Chinese quince is quite popular today among gardeners. The reason for this phenomenon lies not only in the wide range of uses of the fruits of the culture, but also in their beneficial properties. In addition, growing a quince is not a problem for both experienced gardeners and beginners.
Quince is the only plant in the genus. Most often, the culture looks like a tree, the leaves of which fall off in autumn. Much less often, the culture is a shrub from one and a half to five meters in height. Usually branches growing upward are formed at an angle. Quince bark is usually rough to the touch, and comes in different colors - from brown to brown or even black. Young branches are usually grayish, and the stems are gray with a green tint.
The leaves of the plant are usually oval in shape, occasionally they resemble an egg. These organs are placed alternately, at the base they form a wedge or "heart". The color of the leaves is deep green. The flowers are regular and white or pink in color. Their diameter does not exceed 0.05 meters.
The fruits of the culture outwardly resemble an apple, a specific feature of which is hairiness. Sometimes the shape is spherical or pear-shaped. The fruit contains many brown seeds. It can reach two kilograms. A wild-grown false apple weighs about 0.1 kilograms. The pulp is tough, tart and slightly sweet.
The flowering period falls in May-June, and harvesting can already, most often, from the beginning of autumn. The most fertile culture grows on heavy loamy soils. However, individuals growing in sandy loam begin to bear fruit earlier.
Quince is good for gardeners in that it can multiply, and, accordingly, spread in different ways: by seeds, cuttings, root shoots.
The natural habitat of the fruit covers the territory from Central Asia to the southern countries of Europe. The shrub is also actively grown in America, Australia and Oceania.
From the video you will learn a lot about this fruit tree.
The shrub, as mentioned above, propagates by seeds or by a vegetative method: cuttings, root shoots, sometimes by grafting.
The shrub is undemanding to environmental conditions and is unpretentious in care. It gives a good harvest, and the fruits of the plant are famous for their beneficial properties. The technology of growing quince does not differ much from the technology of growing pears or apples. The culture grows well in areas with a sufficient amount of light and heat, it survives drought normally, but it loves a lot of moisture. You can effectively grow fruit in sod soil.
As for the timing of planting, it is best to carry it out in mid-October or mid-April. For this purpose, choose seedlings with formed and developed roots and crown. Usually they are buried half a meter. At the same time, the pits for planting must have a diameter of at least one meter. Before planting, it is worth filling the "holes" with humus or compost. Since the quince itself is sterile, 2-3 trees should be planted near it. In fertile individuals, it is worth pruning powerful annual branches. For the purpose of thinning, dry, damaged organs or those that contribute to thickening are usually removed.
The shrub can reproduce in a variety of ways, each with its own strengths and weaknesses.
Speaking of seed propagation, it is worth noting that this method is the most famous, reliable and simplest. During the processing of ripe fruits, the core with large brown seeds is usually cut out. So you shouldn't throw it away. After all, it is these seeds that are an excellent seed. It is better to sow them in the fall so that they "overwinter" in the soil. The seeds give excellent germination, even in imperfect soil. If it is not possible to plant seeds before winter, you need to lay them for stratification. It is enough to place them in moistened sand at a temperature of 3 ° - 5 °. After the first rudiments of sprouts appear, the seeds should be transplanted into open ground. Sprouts at the age of 2 years form a powerful root, therefore, with inaccurate planting, there is a risk of damage to this organ. This phenomenon can lead to the death of individuals. To avoid such a development of events, it makes sense to transplant young plants to a permanent place as early as possible.
Reproduction of quince in a vegetative way will require more economic costs than seed. However, a significant advantage of grafting or grafting is the preservation of the quality of the plant itself.
Green cuttings should be harvested in early summer at moderate air temperatures and on a non-planting day. It is worth cutting them in the morning, as early as possible. Cuttings have two internodes. Individuals that were cut with part of last year's wood (up to a centimeter long) take root well. It is necessary to use substances that stimulate the growth and development of culture (for example, "Kornevin"), since they increase the likelihood of survival by 20%. The cuttings are planted at an angle into a soil mixture consisting of sand and peat (in a proportion of 3 parts of sand to one part of peat) according to a 0.05 meter pattern. If the ambient temperature is 20 ° -25 °, the formation of powerful roots occurs after 40 days.
Quince is a shrub prone to the formation of a large number of root processes. This is why they are often used for plant propagation. Thanks to such processes, the plant begins to grow in width and occupy a large area. Many shoots help the quince to firmly "fix" in the soil and even strengthen the slopes. The underground part of the fruit is so branched that it will not be easy to remove the plant from the site, even with all the desire.
Digging up the root and its shoots, shoots are selected with a length of 0.1 - 0.15 meters and a thickness of half a centimeter. Up to 5 shoots can be obtained from one bush. It is better to plant them vertically and water them systematically. The ground must be constantly moist, as the plant loves water. After the bush, it is necessary to mulch with humus, shavings and wood chips.
The disadvantage of this method of reproduction is the underdeveloped root system of some processes, so some seedlings need to be grown. Such individuals even form fruits that are smaller than those of their relatives.
Chinese quince fruits are harvested as they ripen. The peculiarities of the plant determine the possibility of their long-term storage. Fresh fake apples can be stored for about 5 months. However, in this form, they are practically not used. Quince is usually boiled or baked. Often the fruits are used to make marmalade, preserves, candied fruit, compotes. The essential oil, which is present in the fruits, gives them a special taste. That is why the culture is often used as a side dish for meat. Canned quince is used in the cuisines of some countries.
The fruits are also available to dry and dry. For this, it is better to use fruits without seeds and peels. They are cut into pieces, covered with sugar and remain in this form for some time. Further, the fruits are boiled in syrup and dried in the oven.
So, quince is a healthy fruit that is widely used in food in various forms.
From the video you will learn how to grow and care for this fruit tree.
Japanese quince is a perennial exotic shrub that grows wild in Asian countries. The shrub is loved and respected by gardeners for two reasons. By the middle of autumn, quince fruits ripen on the bush, carrying a whole complex of vitamins and possessing an original combination of taste and smell. But not only gardeners appreciate quince, flower growers and landscape designers respect the plant for its abundant and luxurious flowering, the ability to use quince in the decoration of the site, drawing up a bright flower bed, and also as a hedge. How to grow quince on your site, I will tell you today in this article.
The main thing when growing hibiscus is to find a suitable container and a place where it will grow. It is best to avoid direct sunlight when placing it.
Caring for this plant is simple, it is also important not to allow the soil to dry out, because it is an inhabitant of the humid African tropical forests.
Hibiscus blooms usually in early spring, blooms for a long time. A developed plant does not lose its attractiveness even in winter, resembling a small evergreen tree.
It is quite easy to propagate a flower. You can do this using cuttings - cut branches. A good result is given by dividing the bush, so from one overgrown hibiscus you can get several already sufficiently developed specimens at once. But hibiscus is also famous for one more feature - the ability to give numerous viable seeds even when grown indoors, which is not at all typical for tropical plants that find themselves in such conditions.
Caring for Chinese quince is easy. It is limited to maintaining cleanliness in the trunk circle, periodically loosening the soil, watering, applying fertilizers and pruning.
In the first season after planting, the tree is watered every 10-15 days (depending on the weather), the norm is about 15 liters. Fruiting Chinese quince does not need such frequent watering - it suffices five times per season, but the rate increases to 30–35 liters (the last time is 50–60 liters):
Of course, watering intervals are adjusted based on how often it rains and how hot it is outside.
There is no need to fertilize the tree in the first year after planting. Further, before the first fruiting, they are limited to the introduction in the middle of spring and at the end of October of humus (5–7 l) and mineral fertilizers - respectively nitrogen (15–20 g) and phosphorus, potassium (20–25 g). Fruiting Chinese quince is fed three more times, at about the same time as watered. Any fertilizer for fruit trees is suitable.
Chinese quince bears fruit on the shoots of the last season, therefore, shortening pruning is not practiced for them. In the spring, they are limited only to sanitary pruning, removing broken, frozen, dried shoots. To increase the size of the fruit, experienced gardeners recommend leaving no more than 10 fruiting branches, cutting off the others to the point of growth.
Pruning takes place according to the following rules:
It takes 4 years to form the crown of a Chinese quince, by which time the tree, as a rule, begins to bear fruit.
Harvest at a temperature of 0-2 ° C is stored for up to six months. If there are few fruits, each is wrapped in foil or soft paper. A large crop is stored in boxes, sprinkled with sand or sawdust.
Preparation for winter includes cleaning the tree trunk circle from plant debris, mulching it (a layer about 10 cm thick and up to 20 cm thick at the trunk) with peat or humus, fallen leaves, spruce branches. The base of the trunk is wrapped in several layers of burlap or covering material that allows air to pass through. When enough snow falls, it is scooped up to the tree, creating a snowdrift.
Quince - frost-hardy shrub with thorny twigs, growing up to 2 m in height. It is grown for its beautiful flowers, which often appear on it from early spring, and also because of the fruit, ideal for canned food and tinctures. Here are the best views and quince varieties for growing in the garden how to plant and grow a quince bush, as well as how quince fruits look and taste.
Quince is a shrub that blooms beautifully in spring.
Genus quince includes 3 species found in the wild in East Asia and many varieties, all of which can be grown in Poland. In the spring quince bushes covered with flowers, a bit like those of an apple tree. On the contrary, in the fall, yellow quince fruit ... Preserves, tinctures are made of them, can be added to tea or candied. These shrubs can be planted in flower beds, formed hedges, or led along walls.
Chaenomeles japonica. Quince japanese
As the name suggests, this quince is native to Japan. Creates wide low shrubs up to 1 m high. On the shoots, short thorns. The flowers are brick-red, 3-4 cm in diameter, with one whorl of petals. Japanese quince begins to bloom shortly before the leaves emerge, in late March - early April. The fruits of the Japanese quince are flat-spherical, yellow, with a diameter of 4 cm. They smell nice. Japanese quince is completely frost-resistant here.
Quince turned out to be Chaenomeles speciosa.
It comes from China, also known as chinese quince or quince ... It is larger than Japanese quince, grows up to 2 m in height. Shoots are very thorny. Flowers can be red, pink, or white. The quince moth blooms in May-June. The fruit is 4-7 cm long, very hard. Due to its taller growth and oblong quince-like fruits, this type of quince is often confused with the common quince. This quince is also hardy, which makes cultivation much easier.
Quince intermediate Chaenomeles x superba
This quince is a hybrid of the two previously mentioned quince and is most often grown in our gardens. The intermediate quince grows up to 1 m in height and grows strongly to the sides. The shoots have large thorns up to 1 cm long. Flowers come in different colors depending on the variety. In Poland, 3 are especially recommended varieties indirect quince :
Quince and quince - differences
Common quince is often confused with quince. Although these plants are related, there are significant differences between them not only in appearance, but also in the way they are grown. Quince fruit is also often confused with quince fruit. Meanwhile, the method of preparing canned quince and quince is slightly different. So how not to confuse them? Here's how to find out if it's a quince or a quince! More.
Quince bushes best planted in fertile, moist and warm soil. They also thrive on sandy and calcareous soils. On the other hand, they do not grow well in moist and damp soils. When growing quince, it is best to put mulch under the bush, which will reduce moisture loss and prevent weeds from growing.
The best place to growing quince - sunny, warm and semi-shaded places. Quince trees are very good for urban plants because they are frost-hardy and tolerate atmospheric pollution well.
Quince shrub also does not require special trimming. If necessary, bushes can be trimmed to thin out or limit their growth. Quince trees planted on hedges require shaping to maintain the hedge's shape and compactness. Plants along the walls are cut off at the end of their flowering, cutting off their last year's shoots, on which 2-3 buds remain.
Quince trees are best propagated by cuttings. If you want more bushes, take quince seedlings in the summer, remembering to cut them so that the seedling contains the so-called "heel". Then the quince seedling should be placed in a pot filled with peat mixed with sand. Pots with quince seedlings should be overwintered in a cool inspection and planted in the ground in the spring.
Also quince can be propagated by seeds. However, it should be remembered that only species reproduce in this way. Quince varieties, propagated by seeds, usually do not inherit the characteristics of the mother plant (for example, they may have a different color of flowers).
Japanese quince from seeds
How to grow Japanese quince from seeds? Do the seeds need any processing? What are the chances that something will grow from quince seeds and what will happen if you just bury the raw fruits in the ground. Users of our forum write about their experiences. See who managed to grow quince from seeds and how to do it. More.
Independent reproduction of quince relatively uncomplicated. However, if we do not have the patience to grow seedlings, you can go ahead and buy ready-made quince seedlings in a nursery or garden center. This will save us time, although it will be slightly more expensive than growing seedlings on our own.
Quince fruits small (usually 4-5 cm in diameter) and, depending on the variety, can be spherical or slightly flattened. They contain a lot of pectin and are a rich source of vitamin C (there are much more of them than lemon). They are quite hard and durable, and their yellowish skin is often blushed and exudes a pleasant scent. Ripen from September to October.
Quince fruits are usually harvested in October. Some say the first frosts are best. They are not suitable for consumption raw (tart and hard), but can be a great addition to tea by replacing the popular lemon. Quince fruits just cut into slices (removing the bone) or cubes and pour the sugar into the jar. After a few days, it can be added to tea. Quince fruits are also used for cooking - they can be fried with sugar, resulting in delicious jams and preserves. It is also worth preparing a tincture on their basis, the so-called quince (often confused with quince, which is a tincture of quince fruits).
Quince fruits - when to pick, where to buy, at what price
From September to November, the fruits of the quince are in great demand, because the quince is not widely cultivated. See when to pick quince fruits to make them as tasty and aromatic as possible, where to buy the best quality quince fruits, who sells them and at what price I recommend quince fruits! More.
Quince trees are very rarely affected by diseases or pest attacks. From time to time, spots may appear on the leaves and fruits of quince from diseases, and from pests - bushes are sometimes populated with a rose leaf.
Quince leaf and fruit spot - a disease caused by a fungus Cercospora cydoniae ... Symptoms of this disease are visible from the second half of summer, when small round spots appear on the leaf blades. At first, the spots are brown, with time they turn brown, and may appear on the fruits. With a large number of spots merge, forming extensive necrosis. In these places, tissues are usually torn.
In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, fallen leaves should be removed from under the bushes. In summer, if you notice the first spots on the leaves, apply 2-3 sprays at intervals of 10 days, alternating fungicides: Domark 100 EC, Score 250 SC or Systemik 125 SL.
Quince trees can also be eaten by a pest - powdery pink ... Caterpillars of this pest feed inside the nest from several leaves connected to each other. Thus, on the quince bushes sticky twisted leaves are observed, most often the apical ones. It is best to deal with the turtle shell during the hatching of caterpillars from hibernating eggs in the deposits on the bark of the shoots, i.e. in spring, at the turn of April and May. Then the quince bushes should be sprayed with a contact agent, for example Sumi-alpha 050 EC.
In the presence of mature, well-developed plants, the shrub is propagated by root suckers or layering.
These methods are considered to be the simplest. Root shoots are dug up in the spring and transplanted to a new growing site.
The cut is formed in autumn by bending a low-lying branch to the ground and sprinkling it with earth.
By spring, it grows roots, and it is cut off from the mother bush in order to be transplanted separately.
The method of propagation of chaenomeles by cuttings is also simple. In June, the top of a young pagon is cut off and rooted in a cold greenhouse.
The percentage of obtaining new plants using this method is quite high - 70-90%.
Non-varietal plants are propagated by seeds. To do this, remove seeds from overripe fruits, wash and dry.
It is better to use planting material freshly harvested and sow before winter, although Japanese quince seeds do not lose germination for 2 years.
If it is decided to sow in spring, it is necessary to stratify the seeds of quince within 2-3 months at temperatures from zero to 3 degrees Celsius.
In early April, they can be sown in open ground or at the end of February in special containers, sprinkled with peat-sand soil mixture with a layer of 1 cm.
Seedlings appear in 3 weeks.
They are dived at least 2 times: the first - at a distance of 5 cm from each other, the second - at 17-20 cm.
Quince seedlings are planted in a permanent place only in the second year or they are used as a rootstock.
Plants obtained from seeds bear fruit much later than those grown vegetatively.
The most difficult breeding method for Japanese quince is spring grafting or summer budding, which are sometimes done on high boles from 1 m to 1.5 m.
Such plants are very decorative, but under the long branches that form on the trunk, it is necessary to substitute supports.
Irga, mountain ash, hawthorn, pear, and in the south - common quince are used as rootstocks.
On sale are often found large fragrant hard fruits, similar to apples or pears, called "quince". It has many beneficial properties, but for the maximum positive effect, the plant needs to provide good conditions for growth and development. Let's try to find out what quince is and how to properly care for it.
In fact, it is very similar to the apple and pear, as it belongs to the same family with them - Rosaceae. However, quince is a separate genus of plants that includes several species. In horticulture, the most popular are common and large-fruited quince.
Did you know? Quince contains many useful substances: vitamins C, E, B1, B2, B6, PP, carotene, pectin, potassium, phosphorus, iron and copper salts, and has anti-inflammatory, stimulating and astringent properties. It is also called the "golden apple".
Common quince is a southern plant, but at the same time it is quite frost-resistant and unpretentious when grown. The place where the quince will grow must be well lit and protected from drafts, otherwise you may not expect a good harvest. It is better to plant the quince in the middle of the garden, but at the same time the neighboring trees should be at a distance of at least 2 m, so as not to block the sun.
Important! Cross-pollination contributes to better quince yields. To do this, at least one fruit tree of this family must grow on the site: another quince, apple or pear.
Quince has a shallow root system, so it prefers loamy nutrient soils. On lighter sandy loam soils, quince will also grow, but the yield will be noticeably worse. It can be successfully grown in areas with groundwater occurrence no closer than one meter from the surface.
Knowing how to properly grow quince in your country house, you can get a good harvest of useful fruits. So, it needs a lot of light, but it is undemanding to air humidity. This is a heat-loving plant, so it is good if the average annual daily temperature exceeds + 9 ° C.
For the successful cultivation of quince, it is necessary to follow the rules of planting and subsequent care.
You can plant quince seedlings in early spring or autumn in a pre-prepared hole about 40 cm deep and 60-80 cm wide, at the bottom of which a small layer of clay is laid. A few days before planting, you need to mix organic and mineral fertilizers, for example, 50 g of wood ash and 150 g of superphosphate with soil and fill the planting hole with this mixture. If the soil is acidic, you can add a little lime.
When planting a quince, remove a little soil from the planting pit, install a seedling in the pit, straighten its roots in a horizontal position and cover with the removed earth. When planting a seedling, make sure that the root collar is at ground level. Tamp the soil around the seedling a little, without touching the root collar. Form a near-trunk circle to retain water by sprinkling an earthen shaft 5-7 cm high around the crown perimeter. Then pour 30-40 liters of water on the seedling and, when the water is absorbed, sprinkle with dry earth and mulch with peat or dry leaves. For better root development, the branches of the seedling can be shortened by 1/3 - 1/2 of the length, depending on their size. You need to trim it 1-2 cm above the kidney. If the seedling has leaves, half of them must also be removed.
Quince responds to abundant watering with an increase in yield. Therefore, during the growing season, the plant must be well watered at least three times: before flowering - for a better ovary, in June - for the development of the tree and fruits, at the end of summer - for pouring the fruits. For one watering, you need to use at least 400 liters of water, and for a large tree - up to 800 liters, so that the entire trunk circle is well moistened.
Common quince is also supportive of fertilizers and fertilizing. In the spring, when the soil is loosened, nitrogen fertilizers are applied along the trunk circle at 25-30 g per 1m², or complex mineral fertilizers at 50 g per tree. If it was not possible to fertilize the quince in the spring, then until half of the summer you can fertilize with nitrogen fertilizer, diluting 10 g of fertilizer in 10 liters of water (per one hole dug along the perimeter of the crown). You can also feed the tree with a slurry solution diluted in 5-10 parts of water.
After feeding, the quince must be watered abundantly so that the fertilizers are evenly distributed. In the fall, apply potash, phosphorus, 20 g per 1m² and organic fertilizers in the form of mulch along the trunk circle, and then dig up the earth on a half-bayonet of a shovel. Together with autumn and winter precipitation, these fertilizers will gradually penetrate into the soil and feed the quince.
You can purchase seedlings that are grafted onto the mother plant and will grow in the shape of a tree, although most often they grow as a bush.
Important! When buying quince seedlings, be careful. Breeders are developing varieties for use as a rootstock for other varieties of quince and pear. Such a quince will have small fruits and low yields. It differs from large-fruited in smaller leaves.
In order for the quince shrub in your country house to have a beautiful vertical shape, it must be tied up when planting. The support is installed on the bottom of the pit in which the quince is planted, and should be 1-1.5 m higher than the branches of the seedling. All branches must be tied to the support, and so that there is a small gap between them. As the seedling grows, the fasteners should be moved higher so that the quince does not tilt and break. When the seedling gets stronger and begins to bear fruit, the support is removed.
With the onset of autumn, the plant does not shed its foliage for a very long time, therefore, it is better to prune quince in early spring, before bud break. All damaged and frozen branches must be removed. Also, for a good harvest, the growth of last year should be shortened - branches up to 50 cm by 1/3, longer by 1/2, while vertically growing branches must be shortened. It is also necessary to ensure that the middle of the crown is not thickened and well lit, for which the excess branches are completely removed.
Important! With intensive pruning, a large number of fruits can set, which, due to the heavy load, will not be large.
It is quite easy to propagate quince, and this can be done in different ways. Reproduction by cuttings and root shoots will be the easiest. Cuttings for planting are cut in the spring, when the leaves are already in full bloom. Annual cuttings are ideal for the role of planting material, preferably from the lower branches of the tree, which can be specially left when pruning. For planting, there should be 5-6 buds on the handle (the lower cut is made immediately under the kidney, and the upper one - at a distance of 2-3 cm from the upper kidney, so that when the cutting dries up, the kidney remains alive). Leaves on the handle are completely removed.
The cuttings are deepened into the prepared dug-up earth by about 2-3 buds. To make the survival rate of cuttings higher, you can cover them with a film by building a small greenhouse. After 20 days, the cuttings will take root and in the fall they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
The root shoots are cut with a small piece of bark so that the root remains intact. This procedure can be carried out both in spring and in autumn, and when planting a seedling, the central root is often shortened so that the lateral roots begin to develop faster, and the leaves are removed (except for the upper ones). These seedlings need a little shade.
For reproduction by layering, in the autumn, it is necessary to bend the lower branches, and after cutting the bark, cover it with earth. In the spring, roots are formed in the places of the bark incision, and in the fall the layers are separated from the mother plant and planted separately. Quince reproduces not badly with the help of grafting. Good varietal cuttings can be grafted onto already growing trees in the spring, when intensive sap flow begins. On annual seedlings, quince is grafted with a bud (eye), and this method of grafting can be carried out in the summer in July-August.
Did you know? As a rootstock for quince, breeders use not only other types of quince, but also mountain ash and hawthorn..
Seed propagation is the longest process of growing quince. When propagated by seeds, the varietal characteristics of quince may not be preserved, however, such seedlings have a well-developed root system and grow quickly, therefore they are often grown as a stock for varietal cuttings.
Seeds for planting must be collected from ripe fruits, washed well from mucus and dried. Before direct planting, they are stratified for 2-3 months. In the fall, the seeds can already be sown in open ground, then the stratification will be natural and in the spring sprouts will already appear. Moreover, seeds can be laid for stratification at the beginning of February and also sown in open ground at the end of April.
During the growth of seedlings, they must be transplanted twice: for the first time, plants with two real leaves are dived (they are planted at a distance of 5 cm from each other), the second time it is necessary to transplant seedlings about a month after the first planting (at a distance of 17-20 cm). In the second year of the growing season, they can be planted in a permanent place or used as a rootstock.
Important! Quince grown from seed will bear fruit much later than vegetatively propagated.
The fruits of the common quince practically do not grow all summer and begin to fill only at the end of August. They are not afraid of frost, so harvesting should be done at the end of October, allowing them to ripen well. For long-term storage of the harvest, the quince is harvested manually, cutting or removing the fruits, preventing them from falling.
Quince is stored all winter at a temperature of -2. - 5 ° C. In autumn, quince fruits are very hard, slightly juicy, tart, with a sweetish taste. They are not eaten fresh in food, but very tasty and aromatic jams, preserves, compotes, marmalade are prepared. Quince slices can also be added to tea instead of lemon. During storage, the fruits become more juicy, softer and sweeter.
Did you know? The word marmalade translated from Portuguese “marmelo” means “quince puree”.
Quince is the perfect tree for your garden. It is not only useful, but also very decorative: its foliage is not susceptible to diseases and remains beautiful all summer, and in the fall it acquires a bright yellow color and falls off late. This plant is also a good honey plant.
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