3 ... 5 ° C, easily tolerates frost.

Winter garlic agrotechnology

Its root system is weak. He loves fertile, humus-filled structural soil (pH 6-7.5). If the soil is acidic, then yellowing of the leaves of garlic is often observed. For normal growth and development, garlic needs a neutral soil. Fresh manure should not be applied. He responds well to the introduction of wood ash before planting. It helps to increase the winter hardiness of garlic, as it contains phosphorus and potassium in easily digestible forms.

The best precursors of garlic are planting in pairs, on perennial grasses, siderates, after legumes, pumpkin seeds, early or cauliflower, green vegetables. You can not plant it after potatoes, tomatoes due to the possibility of damage to garlic by fusarium, as well as after onions. Not a good option is to combine garlic with strawberries, there is evidence that in this case the quality of the berry harvest deteriorates. It is recommended to plant garlic in the old place no earlier than after 4-5 years.

The area intended for garlic is dug up. Better - two weeks before planting, and apply fertilizers: 1 m² - 7 kg of humus, 50 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 300 g of wood ash.

It is more convenient to grow garlic on ridges 15-20 cm high and 1 m wide. The ridges and rows should be located from north to south. Garlic does not tolerate shading well. To make the heads large, they plant it with row spacing of 20-25 cm and between plants 10-13 cm, the depth of planting cloves is 6-9 cm from the bottom. The optimal nutritional area for garlic plants is 150-360 cm², i.e. 50-80 plants per 1 m². It is impractical to close the cloves deeper, in this case the garlic ripens later.

It is better to divide the head into teeth a day or two before planting. If you do this earlier, they can get sick, and the scales can come off them. This garlic is planted in the fall so that before the onset of winter, the teeth have time to form roots 10-15 cm long, but shoots do not appear. Depending on the weather and the growing area, this takes 35-50 days. In the Pskov region, where our site is located, this is approximately from 5 to 14 October.

It is very useful to disinfect chives before planting in a 1% solution of copper sulfate for 15 minutes, or in a 3% solution of basezol - for 1-2 minutes. For planting, you need to select large and medium bulbs, and after separation - large cloves (the weight of the planting clove affects the yield of garlic, less - the weight of the uterine bulb). The teeth should not be strongly pressed into the ground - you can damage the bottom. But making holes with a peg is not a good option.The soil is compacted, on which the bottom of the clove lies, and it is more difficult for the germinating roots to develop.

For planting, it is better to make grooves, spread the teeth there with the bottom down, slightly pressing them into a loose layer of earth at the desired distance and depth, then fill these grooves with humus, if any, with a layer of 1 cm, add a little ash there and carefully cover with earth.

Some experts recommend mulching the planting. But we do not do this in our beds, we believe that our winters are very often with thaws, garlic can rip out. The best shelter for garlic is a layer of snow.

In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, you remove the straw and foliage, if you have mulched planting in the fall. As soon as shoots are outlined, weed the bed, loosen the soil there and at the same time fertilize it with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 5 g / m² (based on the active ingredient). Garlic cannot compete with weeds. When shaded with them, it sharply reduces the yield. We must take this into account and monitor the cleanliness of the garden. It is useful to mulch the soil between the rows with humus. It must be remembered that with a thickened planting, the roots of garlic are shallow, they fill all the space between the plants, so you need to loosen the soil carefully, but it is better not to thicken the planting.

Garlic dressing

We usually do the first feeding one month after germination: 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of superphosphate per 1 m². The second - two weeks after the first: 5 g of potassium sulfate and 5 g of superphosphate. We do the third at the end of June, fertilize only with wood ash - 1.5 cups per 1 m².

When the arrows are formed, they must be plucked out, not allowing them to grow by more than 10-11 cm, then the bulbs will be larger. Just do not pull the false stem up when removing the arrow - the leaves will turn yellow.

If the summer is dry, the garlic is watered. When watering, the soil is impregnated to the depth of the root system (at first - by 40 cm, and then - by 60 cm). Do not forget to loosen the beds after watering after a couple of days. Garlic is not watered three weeks before harvesting.

The best temperature for the growth of garlic is + 18 ... + 20 ° С.

Harvesting garlic

Shooting garlic begins to be harvested when the lower leaves turn yellow and when the coverts of the bulbs dry out. In the Pskov region, this happens in late July - early August. In more northern regions - a little later. It is recommended to remove the garlic along with the leaves and dry it for a week, in this case, the outflow of nutrients from the leaves into the bulb occurs. We remove the leaves immediately after harvesting, cut off the stem, leaving only 5 cm to the bulb. It's more convenient to dry it this way. We just did not notice that during the drying of the leaves, the weight of the bulb increased.

After harvesting, dry the garlic in the sun, if the weather is rainy - in the attic with ventilation. (For industrial cultivation, it is dried with active ventilation, gradually increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 ° C). After drying, we cut the roots and shorten the stem to 2 cm. We store the well-dried bulbs at a temperature of 18 ... 20 ° C.

Diseases and pests of garlic

A few words must be said about his illnesses. I will not dwell on specific diseases, especially since in practice diseases usually occur and develop not in the form of one of the many: black mold, bacteriosis and fusarium, cervical rot and gray mold, this list can be continued. Usually, garlic is affected by several diseases at the same time. But it is better not to bring the matter to diseases. And for this, you must strictly observe the agrotechnics described by me and the alternation of crops, as well as have a healthy seed.

Of the pests of garlic, the onion fly is the most troublesome. We spray the plantings with leptocide, we apply it to the leaves of plants at the end of May. The instructions for the drug contain a description of how to use it.

Garlic varieties

I don’t want to advertise this or that garlic variety.Of the winter arrowing varieties of garlic, they are zoned: Boguslavsky, Belorussky, Polet, Starobelsky local, Pobeda, Yubileyny Gribovsky, Kharkovsky 1, Otradnensky, Donetsk violet, Siberian, Egorlyksky, Dungansky local, Zailiysky, Tyanshansky, Southern violet local, Dzhalibinsky Dubkovokiy (Antey), Parus and others.

We tried different varieties of garlic, but the local variety proved to be the most suitable. Note that this culture does not always show all the qualities of the variety in specific conditions. Meteorological conditions during the growing season are the main factors affecting the manifestation of all varietal traits. In addition, only the "elite" is a high-class seed material that possesses economic, biological qualities and morphological characteristics characteristic of this variety. Unfortunately, finding elite material is quite difficult. I recommend using local varieties on your farm. And conduct your own selection: leave the most outstanding bulbs for seeds on the basis of your interest.

Selective selection in the beds

With prolonged reproduction only by chives, more and more diseases accumulate in garlic plants, it degenerates. Therefore, it is advisable to update all planting material every 3-4 years and conduct your own selection selection. To do this, each time we plant the bulbs to obtain one-tooth, then we get full-fledged heads from the one-tooth. When sowing with bulbs, the spread of stem nematode and a number of other diseases is excluded.

Bulbs of garlic used for sowing should be selected as the largest.

A few words about how we do it. For plants grown from the largest cloves, we leave the arrows. Then we remove the whole plant, with the bulb and bulbs. We dry well for three weeks. When the stem dries up, we separate the heads with the bulbs, without damaging the sheaths. We store them in newsprint in an open plastic bag in the room. A month before sowing, we disassemble, remove the dried bulbs, keep the seed in the refrigerator.

A day before sowing, soak in an infusion of wood ash (pour 300 g of wood ash with a liter of water, leave for two days). We plant only those bulbs that have sunk to the bottom. Sowing shallow - 1 cm. To prevent the topsoil from drying out, we mulch it with humus. We plant as early as possible. We fertilize the soil for the bulbs in the same way as for the cloves. We set aside the sunniest place for the garden.

It is better to plan the area for the bulbs in the summer and keep it under clean steam. In the fall, we plant the grown one-toothed teeth, like ordinary teeth. This is exactly how, subject to agricultural technology, your selection selection, you can get a high-quality harvest of garlic.

The benefits of garlic

“Garlic has strong antioxidant effects. It can prevent cardiovascular disease, prevent platelet aggregation, blood clots, prevent cancer, diseases associated with cerebral aging, arthritis, prevent cataract formation, promote skin rejuvenation, improve blood circulation and energy levels. "

From the report of K. Rahman at the School of Biomolecular Sciences,
Liverpool John Moores University,
Great Britain

Also read: The healing properties of garlic

Vladimir Stepanov,
Doctor of Biological Sciences,
head of the farm "Elita",
Pskov region


How to deal with it?

Plant protection experts recommend that gardeners treat the roots of seedlings with an aqueous suspension of colloidal sulfur in order to prevent them. But this is so troublesome.

The breeders solved the problem. We have created cabbage varieties with increased resistance to an unpleasant disease. Such as the Present. Moscow late-9. Tequila and etc.

Thus, if you have a bitter experience with cabbage keel, choose resistant varieties for the new season. Read carefully the characteristics of the varieties on the seed bags.


Conclusion Dissertation on the topic "Vegetable growing", Zhou Xiang

The analysis of the obtained results of four-year research allowed to draw the following conclusions:

1. Agrobiological evaluation of arrowed garlic varieties Kirovsky, Prometey, Komsomolets showed the possibility of using them when grown in the North-West region of the Russian Federation.

2. On average, over three years of research, the highest yield of underground bulbs was obtained for the Komsomolets variety (13.04 t / ha), and the lowest for the Kirovsky variety (11.05 t / ha). The Prometey variety took an intermediate position in terms of yield, providing 12.25 t / ha.

3. Air bulbs (bulbs) can serve as an important result for the recovery and reproduction of shooting varieties of garlic. In this case, mass is of paramount importance. With an average bulb mass of 0.2-0.3 g (varieties Prometey and Komsomolets), one-toothed onion identical to onion sets will grow next year, and for bulbs weighing 0.03 g (Kirovsky variety) an additional year is required in order to obtain a similar planting material.

4. By the presence of essential oils in the bulbs, which impart a specific taste and smell, the varieties Prometheus and Komsomolets with an essential oil content of 0.29-0.31 mg / 100 g can be classified as table varieties. Kirovsky bulbs, with an oil content of 0.47 mg / 100 g, are best used as spices for processing.

5. In the absence of the need to obtain air bulbs, the timely removal of flowering shoots increases the yield of underground bulbs, depending on the variety, from 11.0

24.0%. The increase in yield practically occurs by the amount of the yield of the bulbs.

Removing the arrow from the varieties Prometey and Komsomolets provides additional income from 11 to 23 thousand rubles per hectare.

6. The size of the planting material has a great influence on the growth, development and yield of garlic. The best results in terms of the yield of standard products and yields were obtained in cases of using planting teeth fractions weighing 6-7 g. A decrease in the size of planting teeth in arrow-headed varieties sharply reduces the yield and reduces the mass of the underground bulb.

7. Planting small cloves weighing up to 3-4 g helps to increase the yield of marketable products by 1.0 kg of planting material. So, for the Kirovsky variety, one kg of planted cloves provides 11.0 kg of the yield of underground bulbs, while cloves weighing 6-6.5 g for each planted kg yield 8.2 kg.

Particularly noteworthy is the planting of small bulbs, weighing 0.03 g with a planting rate of 21.3 kg / ha. In this case, the harvest "itself" reaches a value of 131.9.

8. The use of mulched peat, when planting winter varieties of garlic, increases the yield by 11.0-12.0%. At the same time, the purchase of mulching materials requires additional funds, which is not economically justified.

9. Cultivation of winter shooters in the conditions of the North-West region of the Russian Federation, subject to the recommended agrotechnical practices, is economically profitable. The profitability level is about 180%.

1. For the conditions of the Leningrad region, in order to obtain high and stable yields, it is possible to recommend varieties of winter arrow-headed garlic Kirovsky, Prometey, Komsomolets, which give a stable yield of high-quality products.

2. For accelerated reproduction and improvement of garlic, it is necessary to carry out varietal renewal through the use of air bulbs for planting.

3. On plantings of garlic, when the air bulbs are not used as seed, the arrows should be removed during the period of their mass appearance, in order to increase the yield of underground bulbs.

4.In order to obtain the highest yield of marketable products, the optimal mass of planting cloves should be 6-7 g.


Wintering Dahlia Tubers - Hobby Farms

Dahlias are one of my favorite summer flowers - the amazing variety of flower shapes and colors never ceases to amaze me.Every year I grow more than a dozen different varieties of dahlias, every fall I dig out the plants and winter in the garage.

Officially, the fleshy underground roots of the dahlia are not true bulbs, but rather tuberous roots. Regardless of their proper botanical category, dahlias are not hardy here in western Pennsylvania, and because of this, every fall it is necessary to pull the roots out of the garden and store until they are ready for replanting next spring. ...

As with many garden projects, there are a dozen different ways to accomplish this task. Some growers allow the roots to remain in the ground for several weeks after the tops have been exposed to a few hard frosts. This encourages the tubers to sprout with eyes, which makes it easier to separate them before laying the tubers for the winter. However, I find that separating the tubers before packing makes them more prone to rotting during storage. Instead, I use a different technique to dig and store the dahlias for the winter.

I pick a day when the soil is dry enough and sunny, and gently lift the tubers with a pitchfork to gently lift them out of the soil. I am waiting until the vertices are frozen to complete this task. As soon as the tubers break out of the ground, I cut off the stems and gently brush off the excess soil with my hands. Then the tubers are laid out on flattened cardboard or old window bars in the garage. I mark them well by writing the name of the variety with a permanent marker directly on the tuber.

The tubers are left on for two or three days before I use a soft brush to remove any remaining dirt. Then I lay the roots in layers of slightly damp peat moss or vermiculite in an unwaxed cardboard box. During storage, it is important to ensure that the tubers do not touch each other to prevent the spread of rot.

I close the box, but don't glue it, and store it in a cool place like my basement or garage. If you want, in the winter you can check the tubers for signs of rot once a month or two and remove any that are soft or smelling. I often forget this step, but I have never had any problems with root rot during storage.


Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima The best answers to the main questions of the gardener and the gardener

2 Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima The best answers to the main questions of the gardener and the gardener Text provided by the copyright holder The best answers to the main questions of the gardener and the gardener / G.А. Kizima .: AST Moscow 2015 ISBN Annotation Every summer resident has questions about gardening. But the omniscient Internet, in which modern owners of suburban areas are now looking for answers to them, often confuses even more. You never know if you can trust the person who generously distributes advice on all kinds of horticultural forums. Another thing is to trust not just a theoretician, but an experienced practitioner. This is exactly what the author of the book you hold in your hands is. For many years Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima has been conducting thematic columns on television and radio, as well as in magazines for summer residents. Tens of thousands of compatriots listen to her opinion, because she has 55 years of experience in the garden and vegetable garden behind her. Her books are extremely popular, as they are written in an accessible language and teach how to organize summer cottage work in such a way that you can not only work, but also have a great rest.

3 Contents From the author 4 Horticultural crops 5 Common problems 5 Apricot 12 Quince 14 Actinidia 15 Cherry plum 17 Aronia (chokeberry) 18 Barberry 20 Grapes 21 Cherry 23 Pear 27 Gummi (multifloral elk) 30 Honeysuckle 32 Strawberry (strawberry) 35 End of the introductory fragment. 39 3

4 Galina Kizima The best answers to the main questions of a gardener and a gardener From the author The book includes answers to questions from radio listeners, readers and listeners of my courses for amateur gardeners.So this is a joint work of many, many people, and I sincerely express my gratitude to everyone, because without questions there would be no answers. All materials are grouped into the following sections: "Garden crops", "Garden crops", "Ornamental plants", "Useful cooking". At the beginning of each section, answers are given to general questions, and then specific to each culture in alphabetical order. If you have any questions, you can ask in a special section on my website: or by e-mail: 4

5 Garden Crops Common Problems 1. Are birds good for the garden? Depends on what. The titmouse, flycatcher, robin, blue tit, redstart, wagtail, muscovy, nuthatch, woodpecker, jackdaw are very useful. But I would not let the starlings and forty into the garden, because they cause great damage to the berries. It is easy to attract titmice into the garden by tying unsalted bacon to tree trunks, hanging titmouses, feeding the birds, especially in winter, with seeds (raw). And most importantly, do not use pesticides. It has been noticed that after the application of nitrafen, birds do not exist in the garden for 5-6 years. After application of "Inta-vira" the birds immediately leave the garden. 2. How to deal with garden pests correctly? Firstly, this must be done on time, and secondly, if possible, do not use chemical poisons. Spraying the garden (ends of branches, branches, forks, trunks and soil under plants) in late autumn and early spring with concentrated mineral fertilizer (700 g of carbamide, that is, urea, per 10 liters of water), you will save the garden from pests that winter on plants and under them. This spraying should not be done from the moment the buds swell until the plants leave for winter dormancy. Otherwise, you will burn them! This measure, however, does not save the garden from pests arriving from other places, in particular, from the moth. Here the homeopathic remedy "Healthy Garden" ("Aurum-S") comes to the rescue. By spraying the garden once a month in May (at the time the leaves unfold), June, July and August, you will protect it not only from the moth, but also from the scab on the apple trees. During the May spraying, it is better to combine "Healthy Garden" with another homeopathic preparation "Ecoberin" ("Eye"), dissolving 2 grains of each in a liter of water. It is convenient to add 4 drops of "Uniflora-growth" to the same solution. Thus, you can combine two spring spraying of the garden at once. By the way, Fitoverm is compatible with all these drugs, so it can also be added (10 drops per liter). 3. What, in your opinion, is the most harmless remedy against pests in an orchard? The most environmentally friendly and completely harmless remedy is the homeopathic preparation "Healthy Garden". It will help you get rid of almost any pest. All of them prefer sugar and attack those plants, in the cell sap of which carbohydrates predominate. Strong, healthy plants quickly synthesize protein, and there are few carbohydrates in their cell sap. Weak patients synthesize protein slowly, and carbohydrates prevail in their cell sap. It is on them that literally all pests attack. "Healthy Garden" ("Aurum-S") changes the structure of the cell sap in such a way that it carries information about the normal balance between carbohydrates and proteins. It cheats harm- 5

6 lei. To maintain this balance at all times, all plants should be regularly sprayed with this product. As my experience has shown, it is enough to spray the garden in May, June, July and August on the leaves in the evening, so that the drug is absorbed and not evaporated from the leaves. The absorption process lasts about 3-4 hours, so the weather must be dry, at least during this time, so that the rain does not wash the drug off the leaves. There are very interesting observations of amateur gardeners on the use of this drug on vegetables and flowers. The drug is diluted at the rate of 2 grains per liter of water, poured into a barrel (respectively, 400 grains will be required for 200 liters of water) with an infusion of weeds, mix thoroughly and simply feed all the plants with this composition every 2 to 3 weeks, during watering.Plants literally become tropical, their greenery is so powerful. Try it. 4. Do I need to dig up the soil under the bushes and trees? First, let's figure out what these recommendations are for. Firstly, to destroy pests that have settled in the upper layer of the soil for wintering; secondly, to rid the plants of weeds; and thirdly, to improve air exchange. Pests can be destroyed in other ways. Weeds should be cut 3-4 times during the season with a Fokine cutter or a sickle and left right there, under the plants. Soil air exchange and moisture permeability will be excellent just as long as you do not dig up the soil, disrupting the complex system of microtubules that form after the numerous sucking hair roots rotted each season. Therefore, it is not necessary to dig up the soil either in the fall or in the spring. If it contains about 4% humus, then it does not thicken and does not need to be dug up, it is enough to loosen it in the spring. We do not need to dig up the trunks twice a year, but gradually make the soil fertile in them and drive out pests from our garden. 5. What is Ekoberin used for? "Ecoberin" protects plants from various weather troubles (drought, frost, sharp temperature changes day and night, prolonged cold snap). 6. What are these biological preparations "Fitoverm" and "Agravertin" and are they not dangerous for people? No, they are not dangerous, because they are made from soil microorganisms ("Agravertin") and soil micro-fungi ("Fitosporin"). Therefore, nature knows how to dispose of them without disturbing the ecological situation. They are absorbed by the green leaf and function in the plant's cell sap for 3 weeks, then the plant uses them for its own needs. During these 3 weeks, in any leaf-eating (aphid, thrips, tick, scale insect) or leaf-eating (caterpillar, beetle) pest that has tasted the juice or pulp of the plant, the drugs cause paralysis of the gastrointestinal tract, and after 2 hours it stops feeding. Death occurs in two days from hunger. For beneficial insects or birds that eat such pests, drugs are not dangerous, since they do not act indirectly. By the way, the drug "Agravertin" is sold under the name "Akarin" or "Iskra-bio". 6

7 In early spring, these preparations are effective against weevils on garden strawberries (strawberries), brants (apple blossom beetle) on apple trees, red-gall aphids on red currants, which cause raspberry swelling (galls) on the leaves. Plants can be treated with these preparations even during fruiting (fruits are edible 48 hours after spraying). 7. Why pests, especially aphids, literally all together attack plants in spring, including healthy ones, and how to rid the garden of this scourge? The fact is that all pests (both mites and insects) prefer to eat carbohydrates. In spring, the roots of any garden plants begin to work and supply the minerals necessary to create protein only after the soil in the root zone warms up to 8 C, and photosynthesis begins literally 20 seconds after the leaf begins to unfold. Since there is no material for the production of protein, the leaf produces carbohydrates, since this requires carbon dioxide, which the plant knows how to take from the air, and water, some supply of which is always in plants, so pests fly from all directions. 8. How and how to help plants in spring? First of all, it is necessary to work instead of roots and deliver the necessary mineral elements to the leaf by spraying the plants on the unfolding leaves with full mineral dressing, for example, Uniflor-growth, Ideal, Kemira-Lux, Florist, and even just Azofos ... The main thing here is not to burn the young foliage, and it is better to make the solution weaker than stronger.For foliar feeding on the leaves, the solution should be taken 5-10 times less concentrated than when feeding under the root (for foliar feeding with Uniflorom-growth, 2 teaspoons are enough for a bucket of water for azofoska 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). 9. Is it possible to do in the garden without pesticides? It is not only possible, but also necessary. You can use homeopathic remedies, but always regularly. You can make tinctures of plants with a pungent smell, this will disorient the pests, and they will fly past their breadwinners, but we must remember that plant poisons are not harmless to both bees and you and me. You can use modern biological preparations, for example, "Fitosporin" against pests, and "Zircon" or "Fitosporin" against diseases. 10. Are there any safe medicines to protect the garden against disease? For this there are "Zircon" and "Fitosporin". The first of them is best used in conjunction with "Epin-extra" for spraying the aboveground parts of plants, and the second is used to destroy pathogens in the soil and fallen leaves. To do this, it is necessary to spray the soil in the beds, in greenhouses, under trees and bushes in the spring, as soon as the ground is exposed. In summer, weeds weeded out, as well as plants on which you have noticed torment - 7

Dew, bacteriosis, anthracnose or any suspicious spots or blooms in the fall should be watered on the soil and leaves and other plant debris under the plants. 11. What is Fitosporin used for and how to store it correctly? "Fitosporin" is a drug that protects plants against all fungal and bacterial diseases, moreover, it is an excellent humic (organic) fertilizer. Environmentally friendly. The live bacterium-predator Bacillis subtilis preserved in it lives and "works" in soils at temperatures from 20 to +40 C, so it continues to clear the soil of pathogens for a long time after you left your site in the fall. Fitosporin is convenient to use. You take a plate (200 g), dilute in twice the volume of water (400 ml) and put the bottle with the solution in a cool place. As soon as you need a solution, take 1 tablespoon per bucket (10 L) of water, stir and use immediately. There is also a powder form of fertilizer. It's generally easy to work with her. Take the right amount of powder and immediately dilute in the appropriate amount of water. It is necessary to use the prepared solution immediately, otherwise the awakened bacteria will die. It hibernates only while the concentration of the preservative is high. I usually immediately prepare a solution of Fitosporin together with Gummy, which is an excellent organic food for all plants. "Fitosporin" should not be left on the site in winter, as live bacteria can die in severe frosts. However, the fertilizer itself will remain. 12. What are Zircon and Epin-extra? "Zircon" and "Epin-extra" can be used in early spring in the same way as "Healthy Garden" and "Ecoberin". It is not worth combining them with Fitoferm, but with universal fertilizers it is quite possible. "Epin-extra" perfectly helps plants in stressful situations (and there are plenty of them in spring), "Zircon" maintains the immune system of plants at the proper level after spraying with this drug, the plant is able to protect itself from pathogens of fungal, bacterial and even viral diseases. In addition, both preparations contribute to the rapid development of plants, accelerate the ripening of fruits, improve their taste and preservation, enhance the color and smell of flower crops, and increase the size of flowers. 13. Should the trunks be kept under steam? No, you shouldn't. The soil should not be empty, much less remain open. Under young plantings, it should be mulched (including weeded weeds), tinned under adults, that is, planted with something.It is necessary to regularly mow (or shave off with a Fokin flat cutter or other similar tool) what grows under the plantings, and leave it right there. The cut greens cover the soil and prevent the top layer from drying out. Rotting during the summer, the cut weeds become a natural fertilizer. In addition, they are mulch and prevent the evaporation of moisture from the topsoil. eight

9 14. Why is it recommended to mulch the soil? Mulching is covering the soil with some suitable material. For example, in neighboring Finland, crushed tree bark is widely used for this. We do not have it, but we can use peat (deoxidized with ash or dolomite), sawdust (pre-filled with a solution of urea at the rate of 10 liters per 10 liters of water), ordinary newspapers folded in 3-4 layers, non-woven covering black materials, for example, spunbond ... If you keep the soil open, moisture quickly leaves it, its structure collapses, and it becomes sterile. 15. Is it necessary to burn foliage in autumn, as is done in the city? No, don’t. On the contrary, all fallen leaves should be left under perennials. It is only necessary to disinfect it and water the trunks with the preparation "Fitosporin" or "Zircon" in the fall and early spring. 16. When planting garden plants, it is recommended to dip the roots in a mash made of clay with manure for better survival. Should I do it? This ridiculous, but well-established recommendation comes from the past, when transporting seedlings from nurseries over long distances by horse, it was necessary to protect the roots from drying out for a long time. So they were dipped in such a chatterbox, then wrapped in a damp canvas and sackcloth. And before planting, the roots were dipped into water for 2-3 hours in order to wash off the clay from the roots and allow them to be saturated with moisture. Clay envelops the small roots and prevents them from losing moisture, but also prevents them from being saturated with water, which is good during transportation, but bad during landing. Better before planting, put the roots in water for 2 hours, to which you can add the root former "Kornevin" or "Heteroauxin". 17. Do I need to trample the soil after planting? In no case. This impairs air exchange. So that the soil adheres well to the roots and does not form voids under them, during planting, pouring in the soil, add water all the time. The water will help the soil stick to the roots and fill in the voids. 18. When, how and what to feed trees and shrubs? Horticultural crops need feeding twice a season. In spring or early summer, when foliage is intensively growing in plants, they should be fed with fertilizers containing nitrogen and potassium in equal proportions. Never apply nitrogen fertilizers without potash. Potassium nitrate is most suitable for spring feeding. You can use Azophoska or Nitrophoska, even better EcoFoska or Kemira-Universal (dilute 3 tablespoons of any of them in 10 liters of water). At worst, urea with ash will do (add 1/2 cup of ash to 10 liters of water to 3 tablespoons of urea). nine

10 In regions where there are frosts in the spring, for example, in the North-West, it is better to do nitrogen fertilization after their end, since nitrogen reduces the frost resistance of plants. In the second half of August, garden plants experience intensive root growth, so they should be fed with phosphorus and potassium. Potassium chloride should not be used to feed horticultural crops (especially cherries, plums, apricots and gooseberries). In dry weather, top dressing is best done immediately after watering. To do this, you need to take no more than 3 tablespoons of fertilizer in a bucket of water in total and pour the top dressing around the perimeter of the crown, because it is there that the sucking roots are located. When they begin to grow intensively ovaries, garden plants need trace elements. Spray the plantings with a solution of Uniflor-micro or Florist (2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water).Both preparations contain a large amount of microelements in a chelated form (each molecule of mineral elements is "enveloped" in an organic molecule). It is in this form that mineral dressing is assimilated by plants immediately, without the mediation of microorganisms (which just chelate minerals, passing them through themselves). Feeding is absorbed through the leaves much faster than through the roots, therefore foliar nutrition is more effective, but only in emergency situations. It cannot replace root nutrition. It is only important that there is no rain for 3-4 hours after spraying. In addition, top dressing should be done in the evening so that the preparations are absorbed by the leaves, and not evaporate in the sun. 19. Can iodine be used for spraying horticultural crops? It is possible, but only for the prevention of diseases caused by fungi (gray rot of strawberries, powdery mildew of currants and gooseberries, goblet rust, moniliosis of stone fruits and others). Spraying should be repeated after 3 days. The solution is prepared from 10 ml of 5% iodine and 10 liters of water. But it is much more effective to use the drug "Zircon" for the prevention and treatment of diseases of any plants. It contains organic acids that are essential for the immune system of plants. When sprinkled with "Zircon", immunity is maintained at the proper level and the plants themselves perfectly cope with diseases. 20. How to protect plants from pests without using pesticides? In late autumn and early spring (before the start of sap flow), the entire garden should be sprayed with a concentrated solution of any mineral fertilizer (700 g of any chlorine-free potassium, or urea, or ammophoska per 10 liters of water). During the summer, sprinkle the garden with the homeopathic preparation "Aurum-S" ("Healthy Garden") every month. Enough 2 grains per liter of water. 21. When is the best time to plant trees and shrubs? Trees are best planted in spring, shrubs in autumn. But planting material is best purchased in the fall. In this case, the trees should be dug in a horizontal position (the tops should be raised above the soil and not covered) until spring. If you buy planting material grown in a container directly in the nursery, then it can be 10

11 plant on the site at any time during the growing season, as this process takes place without damaging the roots. 22. How to shelter the planting from rodents? Young plants of apple trees, pears, cherries, plums, apricots should be wrapped in nylon tights. Moreover, their lower end should be dug in with soil. Older plants are tied with spruce branches or fiberglass (for example, using ripped sugar or flour bags). Trees older than 3-4 years should be whitewashed with outdoor water-based paint or tree whitewashing. Any other whitewash is washed away by the rains. 23. How to protect trees from frost? The easiest way is to whitewash. But it is used when the trees are more than three years old. It is better to wrap young trees with synthetic material, using nylon tights, synthetic sacking from sugar or cereal, lutrasil or span bond. (However, lutrasil and spunbond do not protect against rodents.) Do not wrap the trunks with roofing felt or other dark material. In the spring, it quickly heats up in the sun, and the cambium awakens during the day, and at night, a strong cold snap stops this process. Cambium from such changes in day and night temperatures can die, and this will lead to flaking of the bark. 24. Why does the bark of trees burst? Sometimes from a sharp fluctuation in moisture in the soil. It was dry for a long time, and then you took and immediately made abundant watering. But more often this phenomenon is associated with a sharp fluctuation in air temperature in early spring, when, after prolonged warm weather, severe frosts suddenly occurred. Cracks should be washed with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate (hydrogen peroxide, brilliant green) and covered with liquid pitch. Can be coated with clay with mullein and tied with burlap. The bark will grow together.Most importantly, do not postpone this work indefinitely, because pathogens will penetrate the crack, settle on the wood, and then peeling of the bark and its death cannot be avoided. 25. Is it necessary to remove lichens from the bark of trees? Necessarily! Lichens suck sap from the bark, which greatly oppresses the tree and can cause the death of the bark. Getting rid of lichens is very simple. But this can be done only during the dormant period, that is, at the end of October, November or in March. Make a 7 10% solution of ferrous sulfate (1 1.5 teaspoons per 100 ml of water) and spray the lichens or apply the solution with a flat brush. After a few days, the lichens will fall off the trunks on their own. eleven

12 Apricot 26. Where does apricot grow? This plant is quite winter-hardy and tolerates large frosts without a snow cover, but only in a continental climate. But in the North-West, apricot does not grow. The fact is that during winter thaws, the plant easily "wakes up", sap flow begins in it, and then a sharp cold snap causes the death of the cambium. Another reason is late spring frosts, which destroy young leaves and buds that have entered the period of growth and development, and even more so flowers. There are hybrids of Far Eastern apricots (slightly edible) and plums. There are plums with apricot aroma and taste, which are often passed off and mistaken for apricot (Vologda apricot, Moscow apricot). They may well grow and bear fruit in the Northwest, but it is better to grow them from seeds so that the plants will immediately adapt to local conditions. An apricot grown from a seed does not require grafting and rather quickly begins to bear fruit. 27. Is it possible to plant only one apricot tree on the site or do you need several? Apricot, as well as sweet cherry, blackthorn, cherry plum can grow alone. But at the same time, one must remember that apricot and sweet cherry are very tall trees, so they should be given an appropriate place in the garden. 28. What dressing does an apricot need? In the spring (in the North-West at the beginning of summer, after the end of the frost), give a mineral dressing: 2 tablespoons of nitrogen fertilizer and 1 tablespoon of chlorine-free potash per 10 liters of water. Naturally, top dressing should be given along the perimeter of the tree crown. The number of buckets should correspond to the number of years of the tree. Sprinkle a liter can of ash or a glass of dolomite along the perimeter of the crown on wet soil. At the time of the growth of the ovaries, spray the crown with "Uniflor-micro" 2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water. One bucket of top dressing is enough for an adult tree. After harvesting, the laying of the next year's harvest immediately begins, so add ash again along the moist soil around the crown perimeter (a liter jar under a tree). In mid-August, add 2 tablespoons of double granular superphosphate and 1 tablespoon of chlorine-free potassium per 10 liters of water to watering along the perimeter of the crown. And again pour a liter can of ash around the perimeter of the crown. In late autumn, when the leaves fall, add rotted manure or compost around the crown perimeter. You can do watering with feces from the toilet, dissolving them with water 1: 10. Sprinkle feces with fallen leaves or weeded out weeds (peat, sand, earth). 12

13 29. Should I water the apricot? The tree needs watering in a dry summer, at the time of flowering and the beginning of the growth of ovaries, 10 liters for each year of life, naturally, along the perimeter of the crown. In general, an apricot has a taproot system and roots go deep into the soil, and therefore they know how to find water. In the Northwest, apricot is precisely why it quickly dies, because the roots fall into the aquifers (except for areas with sandy soil, of course). 30. The apricot leaves are covered with dark spots. What it is? Apparently, this is a dangerous fungal disease of gnomoniosis (brown leaf spot). As a prophylaxis of this disease, you can use "Zircon" (2 4 drops per 1 liter of water), and for treatment, the concentration should be increased to 6-10 drops. In case of illness, spraying should be repeated after another days.It would be nice to add a quarter of a teaspoon of the microbial preparation "Extrasol" to the solution. 13

14 Quince 31. What is the difference between real quince and Japanese quince? This quince is an exclusively southern plant. It is pointless to grow it in the Non-Black Earth Region and, moreover, in the North-West or the Urals. But the Japanese quince (chaenomeles) can grow everywhere. In frosts, the plant freezes above the snow cover, but in the spring it quickly grows back, blooms and bears fruit, although fruiting decreases significantly. Real quince is a tree with large, fragrant, late-ripening fruits. They are not consumed raw. Wonderfully tasty jam is made from them. Japanese quince is most often a low-growing shrub that is used for decorative purposes. Chaenomeles blooms even before the leaves bloom with beautiful red-orange flowers tightly clinging to the branches. The fruits are small (about the size of a hen's egg), tasteless, with a hard, "stony" central part around the seed capsule, which takes up almost the entire fruit. But chaenomeles is edible. The fruit should be harvested before the first frost in the fall, otherwise the flesh will turn brown and unusable. What kind of soil is needed for chaenomeles? This shrub is unpretentious and tenacious. Prefers neutral or slightly acidic soils, loose, with a sufficient organic content. It is not worth planting on clays. Quince roots need good air access. 32. How to feed Japanese quince? She does not like fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, so it is better to use ash. Japanese quince is very responsive to AVA fertilization, which is applied in the form of granules of no more than 1 teaspoon under the bush. Fertilizer is covered at any time along the perimeter of the crown into the soil to a depth of 5-7 cm once every three years. In the spring, it would be nice to add half a bucket of rotted manure or compost under each bush. If there is no compost or manure, then after flowering, pour the weed infusion on the bush. 33. Can chaenomeles be planted as a fence? You can, but do not plant it densely as a green fence, otherwise you will not see all the beauty of the bush. The bushes need some room. 34. How to propagate chaenomeles? Chaenomeles prefers a sunlit place, but easily reconciles with partial shade. When planting, and like any other shrub, it is preferable to plant it at the end of summer, the root collar is buried 3 4 cm into the soil. The planting holes are prepared so that the root system can fit in them. Chaenomeles reproduces most easily by root suckers. But it can be propagated by layering or cuttings, dividing the bush and even seeds, which are sown immediately after harvest. True, quince grows slowly from seeds. fourteen

15 Actinidia 35. Are actinidia berries edible and where can it be grown? Everyone knows the fruits of kiwi. This is exactly the fruit of one of the species of actinidia, originally from Australia, where breeders created it. But this vine grows exclusively in the subtropics, so there is nothing to try to grow kiwi even in Georgia or Ukraine. There are other types of actinidia, for example, argut, with smaller, but exactly the same fruits as kiwi. It can be grown in the southern regions of Russia. In the North-West, only actinidia kolomikta can be grown, the fruits of which resemble in appearance the gooseberry berries of the Date variety. There is also a purely decorative polygamous liana, which has no edible fruits. Actinidia kolomikta is used not so much for fruit as for vertical gardening of the garden. She has exceptionally beautiful foliage that can change color several times over the summer. Therefore, it is often called "variegated liana". 36. Where is the best place to plant actinidia? From the south, south-east or south-west side of buildings, protected from cold winds. It should not be planted so that it rains from the roof, do not plant closer than a cm from the foundation of the house. You can plant it next to some tree that is not very dear to you, which will become a support for the vine. 37.I want to plant a vine around the house, for example, actinidia, but I don’t know how deep I need to make a trench and at what distance should I plant plants? The trench should be dug 50 cm wide and the same depth. One plant from another can be planted at a distance of 1.2 1.5 m from each other, because vines grow widely in the future and do not tolerate transplanting well in adulthood. So plant them right and right in place. At the bottom of the trench, stones, broken silicate (but not red clay) bricks, gravel, pebbles should be laid, then covered with coarse river sand (for foundation work). And only then can the trench be filled with soil. The soil must be specially prepared from a mixture of leaf humus and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. Remember: vines do not like acidic soils! But they grow well and bear fruit on slightly acidic ones. 38. Is it true that under the crown of lianas there is a wooden house? No, this is not true, since the leaves of lianas are arranged like tiles: the upper one creeps onto the lower one, and all the water rolls off them. So the wall under the foliage is always dry. In addition, on the underside of any leaves there are stomata through which the leaves regulate the evaporation of moisture from the plant. So: vines have a great moisture-absorbing ability precisely through the leaves. fifteen

16 39. Why do the tips of the leaves of actinidia turn white? This is the peculiarity of these vines. 40. Why actinidia blooms, but does not bear fruit? Because it is a dioecious plant. Obviously, you have either only females or only males. They differ from each other in that on female plants the flowers are located singly, and in male plants they are collected in a bunch of 5-15 pieces. 41. Why did the plants disappear after planting actinidia? Most likely, they were eaten by cats digging up the root. After planting, you need to protect the plants with a metal mesh. The mesh can be removed after 3-4 years. Cats dig only young plants. sixteen

17 Cherry plum 42. Is one cherry plum tree enough or is it, like the plum, a cross-pollinated plant? The ancestor of cherry plum is the Asian plum, so cherry plum is also a plum. It is better to have two plants on the site, but one tree also bears fruit well, since it is pollinated with plums (if they grow in yours). For the North-West and more southern regions, new large-fruited varieties can be recommended, for example, Moscow large-fruited. However, if the plums in your region freeze slightly, the cherry plum will also freeze a little. 17

18 Chokeberry (chokeberry) 43. Why chokeberry berries were chopped? Because the branches are outdated or the bush is too thick. It should be thinned from time to time, cutting out old branches to the very base. Instead of them, young shoots of replacement will go out of the ground. Each branch should be kept in the bush for no more than 7 to 8 years. It is necessary to leave trunks in the bush, otherwise, if there is too much thickening of fruiting in its center, there will be no and the yield will decrease. 44. Is it possible to plant chokeberry in the shade? Not worth it. Aronia loves the sun. There will be few berries in the shade, and they will not be tasty. 45. For several years the black chokeberry gave a good harvest, and then suddenly the harvests decreased. Why? Most likely, it's all about the soil. Aronia suits almost any soil, but on scarce soils, the harvest falls. So, if you want to get high yields of large, juicy berries, please add well-rotted compost to the soil before planting. 46. ​​I want to plant chokeberry along the fence. How to do it correctly? Planting holes are made 50 x 50 cm in size if a single bush is planted somewhere in the corner, or a continuous trench is dug if they are planted with a solid green fence along the border of the site or fence. In this case, the distance between the bushes is 2 2, 5 m. 47. Our chokeberry has grown very much. How to trim it correctly? Pruning is done in early spring, before bud break. Old branches are easy to distinguish from young ones.At about the 7th-8th year of life, shortened lateral branches begin to grow on them, while in young branches, lateral branches usually grow up to cm over the summer. If the bush is not freed from old branches, then it thickens strongly and fruiting falls on it. Avoid more than 10 shoots in one bush. Cut the extra branches to the root. 48. After the winter, the chokeberry died. Isn't this a frost-hardy tree? Firstly, after all, not a tree, but a bush, and secondly, it is unlikely that your chokeberry died from frost. It is extremely frost-hardy and withstands frosts of more than 40 C. And that is why it is often recommended to plant it along the northern border of the site to protect it from northern and northeastern winds. Chokeberry has no diseases, pests do not interfere with it, so, most likely, the whole thing is in your soil. eighteen

19 49. What kind of care does chokeberry need? Do I need to feed her? Care consists in feeding, loosening the soil under the bush, weeding. Once every two years, in the spring, you need to add a bucket of organic matter and 2 tablespoons of double granular superphosphate around the perimeter of the crown of the bush. But, even if you do not care for the chokeberry, it will still present you with berries annually. Just do not take the leaves falling from it from under the bush, and it will feed itself. 50. When to plant and propagate chokeberry? It is better to plant in late summer and early autumn and propagate by dividing the bush at the same time. 51. What trees can be grafted onto chokeberry? A pear can be grafted onto chokeberry. But the branches of the chokeberry are thin, while in the pear they very quickly become much thicker than in the rootstock, and therefore the branches of the chokeberry easily break off. Permanent, well-reinforced supports should be placed under them. nineteen

20 Barberry 52. ​​Is it possible to grow barberry in the North-West? This barberry grows only in the south of our country. And in the Northwest, only decorative grows, with small berries. However, these berries have good medicinal properties. twenty

21 Grapes 53. How to preserve the grapes obtained in autumn from the nursery? Very simple. Tie in a bun, wrap with sphagnum moss or several layers of newspaper. Place in an open plastic bag on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or between window frames. In March, plant obliquely in a box of soil. Place on a battery (on a bed of newspapers or magazines so that the soil temperature is about 20 C). Keep the window ajar so that the above-ground part is at a temperature not higher than C. The shanks will quickly take root, then the above-ground part will grow. After the spring frosts have passed, the cuttings can be planted in the ground at a prepared place. 54. Is it obligatory to grow grapes in a greenhouse in the Northwest? Not at all necessary. It is important that it is closed from cold winds, and you can use an ordinary spruce as a shelter. The liana is simply planted on the south side of the tree and launched along the trunk. Such grapes are not cut or covered for the winter, only the root part is insulated. 55. What are the best varieties to grow in the North-West region? The easiest way is to grow seedless grape varieties (raisins), since these varieties are the fastest growing and have time to fully mature in our short summer. The sweet variety Korinka Russian, with medium-sized light berries, grows without problems in the North-West. This variety has already been registered with us for permanent residence, as well as the amber-colored large Aleshenkin grapes of our local selection. Amateur gardeners have mastered quite a few grape varieties: Augustow violet, Alexander dark pink, Amur blue-black, a whole series of white Potapenko varieties, as well as Moscow white, Moscow dachny, Moscow stable, Russian early, Skuinya Jubilee. There is a variety Yubileiny with yellow berries, with berries of black color Early TSKHA and Rodina. So there is a choice. 56. Where is the best place to plant grapes? Grapes can be planted near the walls of buildings, but not on the south side, since near the south wall in spring, the upper part of the plant heats up quickly and it wakes up prematurely, and then suffers from frost. Better to plant grapes on the west side. 57. What diseases can occur in grapes? The main disease is mildew (downy mildew), in a moist region, common powdery mildew often appears on the leaves. To prevent these diseases, usually 21

22 use preparations containing copper.Most often, a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid is used 5-6 times per season, from the moment the winter shelter was removed. After the last spraying, at least 3 weeks must pass before the grapes can be eaten. Excellent results are obtained by regular use of the drug "Zircon". Grapes can be eaten within a week after spraying with this preparation. 22

23 Cherry 58. Why do cherry fruits crack, then they often rot or dry out? They rot because an infection has got into the berries through the cracks, and they crack due to excess moisture in the soil. 59. Why are cherry fruits completely covered with black spots? Most often because cherries are sick with coccomycosis. It is not difficult to determine this fungal disease, because plants have early yellowing of leaves and their premature discharge. The causative agent of the disease, a fungus, hibernates on fallen leaves, so they should be removed, and the soil and plants should be sprayed with a preparation containing copper (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, "Hom", "Oxyhom", "Polychom"), or "Zircon". This spraying should be done during bud opening, bud opening and after harvest, and do not forget to spray the soil under the plants. A good result is given by spraying with the preparation "Fitosporin", but it should be poured over the cherries regularly (after 2 to 3 weeks) throughout the season. 60. What is stone fruit crops moniliosis and how to protect cherries from it? It is a fungal disease (gray mold). It manifests itself in the spring, at the time of flowering, in the form of a burn of leaves and young shoots, which darken, wither and dry out literally in a matter of days. In summer, secondary infection of new shoots from branches affected in spring occurs. Old branches also dry out, as the fungus penetrates into the wood, then the bark begins to attack. A wet, cool, prolonged spring contributes a lot to the widespread spread of this disease. The most effective is spraying with "Zircon" at the time of budding, then at the time of budding, before flowering, after flowering and after fruiting. In spring, spraying with Zircon is especially effective when paired with Epin-extra. In August, dried branches should be cut out, and the plants should be sprayed with Hom (or another containing copper). In order to preserve cherries with moniliosis for a longer time, these spraying will have to be done annually. Everything that has been said about cherries applies to plums. 61. Why does the felt cherry die? Most often, because its root collar is undercut, and it does not renew itself with root shoots. In the Northwest, this is a frequent occurrence due to winter thaws and prolonged autumn rains. Plant cherries (any) so that the root collar rises above the soil surface. It is better to graft felt cherries on the thorns, then it does not threaten the root collar podperevaniya. By the way, the felt cherry does not suffer from moniliosis and is not susceptible to coccomycosis. 23

24 62. Is it possible to take shoots from cherries and plums? If you have own-rooted plants, then the shoots fully retain their maternal properties, that is, cherries and plums of the same variety will grow from the shoots. But if the plants were grafted onto some kind of rootstock (and often wild birds grown from seeds are taken as a rootstock), then the growth will also be wild, that is, it will bear poor quality fruits. 63. At what distance from the mother plant can the shoots be taken? No closer than 2 m from the trunk, otherwise deprive the mother plant of the roots. 64. Why did the cherry trees begin to bare branches and have leaves only at the very ends? If the cherry has turned into a broom, then you have too much growth. Normal growth for cherries is about 30 cm. If the growth is less, then the plant is weakened. Branches should be thinned out, some of the trunks should be removed, feeding and watering should be intensified. If the growths are more than 50 cm, then only flower buds are laid on them, which, after fruiting, die off, and the branch is bare. Vegetative buds, from which the leaves develop, in such a branch are laid only at the very ends. Check for new growth at the end of each summer.Once the branch has grown 30 cm, pluck out the topmost bud at its end. Growth will stop, and not only flower buds will begin to form, but also vegetative buds, from which leaves will grow. The apical kidney pulls off all the nutrients. Bare branches should be cut to the point where they attach to the trunk. If the entire tree or bush is bare, then cut the branches out gradually, over the course of three years. Strong thickening of the crown should not be allowed, so thin it out in late summer or early spring, before sap flow begins. Stone fruits cannot be pruned in late spring, they will start gum flow. 65. Cherry has been growing on the site for the third year already, blooming very abundantly and beautifully, but not bearing fruit. What's the matter here? If you planted only one cherry tree on the site, then this may be your problem. Cherry is a highly cross-pollinated plant, so you cannot grow only one tree. You need a pollinator, and not just some kind of pollinator, but one that is suitable for the variety you have chosen. There are self-fertile varieties of cherries and plums, as a rule, these are varieties of national selection, so they should be bought. There are also cultivated varieties of self-fertile cherries, but this does not mean that you can plant only one cherry tree, the crop will be scanty, as well as in the absence of the necessary pollinator. In any case, it is necessary to plant at least two or three self-fertile cherries. Poor fruiting can also be caused by frosts, which kill unripe flower buds. And they ripen in stone fruits only by late autumn. Or, on the contrary, late spring frosts, when the flowers have already opened in the plants. Sometimes spring frosts pass when the plants have already formed young ovaries, then they are reset, since young ovaries are just as vulnerable as open flowers. In regions with severe spring frosts, plants can be helped by spraying 24

25 of their drugs "Novosil" or "Epin-extra". It is better to do this before the frost begins. You can insure yourself by sprinkling cherries on the buds with one of the preparations containing the hormone gibberelin: "Bud", "Ovary" or "Gippersib". Generally, gibberelin is produced by plant leaves, but it is not enough for the growth of ovaries. Additional doses of the hormone begin to release the growing seeds after fertilization. But if fertilization did not occur for any reason, then the ovaries fall off. By introducing the hormone through the leaves, you deceive the plants, and the ovaries begin to grow even in the absence of fertilization. However, the discharge of ovaries is not only due to late spring frosts, but also from a lack of potassium and calcium in the soil, which are necessary for plants to grow seeds. In addition, coccomycosis and moniliosis also cause premature shedding of the ovaries and, as a result, a lack of harvest. 66. Cherries have very little growth. This is normal? Of course not normal. A small increase indicates poor care, lack of moisture and nutrition, poor protection against diseases and pests. Help the plant, and it will restore normal growth, which should be about 40 cm. Over time, the branches will have to be cut along with the bare trunk to which such branches are attached, there is no point in shortening them, since you will cut off the only growth bud, and the bare branch will continue to grow will not be. In case of poor growth, the plant should be sprayed a couple of times during the summer with the Ferovit preparation, which enhances the growth of the shoot ends, and fed with the Extrasol microbial preparation in accordance with the instructions attached to the preparation. 67. We have problems with water on the site, it is extremely difficult to water the trees. Are cherries drought tolerant? In principle, like apricot, cherry is quite drought-resistant, but in dry spring and early summer it still needs watering. Watering should be along the perimeter of the crown of the plant, in the evening, 4 6 buckets under a tree. In a rainy summer, of course, you don't need to water, because cherries do not like stagnant waters. 68.How to feed cherries? Top dressing in the spring is ash, in a liter can, on wet soil, along the perimeter of the crown, 1 tablespoon of urea and 2 tablespoons of chlorine-free potassium (when feeding with potassium chloride, it will drop leaves) per 10 liters of water (at least 3 4 buckets per plant). Can be replaced with potassium nitrate (2 tablespoons). During intensive growth of the ovaries, the leaves should be sprayed with a solution of trace elements. In addition, one more liter can of ash is needed to build up the bone. In mid-August, 2 tablespoons of double granular superphosphate and 1 tablespoon of potassium per 10 liters of water (at least 4 buckets) and again a liter can of ash. A liter can of ash can be replaced with 1 glass of dolomite. In late autumn, after dropping the leaves, you can add a couple of buckets of organic matter or pour feces, like an apricot. 25

26 69. Is it possible to plant cherries next to raspberry bushes? Not worth it. Cherries will strongly oppress raspberries, so it is better to place them in different parts of the garden. 70. What types of cherries are the best to plant in the Northwest region? Cherry is better to plant steppe or sandy. These cherries grow in low bushes, their fruits are rather small, with a lot of juice, but the jam and wine are excellent, and they give a plentiful and annual harvest. 26

27 Pear 71. Why does pear bear fruit badly? Because she probably grows with you alone. The pear is a cross-pollinated plant and at least two plants should be planted. 72. Black spots appear on pear leaves at the end of summer. What it is? There can be two reasons. First: there is a scab on the pear. In spring, the tree should be sprayed with Vectra or Skor on young leaves. You can use any preparation containing copper (0.1% solution, that is, 1 teaspoon per 5-7 liters of water). But it is best to spray with "Zircon". Then repeat spraying on young ovaries and after harvesting. The second reason is the lack of iron. In general, all plants at the time of the appearance of ovaries should be sprayed with preparations containing trace elements, for example, "Uniflor-micro" or "Florist". If we are talking only about a lack of iron, then you can limit yourself to spraying with a 0.1% solution of ferrous sulfate (an incomplete teaspoon per 5 liters of water). 73. How to get rid of fruit rot on a pear? Since this is a fungal disease, prophylactic spraying with a preparation containing copper will help to avoid it. But such spraying should be done a month before harvesting, and not when you saw rotten pears. If you did not do this on time, and the fruits began to rot during ripening, then use the "Fitosporin" solution, but you will have to apply it weekly, until the harvest itself. If there is no Fitosporin, use an iodine solution (10 ml of 5% iodine per 10 liters of water). Spraying should be repeated again after 3 days. The drug "Zircon" helps a lot, which should be sprayed on the plant as soon as you see the first decaying fruit in order to save the rest from such a fate. If there was a lot of rot last summer, then do not wait for the appearance of diseased fruits, but immediately prophylactically spray the plant over the young ovaries and repeat the spraying again after 2-3 weeks. 74. The leaves of the young pear are covered with tubercles. What it is? Leaves of not only pears, but also of any other (even indoor) plant can be covered with such protruding tubercles. A pest sits inside such a tubercle. You need any absorbable drug against pests, for example, "Iskra-bio" or "Fitoverm". These drugs can also be used in the apartment. 27

28 75. Is it possible to plant a pear on a Japanese quince? It is possible, but not necessary, just like grafting a pear on chokeberry (chokeberry) or red rowan. Over time, the pear branch greatly thickens, and it keeps on a thin branch of the rootstock and breaks off at the grafting site as soon as the pear begins to bear fruit. But it should be noted that a pear grafted onto these plants quickly begins to bear fruit. 76.What does a pear dislike? Carbonate or acidic soils, salt marshes. Too dry places do not suit her, and a very hot, humid climate does not suit her, therefore the apple tree does not grow in tropical forests. But, most importantly, she does not like the close standing of groundwater. Getting into such a waterlogged layer, the roots of the plant rot and the tree dies. 77. How to feed a pear? In principle, the pear needs to be fed in the same way as the apple tree, but the pear needs increased doses of phosphorus and slightly lower doses of potassium than the apple tree. Hence, the feeding rates suitable for an apple tree should be taken half as much for a pear as for an apple tree. To prepare the solution, the dose of phosphorus should be increased by 1/3 tablespoon, and potassium should be reduced by 1/3 tablespoon, respectively. That's all there is to it. If you use AVA fertilizer, then 2.5 tablespoons are enough for a pear for three seasons. 78. How to prepare a pear for winter? In order to help the plants withstand frosts and other weather troubles more easily, use "Ecoberin", or "Epin-extra", or "Novosil". 79. What is the best way to spray a pear against pests? In summer, use modern biological products Fitoverm and Iskra-Bio against pests. They are not dangerous for us and the environment, as they are made from soil microorganisms. Therefore, nature knows how to dispose of them. They are absorbed by the green leaf and function in the plant's cell sap for 3 weeks, then the plant uses them for its own needs. During these three weeks in any leaf-sucking (aphid, thrips, tick, scale insect) or leaf-eating (caterpillar, beetle) pest that has tasted the juice or pulp of the plant, the drugs cause paralysis of the gastrointestinal tract, and after 2 hours it stops feeding. Death occurs in two days from hunger. For beneficial insects or birds that eat such pests, drugs are not dangerous, since they do not act indirectly. 28


1. Scientific substantiation of the system of environmentally friendly protective measures against downy mildew of onion in the conditions of the southern region of the CIS countries.

1.1. The state of research on the issue under study.

1.2. Research materials and methods.

1.2.1. Characteristics of the research sites.

1.2.2. Technique of figopathological studies.

1.2.3. Influence of onion cultivation conditions on its susceptibility to downy mildew.

1.2.4. Improvement of onion planting material in conditions of concentration and specialization of agricultural production.

1.2.4.1. Warming up the planting material as a way to improve it.

1.2.4.2. Improvement of the mechanized line and storage to improve the quality of planting material and its health.

1.2.5. A chemical method for controlling downy mildew in seed crops and onion plantings.

1.2.6. Breeding of onions for resistance to downy mildew.

1.2.7. Study of the biochemical nature of onion resistance to peronosporosis.

1.2.8. Production check of research results and economic efficiency of a set of recommended measures to combat onion downy mildew.

1.2.10. Proposals for production.

1.2.11. Suggestions for breeding practice.

2. Improvement of tomato breeding methods for resistance to Alternaria.

2.1. Bioecological and pathological features of Alternaria solani.

2 L. 1. Distribution and harmfulness of tomato Alternaria.

2.1.2. The causative agent of Alternaria.

2.1.3. Conditions for the development and spread of the causative agent of the disease.

2.1.4. Intraspecific heterogeneity of the causative agent of Alternaria.

2.1.5. The main methods of protecting tomato plants from Alternaria.

2.1.6. Breeding of resistant varieties as the most effective method of protecting tomato plants from Alternaria.

2.1.7. Tomato breeding methods for alternaria resistance

2.1.8. Inheritance of tomato tolerance to Alternaria.

2.1.9. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of tomato resistance to Alternaria.

2.2. Research materials and methods.

2.3.Clarification of etiology, definition of harmfulness and study of biological characteristics of the causative agent of tomato Alternaria in Moldova.

2.3.1. Distribution and harmfulness of Alternaria.

2.3.2. Clarification of the etiology of the disease and the study of the biological characteristics of the causative agent of the disease.

2.3.3. The influence of weather conditions on the development of Alternaria.

2.4. Use of infectious backgrounds for selection

2.4.1. Assessment of Tomato Resistance in the Early Phases of Ontogenesis

2.4.2. Assessment of material against infectious backgrounds of Alternaria in spring film greenhouses and in the open field.

2.4.3. Evaluation of the resistance of tomato samples to damage to fruits by Alternaria by the damage of peduncles and sepals during the period of fruit formation.

2.5. Laboratory methods for assessing sustainability.

2.5.1. Benzimidazole method for assessing the resistance of tomato leaves to Alternaria.

2.5.2. Benzimidazole method for assessing the resistance of fruits to A.solani by infected clusters.

2.5.3. Method for evaluating separated fruits in humid chambers.

2.5.4. Use of A. solani toxins for the evaluation of samples for resistance to Alternaria.

2.5.5. Physiological and biochemical features of tomato resistance to Alternaria and the possibility of using them in the creation of stable forms.

2.5.6. Protein content in leaves of tomato plants with contrasting resistance to Alternaria.

2.5.7. The content of total and protein nitrogen in plants with different resistance to A. solani.

2.5.8. Chlorophyll content in tomato leaves with contrasting resistance to Alternaria.

2.6. Creation and identification of source material for tomato selection for Alternaria resistance.

2.6.1. A.solani infectious background and its characteristics.

2.6.2. Assessment of collection material against infectious backgrounds A. solani.

2.7. Genetic indicators of the inheritance of tomato resistance to Alternaria and their use in the breeding process.

2.7.1. Inheritance of resistance to Alternaria disease in first-generation hybrids.

2.7.2. Inheritance of resistance to alternariosis in tomato hybrids in the F2 generation of the diallelic scheme.

2.7.3. Efficiency of selection for resistance to A. solani in heterogeneous tomato populations against infectious alternative backgrounds.

2.8. The results of breeding work on the creation of tomato lines resistant to Alternaria.

3. Development of selection methods for resistance to viral diseases of garlic.

3.1.1. The origin of cultivated garlic and its biological significance.

3.2. Botanical characteristics of Allium sativum.

3.3. The state of knowledge of Allium sativum diseases.

3.4. Manifestation and prevalence of viral diseases of garlic in the Republic of Moldova.

3.5. The harmfulness of viral diseases.

3.6. Identification of causative agents of viral diseases and the study of their biological properties.

3.7. Obtaining diagnostic antisera to garlic mosaic virus.

3.8. Development of express methods for material testing and selection of optimal conditions for their implementation.

3.9. Creation of provocative and infectious backgrounds.

3.10. Study of the range of virus host plants.

3.10.1. Determination of the morphology of pathogens.

3.10.2. Identification of viruses infecting garlic in the Republic of Moldova.

3.10.3. Biological characteristics of causative agents of viral diseases of garlic.

3.11. Selection of garlic for disease resistance.

3.11.1. Development of diagnostic methods for causative agents of viral diseases of garlic.

3.11.1.1. Purification of the viral preparation.

3.11.1.2. Preparation of antiserum for HPMC.

3.11.1.3. Enzyme immunoassay.

3.11.1.4. Immune electron microscopy.

3.11.1.5. Serological diagnosis of TMJ by the drop method.

3.12. Create a provocative background.

3.13. Dependence of the effectiveness of the infectious background on the planting material.

3.14. Selection of analogues and their quantitative characteristics.

3.15. Recommendations for selection of garlic clones resistant and tolerant to viral infection.

3.16. Characteristics of the selected clones.


Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Age restrictions: +12

Current page: 4 (total of the book has 24 pages) [available passage for reading: 9 pages]

Parsnips, or white carrots, are a root vegetable that perfectly replaces carrots and parsley in soups. The root crop hibernates right in the beds without additional shelter, retaining all vitamins and minerals until the very beginning of summer. But at the beginning of summer, he quickly throws out the flower arrow and becomes slightly edible.

Parsnips are winter-hardy, cold-hardy, practically not damaged by diseases and pests. It is unpretentious to soils, but it develops better on fertile, rich in organic matter. It can be sown in early spring along the edges of beds with other crops, along berry bushes, and even along paths.

Is it possible to grow tap root crops (carrots, parsnips, root parsley) through seedlings or transplant "extra" plants during thinning? No, since the length of the root crop is determined by the root hair, and, as a rule, during transplantation, it either breaks off or bends, and instead of a root crop, a short kultyka is formed.

No need to sow thickly - he has excellent germination, but only in the first year. If the seeds lie down for a couple of years, they practically lose their germination, so in the spring, leave the strongest plant growing after wintering for seeds every year. There are a lot of seeds, so leave only one umbrella - on the main stem, and break the rest of the umbrellas. The seeds ripen in late summer.

The seeds of parsnips are large, therefore, when sowing, they are buried deep in the soil - approximately to a depth of 3-4 cm. The crops are immediately sparse, at a distance of 5-7 cm the seed from the seed.

Parsnips, like all root crops, prefers non-acidic soils, but even tolerates acidic ones. Loves a sunny location, but, at worst, will grow in partial shade.

Root vegetables are nutritious and tasty. They are used in soups, seasonings, sauces. It is included in all dried condiments. Greens, especially young ones, are also used in soups and salads.

Season fiveVegetable bed without difficulty

The fifth season will begin as early as the previous summer, almost immediately after harvesting carrots and onions by planting winter garlic in the center of the garden. Cover both the planting of garlic and the vacated edges of the garden bed immediately so that there are no weeds for the next season. The most convenient way is to use newspapers. They do not need to be removed from the center at all, because the onions will sprout through them (you should not mulch more than 2-3 layers, otherwise you will have to remove the shelter in the spring). Mulch or cover the edges of the beds before planting. You can plant spring garlic right this fall. With this planting, both garlic have time to ripen a month earlier than usual. As soon as the lower leaves begin to turn yellow, pick up the pitchfork and dig out the crop.

Along the edges, instead of spring garlic, you can plant onions on a turnip in the spring, or radishes, lettuce, and after harvesting them - daikon or black radish for winter storage.

I prefer to grow leeks instead of onions. Therefore, I use the edges of the garden for the spring planting of leeks grown from seedlings, therefore, immediately after planting winter garlic, I cover the entire garden with newspapers to prevent weeds.

As you know, there is winter garlic, which is planted before winter, and there is spring garlic, which is planted in spring. But this does not mean that winter garlic cannot be planted in spring. Of course it is possible. If your winter garlic began to sprout during storage, well, plant it in a box with soil, transplant the seedlings in place, in open ground, as soon as the soil thaws, slightly cutting the roots of the seedlings. If you still have unused winter garlic and it has lost its presentation, put it in the refrigerator for a couple of weeks, and then plant it in the ground at the beginning of April. If the soil has not yet thawed, then pour hot water over the planting site and plant the cloves to a depth of 6–7 cm. You can plant in a small space quite tightly, and then at the beginning of May plant it according to the scheme 10 × 10 cm or 15 × 15 cm.

In winter garlic, a flower arrow is laid, it blooms, but in the northern regions the seeds do not ripen.

In principle, it can propagate by seeds, vegetatively by cloves (it reproduces in this way) and bulbs. The head has one row, usually consisting of 4–6 large teeth. At the end of the flower arrow at the end of July, small bulbous bulbs are formed, which are used for propagation of garlic along with cloves.

The difference between spring garlic and winter garlic is that spring garlic does not give an arrow, does not bloom and does not give seeds. It reproduces exclusively vegetatively, that is, teeth. Spring usually has two rows of small denticles. Spring garlic has one advantage over winter garlic. It is well stored in the apartment during the winter.

To begin with, it is better to plant winter garlic in the northern regions not at the end of September - beginning of October, as is customary, but at the end of August (on the 25th-27th)

In the center of the garden bed, freed from carrots and onions (or parsnips), make holes with a peg (2-3 cm in diameter) and a depth of about 15 cm (this is not a mistake, they are really so deep!) According to a 15 × 15 cm pattern. Pour into each hole a tablespoon of sand, dip one fertilizer granule AVA, then a clove of garlic, again cover with a tablespoon of sand and soil the surface with soil. The sand introduced into the holes creates micro-drainage around the tooth, and then around the growing head of garlic, therefore, relieves it from waterlogging. As always if AVA no (except carrots), add a teaspoon of ash.

To avoid weeds for the next year, immediately cover planting garlic with black and white newspapers in two layers and press with poles so that the wind does not blow away. In addition, the sides of the bed should be covered with opaque material until spring.

In spring, garlic shoots will easily break through wet newspapers and come out. Leave the remains of newspapers in place, they will serve as a mulching material.

Don't worry, garlic won't sprout in the fall when planted this deep! The sand forms micro-drainage around the clove, and therefore moist soil does not stick to it and it does not rot. When filling the soil with AVA fertilizer, all the next summer it will not have to be fed, watered, or weeded - because of the newspapers!

Garlic, planted in August, manages to build up a good root system over a long autumn and rises early in the spring. Plants stand up like a strong wall, strong, green, and can easily cope with any weather conditions. I emphasize once again that they do not need any feeding and watering for the whole season. The only thing that should be done regularly is to make sure that weeds do not interfere with the garlic, and also to loosen the soil a couple of times a month. If in the spring he "broke" through your newspapers, then you managed to avoid this extra work. If "did not break through" (due to a too thick layer of newspapers), then help him by removing the newspapers. But then, in order to avoid watering and weeding, immediately mulch the soil under the plantings of garlic with mowed grass from the lawns, or simply spread the weeded out weeds.

When garlic, planted in any way, has a flower arrow, it should be broken off immediately. No twisting and tying of the tops does not get rid of the arrow, but it does harm to the plant, since the leaves stop working normally. In addition, an infection gets into the resulting tissue breaks, which can lead to garlic disease. One or two of the strongest plants must be left with an arrow in order for the bulbs to grow. As soon as the case on the flower arrow bursts, the plant must be removed from the ground along with the head, shake off the soil from the roots and hang it up with the roots to dry. Then the bulbs can be removed. Right on the garden bed, you need to put on a nylon bag and tie it so that the grown bulbs do not crumble. Bulbules will be required to improve their planting material.If your planting material is not healed, then the garlic will degenerate in 3-4 years and will not give a head, but “only tears”.

Such garlic ripens a month earlier than that which is planted in September-October.

After the lower leaves of the garlic have turned yellow, you can dig it up, preferably with a pitchfork, and not with a shovel. The garlic should be shaken off the soil and, tying it in loose bunches, hung in the attic or in the attic upside down to dry. When the nutrients are completely transferred from the leaves to the head, the leaves will dry out. Now you need to trim the roots, peel off excess husks, weave a braid and hang it in the kitchen for winter storage. You can cut off the dried tops, leaving hemp 2-3 cm high, hold the bottom of each head over the candle flame to lightly burn the bottom (this will protect the head from premature loss of moisture). Then put the well-dried garlic in three-liter jars, tie the hole with a cloth and put the garlic stored on the windowsills.

You don't need to store garlic in the refrigerator - it usually spoils faster.

If you find mold or rot while harvesting garlic, or something else suspicious, then clean the heads from excess scales, immediately cut off the tops and roots, lower the heads for half an hour in the solution Fitosporin and only then dry it, spreading it out in one layer in the attic. Sometimes it is recommended to store garlic disassembled into cloves in jars, sprinkling it with salt. This method does not give anything but an extra waste of salt, because salt takes moisture from the teeth, and they, losing moisture, dry out and wrinkle.

If garlic starts to deteriorate when stored in an apartment, it is better to immediately plant it in a shallow box with soil for forcing greens, planting cloves according to a 3 × 3 cm pattern.In three weeks you will receive young, tasty and healthy greens of garlic, which can be used for salads and green sandwiches.

The place in the garden, which was freed from the garlic quite early, should be immediately planted with spinach, radish, salad. Otherwise, weeds will immediately take over it, since you will harvest the leeks in October. But in order to improve the soil, it is possible to sow the empty space with white mustard, and at the same time its crops will pry out the larva of the click beetle - wireworm and nematode from the garden, so that you will not have to apply any special measures against them next year.

What else do you need to know about winter garlic?

As a rule, gardeners use their own planting material, but sometimes they buy garlic for planting in stores or from individuals and, being flattered by the beautiful appearance of the heads of garlic, buy southern garlic. After planting, it rises almost immediately, hibernates poorly and often rots in the soil during winter thaws or during prolonged autumn rainy weather. Southern and imported varieties of garlic are not suitable for growing in the northern regions.

If the cloves are without traces of disease, they can be planted immediately, if there are any doubts about the disease, then soak them for half an hour in a solution of one of the drugs before planting: Maxim or Fitosporin for the prevention of diseases.

What does garlic like?

Well filled with organic matter, moisture and air permeable, alkaline (pH 6.5-7.5), sunny location, but can tolerate a little shading.

What doesn't garlic like?

Clay or compacted soils, poor in organic matter, acidic soils, shade, strong waterlogging.

Garlic is a cold-resistant plant, it is not afraid of frost, it rises early in the spring, because after planting the root system has time to grow well in the fall. But with too late plantings (end of October), the garlic does not have time to take root and bulges out of the ground with an early onset of frost. But even so, if you plant it again at a depth of about 5 cm, it will yield a crop, but a little later than usual. Usually, garlic is planted at the same time as tulips in late September and early October to a depth of about 8 cm.

Garlic leaves lighter tips for the same reasons as onions, so see the corresponding answer in the section on onions.

Garlic is rarely sick. The main attack is rot of the bottom or rotting of the entire head. The disease continues to develop during storage. The disease often appears in the southern regions, as it develops at high temperatures (+ 28-32 ° C), therefore, in the northern regions it occurs only in very hot times at the time of the ripening of the head of garlic. Sometimes the flower arrow softens and deteriorates. The reason is in the acidic and waterlogged soil, but maybe also in the causative agents of the disease that got with the husk on the clove or lived in the soil. For this reason, I recommend watering the garden before planting. Fitosporin... It is possible before boarding instead of Fitosporin use any preparation containing copper (Hom, Polykhom, Oxykhom, copper sulfate at the rate of a tablespoon without a top for 10 liters of water), consuming at least 2 liters of solution per meter of the garden. In any of these preparations, you can soak the cloves for 15 minutes before planting as a preventive measure.

Garlic, planted at the end of August, usually goes away from diseases.

Of the pests, a nematode is often found, as well as occasionally a pest that eats a flower arrow. With shallow plantings of garlic, the head can be damaged by the onion fly larva. Garlic attracts nematoda, so I do not recommend planting garlic and strawberries together, contrary to generally accepted recommendations. Salvation from her nematodes, in addition to observing the correct crop rotation. For other pests, biological products should be used Fitoverm or Healthy garden.

How to improve the planting material?

The collected and dried bulbs are planted simultaneously with the main garlic. Shallow grooves (about 5 cm) are made across the bed with garlic at the very edge. A layer of sand about 2 cm high is poured at the bottom of the groove, lightly sprinkled (like salting) the sand with the powder fraction of the fertilizer AVA and the bulbs are laid out at a distance of 4–5 cm from each other. Then they are covered with sand and the furrows are slightly covered with soil from above. No additional fertilizing will be required in the future, but watering in dry time is necessary. To prevent the weeds from clogging the garlic shoots, the soil is regularly loosened.

When in the middle of summer the grown greens begin to turn yellow, the plants must be removed from the soil, dried, as usual, and the small cloves obtained from the bulbs must be planted again for growing, simultaneously with the main garlic. These cloves are planted separately at the end of the garlic bed, just like the main garlic, only they are planted to a depth of about 10 cm when planting in August, and to a depth of 5–6 cm when planting normally. The care is the same as for the main plantings.

In July, digging up the garlic, you will find that instead of a head, the young cloves have produced rather large, round, single cloves. This is the very healthy planting material that you had to grow for two years. Mono-teeth in August (or September, depending on when you usually plant the garlic) are planted in the same way as the main garlic, but it is better to mark the place of their planting, because in the future you will use the large teeth of the heads that have grown their one-toothed. Usually, heads with four very large teeth grow from one-toothed teeth.

How to save a year by planting garlic bulbs?

There is one interesting point when growing new planting material. In the year when the garlic grew from the bulbs, you can not dig it out, but leave it in the garden. Make sure that the plantings are not flooded with water. In waterlogged soil, the garlic left behind can simply rot. The next year, planting garlic will not give a single-tooth, but a whole bush of plants. They just need to be planted according to the scheme 10 × 10 cm or 15 × 15 cm at the very beginning of years, and by the fall you will receive a new planting material in the form of garlic heads with medium-sized teeth, which, after digging and drying, can be used for new plantings of garlic. This way you save a whole year.

You have probably noticed that in the spring, in the garden where the garlic grew, bushes of garlic plants appear. They grew out of those heads that you did not accidentally dig up. So plant them immediately in the spring.That is, you can not dig out a part of the garlic, but immediately leave it to winter in the ground, and in the spring just plant it on a new bed prepared for garlic.

Garlic tolerates transplanting well, you just need to slightly trim the roots and, when planting, make sure that they do not bend up.

The easiest way to transplant garlic is not in separate holes, but in solid trenches, the depth of which should be sufficient to accommodate the roots in them. Seedlings are planted approximately according to the scheme 15 × 15 cm or 20 × 20 cm. How is it convenient? Less work: no need to dig out the planting material, dry it, store it, plant it again. The main concern is only that the plantings are not flooded with autumn rains and melt water in spring. Such garlic from seedlings will have to be fed with organic fertilizers (infusion of manure, weeds), as soon as the plants take root in a new place (they will have a new leaf). Then, at the moment the flower arrow appears, it is necessary to give fertilizing, as for onions, with any complex mineral fertilizer (three tablespoons per 10 liters of water).

Usually it is planted in the spring, and I plant it in my northwestern region just in the fall, at the beginning of October, while everyone is planting winter garlic and tulips. Even if the frosts have passed, there is nothing wrong, just pour hot water on the frozen soil and plant, so that the peg penetrates the soil. But the planting depth of spring garlic is shallower than winter garlic, about 7–8 cm and the planting pattern is 10 × 10 cm. That's the whole difference.

Planting spring garlic is no different from planting winter garlic, only cloves are planted in early spring, as soon as the soil is ripe for planting. Should not be planted in waterlogged soil, the cloves can rot in wet and cold soil. So there is no need to rush, although I repeat, garlic is cold-resistant, and it can be planted at the end of April.

Caring for spring garlic is the same as for winter garlic. Pests and diseases they have in common with onions. Dug up spring garlic later than winter, closer to autumn. But don't leave it in the soil for too long. As soon as the lower leaves begin to turn yellow and dry, immediately dig out, because the head can crumble in the soil into separate teeth. However, this can also happen with winter garlic. You can store spring garlic directly on the upper kitchen shelf or on the cabinet. You can pour the garlic prepared for storage into rag bags and hang it for storage in the kitchen, you can fold the heads into paper bags (not plastic ones!) And store the opened bags on the inside of the refrigerator door.

Leeks do not form a turnip. The edible part of this onion is the lower part of the leaves, tightly rolled into a roll. It is bleached by high hilling leek plants. Then it is especially tasty. Usually leeks are grown in a two-year culture due to the fact that it has a long growing season, about 180 days after germination. In the first year in spring, nigella seeds are sown in the same way as onion seeds. Then, at the beginning of August, the grown plants are transplanted to a specially prepared place and left to winter. And only the next year they receive marketable leeks. But you can grow leeks in one season, if you first grow the seedlings and transplant them to a specially prepared place in May. By the end of October, you will have plants that are no worse than with a two-year cultivation.

Seeds should be sown in 7–8 cm boxes in early March, on compacted, moist soil. Do not over-thicken the crops and do not sow too many seeds if you cannot provide them with the necessary nutritional area of ​​20 × 20 cm. Sprinkle the seeds on top with dry soil to a height of about 2-3 cm and compact the soil well with a teaspoon again. Put the container with the crops in a transparent plastic bag, make several exhalations into it, supplying the crops with carbon dioxide, and tie the bag. Now place it on the windowsill and do not water until shoots appear.Unlike other plants, leek seedlings are not afraid of thickening, lack of lighting, they do not stretch, and when they lie down, their hard feather does not break, unlike onions. When seedlings appear, the box can be removed from the bag, and the plants can be watered with a weak solution of mineral fertilizer. It is best to use top dressing for this. Uniflor-growth (it is enough to dissolve one teaspoon of top dressing in 3 liters of water and constantly use this solution instead of water). If there is no such fertilizer, use any other, dissolving one teaspoon in 3 liters of water. The main thing is not to flood the seedlings, because excess moisture in the soil will lead to its death. It's better not to top up than to pour.

In early May, along the edges of the garden bed, where the garlic has sprouted, make V-shaped trenches, for this, moving along the bed sideways, dig a trench, placing a shovel parallel to the garden bed, and not across it. On the side of the garlic plantings, a ridge is formed from the soil. Apply well-rotted compost or lawn mows or any other chopped weeds to the bottom of the trench and lightly sprinkle them with sand. Then "salt" with the powder fraction AVA (or ash). Pour with solution Fitosporin (you can use slurry in a ratio of 1:10 with water, or add a small amount of the drug Radiance). Pour water over the trench heartily.

Soak the leek seedlings with water so that they can easily be removed from the box, cut the top and roots so that only 2.5-3 cm are left of them. And lay these "stumps" into the prepared trench, leaning them against the outside of the trench at a distance less than 20 cm apart. Pour some soil from the ridge on the opposite side of the trench just to cover the roots. Add a little soil as the seedlings grow and water as the soil dries up. This will have to be done until the soil is leveled and the plants are "on their feet." No need to strain about this. Just when you pass the garden bed, take and sprinkle soil or water. Just a watering can with water and a hoe should always be near the garden.

In the future, in order to get a longer bleached part, you will rake the soil from the garlic and pour it under the leek, watering by this time should be stopped. It is very useful to constantly sprinkle grass cut from the lawn (or weeds) on top of the soil. When you dig out the garlic that has grown in the center with a pitchfork, use the soil from under it for the last hilling of the leek. The longer the bleached leg, the higher the quality of the leek.

Leeks require regular feeding. Every two weeks it is necessary to give the leek a top dressing, alternating organic with mineral. It is best to give a solution of manure or poultry droppings as an organic top dressing. Manure is diluted with water 10 times, and poultry droppings - at 20. If there is no manure and droppings, then feed the infusion of weeds diluted with water twice. As a mineral supplement, you can take any fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water).

Leeks can be eaten as soon as 4–5 leaves grow.

Leek grows until late autumn, so you can not rush to harvest it. It is necessary to dig with a pitchfork so as not to cut the stems. After harvesting, the roots and aerial part of the green leaves are cut off. You can store leeks in a cellar in the sand (on a balcony or loggia) by placing the plants close to each other in a box. But it is much better to store leeks in the freezer after rinsing it out.

The aerial part of the leaves is usually used for canning. But all the same, too much greenery remains, and they throw it away. This should not be done, since the leek leaves are as rich in healthy salts for humans as the bleached part, but they are rough, so they are thrown away. It is necessary to finely chop the leaves and dry them. Then grind on a coffee grinder and pour the resulting flour into a glass jar.Store in a sealed jar in a kitchen cabinet and use when frying fish and meat in place of bread crumbs or wheat flour. The fish and meat tastes delicious! (Especially if you're making a leek and celery batter with flour.)

It is best to immediately sow the space vacated after harvesting the leek in the center of the garden with white mustard (I emphasize, not with winter rye, but with mustard, because you don't have to dig it up and do anything with it at all).

When you harvest the leeks in October, level the garden with the mustard with a rake and leave it to the mercy of fate, without doing anything with it. Leave that way until spring. Weed shoots do not bother you. In the spring, right in the garden, as it is, spread the sprouted potatoes, and everything will be repeated from the beginning.


Watch the video: Practical Conservation Tillage for Western Region Organic Cropping Systems


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