Areca: all about caring for a palm tree at home


Most palm trees, due to their size, look more appropriate in greenhouses, botanical gardens, or at least in foyers or lobbies of public buildings than in apartments. Nevertheless, many amateur flower growers are not ready to give up on them. Often their choice falls on the Areca. This palm is prized for the decorativeness of its fanlike leaves, its relative simplicity in home care, and its lifespan.

What Areca looks like

Areca is a distinctive plant from the genus of the same name (Areca), belonging to the Palm family (Arecaceae). At the moment, about six dozen of its representatives are known, living mainly in the southern hemisphere. Most often, areca can be found in Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, on the islands of the Indian and Pacific Ocean.

Areca is one of the most common palms in the southern hemisphere

The name of the plant was given by the natives of the historical area on the Malabar coast of the Indian subcontinent. It was there that the first specimens were first discovered and described from a scientific point of view. They knew the palm tree under this name, botanists did not change it. By the way, the name of the area itself sounded almost the same.

Areca's appearance is typical of palm trees. The plant most often has one rather thin trunk (rarely, but there are varieties with two or three), on the top of which there is a "crown" of many straight lanceolate leaves of a rich, bright green color, dissected into separate narrow "feathers". Depending on the species, their length can reach 0.3–1.5 m. They are located very densely, from a distance the top of the palm tree resembles a scallop. The lower leaves gradually die off, leaving on the trunk "scars" in the form of a crescent or ellipse.

Areca is prized by flower growers for its often spaced leaves, resembling fans

Areca grows pretty quickly. It takes on the appearance of an adult plant 3-5 years after the seed has been planted. The height depends on the specific species. There are also miniature palms (areca dayung - no more than 35–40 cm), and real giants, for which 10–15 m is by no means the limit. At home, the height of the areca is limited by the ceiling of the apartment. Accordingly, it rarely grows above 4 m. A plant with optimal care adds 12-15 cm per year. This is a very good growth rate for palms.

In fact, at home, the growth of the areca is limited only by the height of the ceilings in the room.

Areca flowering at home is almost impossible to achieve. More often than not, the plant simply does not reach the desired age. Other factors that prevent this are unusual soil, lack of heat and light, lack of nutrients in the soil.

Areca blooming at home is an extremely unlikely event.

But you should not be very upset about this - the spectacle is rather nondescript. In the inflorescence-cob or panicle, there are male flowers on top, female flowers on the bottom. They are very small, pale yellow, cream or pinkish in color. When the buds fall off, small dark purple or red berries with one large seed inside ripen.

Each areca fruit contains one large seed (2-3 cm in diameter)

Video: appearance and other characteristic features of the plant

Areca seeds are the main component of the popular betel gum in the Philippines, Thailand and other countries of Southeast Asia. Residents of these countries use it as a stimulant and a weak narcotic drug (the inhabitants of South and Central America have long known a similar effect of coca leaves).

Betel gum not only spoils the appearance of the teeth, it is also dangerous to health.

However, doctors have proven that areca seeds are poisonous (they contain arecoline, other alkaloids and tannins). With regular use, they provoke the development of cancer of the stomach, intestines, and other organs of the digestive system. But poison can also be a medicine - after a certain treatment, the seeds are used to remove parasites from the body and for diarrhea.

Areca is not only a beautiful, but also a useful plant. It cleans the indoor air from harmful impurities, primarily carbon dioxide, formaldehyde and benzene.

Home-grown species

For various reasons, only a few types of areca have adapted to home conditions:

  • Areca catechu, also known as “betel nut” or simply “betel nut”. The most common type, both in nature and at home. The usual height is up to 20-25 m, in "captivity" - 4-5 m. The trunk (single) is very thin - 10-15 cm in diameter. The length of the leaf is up to 1.5 m. The inflorescence reaches 60 cm. The fruits are yellow-red. The growth rate does not differ.
  • Areca yellowing (lutescens), she is yellowish chrysolidocarpus or yellowing dipsis. Homeland - Madagascar. Plant height - 2-3 m, it branches almost from the base. The leaves are large, lime-colored, bending, forming a smooth arc. It is because of their shade that the palm got its name. Individual "feathers" are very dense. Small black dots on the leaves are normal.
  • Areca three-stalked (triandra). Lives in India, the Malay Peninsula and the islands of the Malay Archipelago. The tree has 2-3 trunks, each 3–5 cm thick. The height is about 3 m. The leaves are large, very decorative, up to 1.5 m in length and up to 70–80 cm in width. They are smooth, glossy and shiny. The streaks are clearly visible. The inflorescence is large (up to 1 m), located in the axil of one of the lower leaves. The flowers emit an unobtrusive, pleasant scent reminiscent of the scent of lemon.

Photo: types of areca popular with flower growers

Optimal microclimate for a plant

Areca's homeland is the humid hot tropics. Therefore, the microclimate familiar to her is radically different from the conditions of modern apartments. If you want the plant to stay in your home for a long time, first familiarize yourself with its "wishes" and try to bring the atmosphere in the room as close as possible to the ideal one, although this is not easy.

Table: optimal conditions for growing areca

FactorRecommendations
LocationBy a window facing east or west. Areca must be protected from cold drafts and a constant supply of fresh air must be provided by airing the room daily. A newly acquired plant should be accustomed to home conditions of detention gradually, starting from an hour a day.
LightingThe best option is bright diffused light. Areca is capable of developing in partial shade, but it grows very slowly. Only an adult plant (6 years or more) will tolerate direct sunlight, in limited doses and only in summer.
TemperatureAbout 25 ° C during the active growing season (for an earthen clod) and 30–35 ° C (for ambient air). In winter - 18–20 ° C. The plant does not like sudden changes in temperature, but a young palm tree will endure a short-term (for 2-3 days) drop to 0 ° C, an adult one - up to -10 ° C. The upper critical limit is 55–60 ° C, if this temperature lasts no longer than 10–12 days, the palm tree has a chance to survive.
Air humidityThe higher the better. In the heat, the plant should be sprayed 2-3 times a day with warm soft water or wipe the leaves with a sponge. Place damp pebbles, expanded clay, sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in the pan of the pot. Place a wide container of water next to it. You can purchase a special device that humidifies the air. Move the palm tree as far as possible from working radiators and other heating devices - they dry the air a lot.

If the tub with the areca is constantly in one position, the crown turns out to be "one-sided", except for the case when the sun evenly illuminates the palm from both sides. It is difficult to achieve this at home, so once a week rotate the pot about 90º, maintaining the direction of travel (clockwise or counterclockwise).

In summer, the areca can be taken out on an open balcony or terrace, but they gradually accustom the palm to new conditions.

Planting and transplanting a flower

Annual transplantation is needed only for young plants under the age of 5–6 years. An adult areca needs one procedure every 3-4 years. The best time for her is mid-spring. When a palm tree reaches such a size that it is physically impossible to transplant it, limit yourself to replacing the top 5-7 cm of soil in the tub with a freshly prepared substrate.

A pot for Areca is chosen high and stable, resembling a bucket in shape. The preferred materials are wood or ceramic. Such containers are heavier, there is less chance of the palm tree accidentally toppling over. The diameter of the pot is increased by 8-10 cm each time. A wide drainage hole is required.

Areca has a developed root system, so the pot needs a deep and voluminous

For areca, a special soil for palms or citrus fruits is quite suitable, but you can prepare the substrate yourself. It should be neutral or acidic (pH 6.0-7.8) and sufficiently nutritious while providing good aeration.

  • Leafy land, fertile sod, humus, coarse river sand (4: 2: 1: 1). For adult palms, the volume of humus is doubled.
  • Peat chips, sand, sod land, pieces of pine bark (2: 2: 1: 1). One third of the volume of sand can be replaced with perlite or vermiculite.
  • Bone meal, pieces of charcoal, pebbles or small expanded clay (about 0.3 cm in diameter), perlite or vermiculite, peat chips (approximately equal in total, twice as much peat). The mixture is more suitable for young plants.

A useful additive is crushed pumice or crushed chalk (approximately 1/10 of the total volume of the finished soil mixture). It is good for preventing root rot.

Areca can be grown in a special substrate for palm trees.

The transplant itself looks like this:

  1. Remove the plant from the pot, keeping the earthy ball intact if possible. It is easier to do this if you water the palm tree abundantly 1–1.5 hours before the procedure.
  2. Using a sharply sharpened disinfected knife, cut off 1.5–2 cm of the "fringe" at the bottom of the earthen coma.
  3. At the bottom of the new container, pour a layer of expanded clay or other drainage material at least 5 cm thick. On top - about the same amount of freshly prepared substrate.
  4. Place the earthen ball in a new pot. Add soil around the edges. Make sure that the palm is not buried deeper than it was before. Try to keep the soil level approximately the same.
  5. Gently shake the pot a few times to distribute the soil evenly.
  6. Water the palm in moderation, place the tub in light partial shade for 2-3 days.

When replanting areca, try to damage the earthen lump as little as possible.

Video: how to transplant Areca correctly

Important nuances of care

Areca is quite unpretentious. The main care of this palm is proper watering and regular fertilization.

Watering

During the active growing season, the areca, which is logical for a tropical plant, needs frequent and abundant watering. Overdried soil is very harmful for a palm tree. But a "swamp" in a pot is also not an option. After watering, remember to drain the excess liquid from the pan (after 2-3 hours). The top layer of the substrate must dry completely between treatments. In summer, a palm tree needs 2-3 waterings per week, in autumn and winter one is enough. Of course, the intervals between treatments are adjusted depending on the weather outside.

It is best to water the areca from a watering can with a long, narrow spout to prevent water droplets from entering the leaf axils.

You need to be especially careful with watering from the middle of autumn. The soil should not be allowed to dry out completely, but the areca is watered very sparingly. Otherwise, root rot will develop quickly. Wait 2-3 days with watering after the soil at a depth of 3-4 cm is completely dry. You can check this by sticking a wooden stick into the soil.

Areca is very demanding on the quality of water for irrigation and spraying (the plant categorically does not tolerate chlorine). It should be warm (28–30 ° C) and soft. Rainwater, melt water, or bottled water works well. If there is no alternative, use tap water, standing it up, passing it through a filter, or boiling it.

Pour water under the root. Avoid getting it into the leaf axils. This provokes the development of rot, especially if the room is cold and the plant does not have enough light.

Fertilization

There are specialized fertilizers for palms on sale, but if they cannot be purchased, areca will completely cost with liquid complex mineral fertilizers for decorative leafy plants. The solution is prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. The optimal ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 3: 1: 2. The deficiency of a particular trace element can be judged by the appearance of the plant:

  • Nitrogen. The leaves turn pale, the growth of the palm tree practically stops.
  • Potassium. Semitransparent yellow-orange spots appear on the leaves, separate "feathers" curl.
  • Magnesium. A wide yellowish border runs along the edge of the sheet.
  • Manganese. Leaves decrease in size, vague pale green spots appear on them.
  • Zinc. Small black dots on the leaves.

During the active growing season, you need to water the palm tree with fertilizer every 12-15 days. In autumn and winter, once a month is enough.

It is better to purchase a special fertilizer for palm trees for feeding Areca, but a universal complex is also quite suitable

Natural organic matter is also quite suitable, for example, an infusion of bird droppings or cow dung, diluted with water in a proportion of 1:20 or 1:10, respectively. Adult palms respond to such fertilization with gratitude. You can also alternate feeding. It is also useful to spray the leaves with a nutrient solution, reducing the concentration of the drug by half.

Video: recommendations for caring for areca

Dormant period

Areca does not have a clearly expressed rest period. Its appearance does not change in autumn and winter. It is enough to lower the temperature a little, reduce watering and fertilize a little less often.

For the winter, you should find a place for the palm tree where the areca will be protected from cold drafts. It must be removed away from windows, operating radiators and other heating devices.

Pruning

Areca does not need formative pruning. But in order for the plant to look more neat and decorative, you need to periodically get rid of dried, broken and damaged leaves. Do not touch yellowed or brown ones - they still contain nutrients that the palm tree is able to use.

Pruning is carried out with a sharply sharpened disinfected knife or a special pruning shears. Scissors will not work - they will severely damage the petioles. Be careful not to damage the stem - try to cut, leaving 1–1.5 cm to the healthy tissue.

Don't be too zealous. In a year, remove no more leaves from the areca than appeared during the given period.

Pruning can help if the earthen ball has collapsed during transplanting and the roots are exposed. In this case, every second sheet is immediately removed. This will help reduce evaporation and allow the palm to adapt to the new pot.

Typical mistakes of a novice florist

Areca's main value in the eyes of a grower is its bright green leaves. They suffer in the first place if the palm tree is not satisfied with something in its care. The appearance of the sheet plate clearly indicates what exactly. The owner is only required to correctly interpret these "signals" and accordingly adjust the care and / or change the conditions of detention.

Table: how Areca reacts to improper care

What does a plant look likeWhat is the reason
Leaves dry and fall off.If the process only affects the lower leaves, this is natural. Otherwise, the cause may be infrequent irregular fertilization or too poor or too dense soil unsuitable for palm trees.
The leaves turn yellow, their tips turn brown and dry.Insufficiently high humidity or too dry soil in the pot.
The leaves become smaller and turn yellow.Poor watering or too much bright sunlight (especially for young plants).
Reddish-brown or brick-colored spots on the leaves."Swamp" in a pot and / or use for watering with hard water. Or it could be a reaction to a sharp drop in temperature.
The leaves are drooping, darkening.The apartment is too cold.
Whitish blurred spots on the leaves.Sunburn.
Dark, almost black "weeping" spots on leaf cuttings and trunk.Frequent watering. Low room temperature accelerates the development of rot.
Some "feathers" curl.Excessive exposure to direct sunlight combined with low air humidity.

Drying tips of areca leaves indicate that the air humidity in the room is not high enough

Common diseases and pests

Most often, the areca at home dies from root rot, which develops as a result of the bay of the palm tree. The plant does not have any specific pests; it will have to fight the most common sucking insects.

It is possible to significantly minimize the risk of attacks of pathogenic fungi and pests on the areca if you follow simple preventive measures:

  • send newly acquired plants to quarantine for at least 2-3 weeks (preferably for a month);
  • place bouquets and houseplants as far apart as possible (ideally, in different rooms);
  • regularly ventilate the room;
  • in all available ways to increase the humidity of the air, regularly wipe the areca leaves with a wet soft cloth or sponge;
  • irradiate sheet plates on both sides with a quartz lamp weekly for 2-3 minutes;
  • follow the recommendations for caring for the plant (especially regarding watering and fertilizing), if possible, create an optimal microclimate for the palm;
  • use only sharply sharpened disinfected instruments, clean pots, sterile soil.

Table: diseases and pests typical of areca

Disease or pestSymptomsTreatment
Root rotBlack-brown "weeping" spots on the trunk and leaf stalks, mold at the base of the trunk, an unpleasant putrid odor.
  1. Remove the plant from the pot, cut off the decayed roots, clean the leaves and trunk from damage (to healthy tissue).
  2. Sprinkle "wounds" with crushed chalk, activated carbon, dry the plant in the open air for 2-3 hours.
  3. Transplant a palm tree by changing the soil and sterilizing the pot. Add granules of Glyocladin, Trichodermin to the substrate.
  4. Water the plant with a solution of Alirin-B, Baikal-EM, Diskora weekly for 3-4 months.
PenicillosisRounded, rapidly growing light spots on young leaves. After 10-12 days, these areas are covered with a whitish bloom, the leaves are deformed.
  1. Reduce watering to once every 3-5 days.
  2. Cut off diseased leaves.
  3. For 2-3 months, once every 7-10 days, spray the palm tree and the soil with a 2% solution of any fungicide (Bordeaux liquid, HOM, Skor, Abiga-Peak).
Spider miteA thin cobweb, braiding leaf stalks and blurry whitish spots from the inside. Then they deform and dry.
  1. Wipe the leaves with alcohol or any pharmacy alcohol tincture
  2. After 15–20 minutes, arrange a warm shower for the plant.
  3. Water and spray the palm abundantly, place in a hermetically sealed plastic bag for 2-3 days (if the size allows).
  4. If there is no effect, treat the areca with Aktofit, Neoron, Omayt.
  5. Repeat 2-3 times with an interval of 7-12 days, changing the preparations.
MealybugLumps of whitish matter, similar to cotton wool, in the axils of the leaves and at the base of the petioles, a thin layer of continuous plaque of the same color on the inside of the leaf.
  1. Apply a soap-alcohol solution to the leaves, rinse off in a shower after 1.5-2 hours.
  2. Treat the palm tree and soil with a solution of Calypso, Nurella-D, Confidor.
  3. Repeat 1-2 times with an interval of 5-7 days.
  4. For prophylaxis, spray the leaves with onion or garlic infusion once a week.
ShieldGray-brown bumps on the leaves. At first, they are almost flat, but quickly increase in volume. The tissues around them turn yellow or red.
  1. Apply kerosene, turpentine, vinegar, machine oil to the shells of pests. Remove the scabbard after 2-3 hours.
  2. Wash the plant under a warm shower.
  3. Spray areca with Phosbecid, Metaphos, Aktara.
  4. Repeat twice with an interval of 7-10 days.
ThripsThin silvery or beige "scratches" and small oblong black spots on the leaves.
  1. Apply a thick foam of green potash or laundry soap to the leaves, leave for 2-3 hours, rinse with warm water.
  2. Process the palm tree with Aktellik, Mospilan, Fitoverm.
  3. If 2-3 procedures with an interval of 5-7 days do not bring any effect, transplant the areca by changing the soil and pot.
WhiteflySmall whitish butterflies, similar to moths, rise from the leaves even with a light touch to the plant.
  1. Place sticky fly strips or homemade traps next to the palm tree.
  2. In the early morning, when whiteflies are least active, vacuum the plant by collecting butterflies.
  3. Wash the palm tree under the shower, treat it with Admiral, Inta-Vir, Commander, Iskra-Bio.
  4. Repeat 3-4 times with an interval of 5-7 days.

Photo: diseases and pests that will have to be dealt with when growing areca

Reproduction at home

Most often, areca reproduces at home by seeds. Fruits in "captivity" rarely ripen, but planting material can be purchased without any problems.

Germinating seeds

The best time for the procedure is April, May or early summer.

Areca seeds can be freely purchased from specialized online stores.

  1. Soak the seeds for 3-4 days in a weak (2-3 ml per liter of water) solution of any biostimulant (Epin, Zircon, Heteroauxin potassium humate) or for 5-7 minutes in a 0.05% sulfuric acid solution. This will increase germination.
  2. Fill small cups with a mixture of peat chips and perlite or vermiculite (1: 1). If you have a mini greenhouse, use it.
  3. Moisten the substrate. When the water is absorbed, plant the seeds, deepening them 1.5–2 cm.
  4. Cover the container with glass or plastic wrap.
  5. In 1.5–2.5 months, with optimal conditions, seedlings will appear. Areca needs light partial shade and a constant temperature of about 25 ° C (substrate temperature should be 3-4 ° C higher, so provide bottom heating). A lower temperature increases the appearance of the first leaf by 3-4 times.
  6. Moisten the soil by spraying as it dries. Open the greenhouse daily for 7-10 minutes to ventilate.
  7. When 2-3 true leaves appear, transplant the plant into soil suitable for an adult areca. Further care is normal.

This is how an areca grown from seeds looks like in about six months.

Plant division

Areca rarely reproduces by dividing the "bush" at home. This method is mainly used in greenhouses and greenhouses that grow palms for sale. There, 5–7, and sometimes 10–15 seeds are initially planted in one pot.

When separating plants in a pot, try to damage the roots as little as possible.

  1. Prepare pots of suitable size, fill them with a mixture of perlite or vermiculite, fertile turf and leaf humus (2: 2: 1).
  2. Remove the areca from the old container.
  3. Shake the plant lightly to expose the roots. Carefully clean off any remaining substrate by hand.
  4. Divide the palms, trying to minimize root damage. Use a knife only as a last resort, try to untangle them.
  5. Treat the "wounds" by sprinkling with crushed chalk, activated carbon, and cinnamon. Brilliant green or iodine is also suitable. Let dry for 2-3 hours.
  6. Plant the plants in new pots. Water them moderately.
  7. Provide a temperature of about 25 ° C, high humidity and bright ambient light. If the leaves droop in the first 2-3 days, this is normal.
  8. After 7-12 days, their tone will return, the leaves will become elastic again. This means rooting was successful. Feed the Areca with any suitable fertilizer, halving the recommended concentration.
  9. Wait another month, transplant the plant into its usual soil.

Areca is a fairly large plant. But despite the fact that an adult palm tree occupies a significant part of the room, the growers cultivating it are not ready to give up the "pet". Bright green fan leaves bring a touch of freshness and originality to any interior, and plant care is relatively simple.


Indoor stromant flowers: home care

  • 1 Indoor plant stromant: photo and care, description and types
    • 1.1 Description of the plant
    • 1.2 Varieties
    • 1.3 Breeding methods
      • 1.3.1 Reproduction of stromant by dividing the bush
      • 1.3.2 Reproduction by tips
  • 2 Necessary care of the stromant
    • 2.1 Lighting
    • 2.2 Medium temperature
    • 2.3 Watering frequency and air humidity
    • 2.4 Soil composition
    • 2.5 Fertilizers and dressing
  • 3 Transplant of indoor stromant flower
  • 4 Mistakes when growing indoor stromant

Stromanta is a homely expressive plant with a peculiar flowering and catchy color of foliage. Its historical homeland is the moist, hot tropical forests of the South American continent. Hence the preferences for environmental conditions, which provided the delicate plant with the glory of a capricious and inconvenient young lady in home care. But is it? You need to figure it out.


How to care if bokarnea starts to hurt?

Often, if there are errors in the care, the tips of the leaves dry out at the plant.

Yellowing of the leaves of nolina speaks most often about the wrong composition of watering

Brown areas first appear on the edges, then they dry out or become soft and the leaf begins to fade completely. This degrades the appearance of the plant, and the grower must eliminate this cause. Dry and darkened tips become in rooms with reduced air humidity, too high or low temperatures. Dry ends can also be caused by sunburn.

To avoid this, it is better to water the plant in winter with melt water. Snow thawed and warmed up to room temperature is the real "living" water for Nolina. To raise the humidity, the plant needs to be sprayed, but try not to soak the trunk. It is good to wipe the foliage twice a week with a damp cloth. The best option is gravel or expanded clay on a pallet. Pour enough gravel (expanded clay) into a deep pallet, pour water over it and put the pot. The bottom must not come into contact with water. So Nolina will be much more comfortable.

The most common reason for the tips to dry out is watering with water from a water supply system, which contains a lot of chlorine and fluorine. Getting into the root system first, then moving upward, these substances cause burns on the leaves. You need to water only with water that has settled for about a day.

If the tips dry out in winter, it means that the plant receives a lot of water.

Excessive watering leads to decay of the roots and, as a result, leaves.

Nolina can be damaged by pests. Brown dry tips may indicate that the plant is affected. To protect the plant, it is necessary to carry out prevention: use only clean packaged soil for planting or transplanting, thoroughly wash used pots before reusing. If there are many flowers in the house, it is better to send a new purchased plant to quarantine for a month: put it separately, periodically inspect it for lesions and insects. If pests are still found, once a week, wipe the leaves with a cloth dampened with soapy water.

Tips can also dry out from excessive feeding. If the soil is covered with a whitish coating, it means that it contains a lot of salts. A clod of earth with a bloom should be removed and new soil should be added.

If the roots get sick, the darkened tips of the leaves become wet, slippery. You can save the plant by transplanting it into a new soil: remove it from the pot, cut off the darkened, sluggish, rotten roots and sprinkle it with crushed coal.

To prevent the tips from drying out, you can follow the advice of experienced florists. In the conditions of heated apartments in winter time, practically do not water the nolina, but generously spray it and put it in the coolest and lightest place.


Indoor grapes: structural features

Indoor grapes are perennials, evergreens with climbing vines. It grows quite quickly, vines cling to vertical objects with the help of antennae. The leaves have a variety of shapes, depending on the species and variety - whole, ternary. More often they are jagged and resemble wild grapes. The plant does not bloom under indoor conditions, but sometimes this happens. Flowers are very small and inconspicuous inflorescences.

Indoor grapes are grown not for their flowering, but for their ability to cover large areas of rooms and purify the air in a short time.

The stems and shoots of the plant are rather fragile, therefore, flower growers recommend determining a place that is unique for it, so that in the future you do not have to transfer the grapes to another part of the house. Unpretentious and able to grow in any conditions. Indoor grapes are often grown in public facilities for this very reason.

The homeland of this amazing plant is America, Asia and Australia, their subtropical and tropical forests. Despite the unpretentiousness, he prefers quiet places where there are no winds, moderately humid and illuminated by diffused sunlight. It is customary to maintain the same conditions when growing it at home. Indoor grapes have a large number of species and varieties, but only a few are bred in the conditions of apartments and premises.


Home care, watering, transplanting and reproduction: Labuda.blog

Croton is a wonderful plant that pleases with the beauty of its variegated leaves. Many housewives dream of having a croton flower in their home. Taking care of it at home is not so easy, due to the finicky culture. The thing is that the plant is very demanding on external conditions. In our article, we want to talk about how to grow croton at home.

Finicky handsome

Croton, or codiaeum as it is often called, belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, which includes many rainforest inhabitants and ornamental houseplants.

As you can imagine, growing conditions in the tropics and at home are very different. Therefore, in the wild, crotons reach three meters in height.At home, with proper care, the plant can reach 1.5 meters. Having overcome some difficulties in care, you can get a beautiful flower that delights with its variegated foliage. The effort put into the care process is worth the end result.

Description of the flower

Croton is sometimes called codiaum or "Joseph's cloak". Translated from Greek, the name of the plant means "head". Why the culture received such a name, experts do not know for sure. There is speculation that the plant was named after a city in southern Italy.

The islands of Northern Australia and the Pacific Ocean, as well as Southeast Asia and India are considered the homeland of wild forms of croton. The genus includes many species. But indoor culture is represented only by variegated croton and its hybrids. The croton flower (photos are given in the article) is considered one of the most beautiful decorative indoor crops. The plant is used as a decoration for interiors. In some countries, Croton is considered the keeper of the hearth, which protects the apartment from negative energy.

At home, the plant usually does not exceed 1-1.5 m in height, even with the best care. The description of the croton flower, of course, cannot convey all its beauty. The decorativeness of the plant is its main advantage. Crotons are very often used to decorate halls, lobbies, offices and other premises. Their beautiful leaves of various shapes and bright colors invariably attract the attention of people. Outwardly, the codiaums resemble a small tree. The formation of the crown is rather slow, so one should not hope for a quick result. In order to get a beautiful bush, the plant is periodically sheared.

Codiaum is a flowering plant. But culture rarely blooms. At the same time, the plant produces an arrow with small nondescript flowers, painted in a light yellow shade. It is worth saying that the bloom does not add much beauty to croton. But the plant expends a lot of energy and nutrients. Therefore, many growers prefer to initially remove the arrow so that the culture does not lose its supply of nutrients.

Types of culture

For growing at home, several varieties of crotons are used. Flowers differ in the shape and size of the leaves, as well as their colors. The most popular species is Croton Variegated. The plant has the shape of a bush, the height of which reaches three meters. Green-brown leaves are located on the branches of the culture. There are several varieties, the main difference of which is the shape of the foliage:

  1. Variety "excellence". The plant has characteristic oak leaves, painted yellow-green on top, and red-burgundy below.
  2. Disraeli variety. The plants have lobed leaves, painted in a brick-brown shade from below, and green-yellow from above with characteristic veins and specks.
  3. Variety "black prince". This plant has a very exotic look. On the black surface of the foliage, there are red and orange specks and streaks.
  4. Variety "Petra". Plants of this species can have lobed, oval and pointed leaves of dark green color with yellow veins and specks.
  5. Variety "Mrs. Aiston". The small trees have brightly colored foliage that can be yellow-pink, maroon with pink dots, or golden with black dots.

Croton varigatum is no less popular among flower growers. The plant has the shape of a bush with a bare stem. The leaves of the flower are colored green-brown. Varigatum is represented by several types:

  1. The flat-leaved croton has oval wavy leaves that reach 30 cm in length and 10 cm in width.
  2. Lobed view. Its distinctive feature is its three-lobed leaves, which can be monochromatic or variegated. They reach 22 cm in length.
  3. The appendage croton has characteristic green and variegated leaves, which consist of several plates.
  4. Decorated codiaum is actively used by breeders to obtain new hybrids.

Purchase of a plant

What care should be provided to Croton at home (photos of the flower are given in the article)? Much depends on the quality of the plant you purchased in the store. Therefore, I would like to say a few words about how to choose the right plant. Buy only those that look healthy. Plants should have tough, elastic leaves with a bright color. There should be no traces of pests on their surface.

Specimens with sluggish foliage should not be purchased, as they will certainly fall off during adaptation in your home. And in the worst case, the plant may die altogether. It is worth giving preference to young bushes, since they take root more easily and tolerate the adaptation period easier. It is not necessary to purchase a ready-made plant in the store, it is enough to break off the stalk from the croton you like from friends or neighbors.

Lighting and temperature

Maintaining the right temperature and proper lighting is the foundation of home care. The indoor croton flower differs from other crops in the stunningly bright color of the leaves, which attracts the attention of florists to it. In order for the bushes to please with a variegated color, they must be placed in a well-lit place. It must be remembered that with a lack of light, the plant loses its unique decorative effect. But at the same time, in the summer, crotons must be shaded from direct rays. The leaves of the culture only seem tough. However, from the sun burns quickly appear on them, which outwardly resemble spots. In winter, the plant can be placed on the south window. If you organize the care correctly, the croton flower will certainly delight you with its beauty.

It must be remembered that the tropics are the homeland of the codiaum, therefore the culture belongs to the thermophilic. The correct temperature regime is an important component of home care. Croton flower is picky about the air temperature of the room in which it is located. The optimum temperature for the culture is + 20 ... + 22 degrees. Please note that the temperature should not drop below +16 degrees. In summer, the bushes can be placed on the balcony or taken out into the garden, installing protection from the wind and scorching sun rays.

Humidity

It must be remembered that the tropical inhabitant is very fond of high air humidity. Therefore, spraying the bushes should become a regular home care procedure. Croton flower should be regularly bathed and sprayed from a spray bottle in the spring and summer.

If the plant is in a cool room in winter, then water procedures can be practically excluded. But remember that heating dries the air quite strongly. If you don't want to bother with winter spraying, move the bushes away from the radiators. Otherwise, you will have to humidify the air twice a day. In addition, you can increase the humidity in a simple way. It is necessary to place a vessel with water or a pallet with wet moss or expanded clay near the pot. There is another way to maintain the necessary moisture for the croton flower. Home care can be greatly simplified by using a humidifier, which is best placed near the bush.

Another important point in the care is to regularly wipe the leaves with a damp sponge. The procedure must be carried out at least once a week.

Watering

Very often, amateur flower growers have many questions regarding the correctness of home care. The indoor croton flower cannot be called an unpretentious culture. He is very sensitive, so taking care of him should be especially careful. It is important to properly organize watering of the plant. It is necessary to moisten the bushes so that the soil is always slightly moist. But at the same time it is important not to allow stagnation of water in the roots. Watering is one of the most important components of care. The croton flower does not like dryness, but it also does not tolerate an excess of moisture, which leads to decay of the root system. At the same time, excessive dryness causes foliage to fall off and dry out.

Therefore, it is recommended to use drainage when planting. Croton flower (see photo in the article) must be watered regularly and abundantly, but moisture must not be stagnant.

In winter and autumn, watering should be reduced if the room is cool. Experienced flower growers recommend using only warm, settled water. This condition applies not only to watering, but also spraying. Better to take filtered water. In the summer, the plant needs bathing in the shower.

Fertilizer use

All the beauty of the variegated color of the plant can be appreciated from the photo of the croton flower. How to care for a crop to get the same beautiful bushes as in the store? It is necessary to fertilize the plant regularly. From April to November, you need to do two dressings per month. But in winter, one fertilizer per month is enough.

For top dressing, you should use complex mineral fertilizers created for decorative deciduous crops. Fertilize plants after abundant watering so as not to burn the roots.

Transplant rules

It is no secret that almost all indoor flowers need a regular transplant. Croton in home care is very moody. But at the same time, he needs an annual transplant of young bushes. The transshipment of mature plants can be done much less frequently - about once every three years. The transplant should be carried out in the spring before the onset of the growing season.

For croton, it is necessary to use a soil that is as close as possible to the soil in which it grows in the natural environment. Many flower growers recommend purchasing a ready-made substrate. But you can prepare the mixture yourself. To do this, in equal proportions, it is necessary to mix humus, sifted sand, turf and peat. By the way, charcoal can be added to the mixture to avoid rotting of the root system. The prepared mixture must be ignited in the oven or spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate so that no insect larvae remain in it.

The convenience of the finished substrate is that it can be used without pretreatment.

Pot selection

Before planting a croton flower, you must choose the right pot correctly. For young bushes, it is worth taking a medium-sized flowerpot that is not deep. There should not be a lot of extra space in the pot, otherwise the roots may rot. It is necessary to replant the plant if you notice that the roots are visible from the drainage hole. The new flowerpot should be slightly wider than the old one. The diameter must be increased by no more than 5 cm.

Young plants brought from the store do not need urgent transplantation. The supply of nutrients in the substrate will be enough for them for a long time. At the initial stage, it is important to provide proper flower care. Croton (photo is given in the article) must adapt in your apartment and get used to new conditions. Moving it from the store to your home is stressful for the plant. Therefore, transplanting at this time can lead to the death of the bush.

Transfer

Many novice flower growers are wondering how to plant croton. The flower needs good drainage. Therefore, at the bottom of the pot, it is necessary to put a layer of expanded clay, the thickness of which should be at least three centimeters. Before planting the plant, it is necessary to shed the soil well in order to carefully remove the roots from the old flowerpot without damaging them. If the earth ball does not disintegrate, the root system will remain intact.

Soil is poured onto the bottom of the container with drainage. Next, a flower is placed in a flowerpot and the roots are covered with earth. Press down on the soil with your hands. The planted bush is watered abundantly with settled water. In the future, it is very important to ensure proper flower care. Croton (see photo in the article) after transplantation must be placed in a slightly shaded place. The plant must be regularly watered and sprayed with its leaves.

Young crotons are transplanted annually. As soon as the plant is transplanted into a container with a diameter of 25 cm, it is no longer transshipped. The top of the soil can be renewed annually. This is quite enough for the plant.

Reproduction

How to breed croton? The flower can be propagated in several ways: by seed and cuttings. The last method is very simple and convenient. To get a young plant, it is enough to cut off the top of the bush and root it. If you want to get several cuttings, you need to divide the shoot into several parts. Please note that each piece of the stem must have at least one healthy leaf and one internode. Only in this case, the cutting can be rooted and a new flower can be obtained. Reproduction of croton is not difficult. The resulting pieces of the stem on the cuts secrete milky juice, which is a poisonous substance. The white juice must be washed off with water. Then the cuttings are dried for several hours. Leaves are removed from the bottom of them. The upper leaves are cut in half parallel to the veins.

Dried cuttings can be placed in a container of water. The liquid in the container should not be cold (+ 23 ... + 30 degrees). In cooler water, the plant will not only not give roots, but will also rot. How to propagate a flower? Croton, whose photo is striking in its beauty, can be planted in a pot only after roots up to 2 cm long have grown.In the future, it is necessary to regularly spray the soil and the plant itself. When the elasticity of the foliage is restored, the croton will begin to grow.

Seed propagation

The plant can also be propagated by seeds. It is important to remember that freshly harvested material must be used for sowing. Croton seeds lose their germination very quickly. Experienced growers recommend propagating the plant by cuttings. Firstly, this method is much easier, and secondly, it allows you to preserve all varietal characteristics. Unfortunately, the same results cannot be achieved with seed propagation. The process takes a very long time and does not give the desired result.

If you nevertheless decide to use seeds, they must be preheated in water at a temperature of 60 degrees for 30 minutes. After they must be left to swell in liquid for a day.

The prepared seeds are sown in containers with soil to a depth of no more than one centimeter. The boxes with crops are covered with glass from above and placed in a warm place with a temperature of at least 22 degrees. Before sprouting, watering must be done through the pallet. Next, the glass is removed, and the pots are taken out to a more illuminated place. As soon as the plants have a third leaf, they can be transplanted into separate containers to get young homemade croton flowers. How to care for seedlings in the future? Seedling care is exactly the same as for adult plants.

Air layering

You've probably noticed that crotons often have a bare trunk. This phenomenon affects the decorative effect of the bush. But don't be upset. From the plant, you can get air layers for a young plant. To do this, in June, at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the apex, a circular incision up to 0.8 cm wide is made on the stem. The cut site is certainly treated with a stimulant so that the roots form faster. You can also use sphagnum moss wrapped around the plant. From above, the cut is closed with a film and tied with a rope. From above, the oilcloth must be fastened not too tightly so that you can regularly moisten the moss. The first roots will appear in about a month. But you can cut off the cutting only after the roots grow up to five centimeters. Many leaves are usually retained on the cut. A good root system is needed to keep them alive.

The cut stalk is planted in a pot with prepared soil.Saplings are placed in a shaded place for two weeks. During this period, the plant must be sprayed frequently. It is still very weak, so it cannot get the required amount of water through the roots.

Layers can be obtained in another way. The lignified shoot is pressed to the ground and sprinkled with soil in this state. To accelerate the development of the root system from the bottom of the branch, you can remove the bark. After the emergence of young leaves from the ground, the new plant can be separated from the mother.

Pruning

In any magazine you can see beautiful photos of a croton flower. How to care for a plant to get the same beautiful tree? The culture requires pruning. By the way, many growers neglect it, although pruning is an obligatory part of the care. Codiaum / croton (a photo of a flower is given in the article) can have a very beautiful shape if it is regularly formed. Housewives refuse to form the crown because of the poisonous sap of the plant. But this is fundamentally wrong. The fact is that cropping has several functions:

  1. Formation of a beautiful tree or bush.
  2. Prevention of possible depletion of the plant due to lack of nutrients for all shoots.
  3. A hygienic procedure to remove damaged and dry leaves and branches.

Do not be intimidated by the poisonous sap of the plant, which does not interfere with pruning at all. After all, in the end you want to get a beautiful indoor flower. How to care for croton? Pruning the plant should be done with gloves that protect your skin. The juice promotes the rapid tightening of the cuts, so the cuttings take root well.

The pruning procedure must be carried out regularly. After reaching the required height, all stems should be pinned or trimmed. This will stimulate the growth of dense lateral growth.

It is worth saying that care also depends on the age of the plant. The indoor croton flower is pinched when it comes to a young bush. On adult specimens, the branches are cut off. After each such procedure, the plant must be treated with stimulants and placed in a greenhouse.

Please note that when pruning, you must remove flower buds and inflorescences, if any. Modest flowers do not decorate the bushes at all, but they greatly deplete them, which is reflected in the decorative effect. Pruning plants of different varieties has its own characteristics. As you know, the petra croton does not branch very well. If you want to achieve the splendor of the bush, it is worth planting several bushes in one flowerpot. You can create a wonderful mix. In this case, it is necessary to form each plant separately.

Cropping should be done in early spring. It is better to do this before the onset of the active vegetative period. The first pinching can be done at the moment when the plant reaches 15 cm in height. In this case, the upper points of growth are cut off. In the future, all shoots are cut when their length reaches 20 cm. This cutting scheme allows you to awaken the lateral buds in order to force the bush to actively branch.

The formation of a beautiful bush is not only about proper pruning. The plant must be regularly rotated relative to the light source. This will avoid the one-sidedness of the crown. For adult crotons, the cut sites must be treated with chopped charcoal. By the way, cuttings can be used to produce new plants.

Possible problems

The beauty of the foliage is the main advantage of the indoor croton flower. How to care for him, we told earlier. Compliance with all the rules will avoid problems. If something is wrong with the plant, look for mistakes made in the care. Eliminating them will help return the bush to its previous state.

Why do Croton leaves fall? The flower can shed foliage at the bottom of the trunk. This process is natural. In this case, do not worry if all the rest of the foliage is in order.

If you notice that the tips of the leaves are drying out, causing them to fall in the future, this indicates a low level of humidity in the house. Tropical handsome man does not have enough moisture, and he dries.

When the plant is kept in low temperature conditions, the edges of the leaf plates dry out. Brown spots may also form. This phenomenon is observed if the plant suffers from cold, which leads to leaf fall. A similar picture can be observed when the bush is in a draft.

If for a long time Croton does not receive the required amount of moisture through watering, it begins to dry out en masse and shed its foliage. Since the root system does not receive enough moisture, it cannot provide it to the entire plant.

Sometimes croton drops the leaves. Why is this happening? This situation is the plant's reaction to the cold. When the roots are cold, they do not supply moisture to the plant. The flower pot must be moved to a sunny, warm place and watering should be organized. In the periods between wetting, the soil should dry out in the peas by a few centimeters. Until the situation returns to normal, you should not feed the plant. It must be sprayed with water and wrapped in a transparent bag.

Loss of foliage elasticity indicates excessive soil moisture. Abundant and frequent watering does not allow the soil to dry out. Sometimes the stem can even rot. But the most dangerous is rotting of the root system. Therefore, it is very important to follow the watering schedule.

Sometimes crotons don't want to grow at all. Why is this happening? This situation develops if the plant does not have enough light. For a tropical dweller, the sun is the basis of life. To improve the situation, the pot should be moved to a more illuminated place.

Sudden leaf fall is possible if the plant is watered with cold water. Croton prefers warm watering. In the cold season, the water needs to be slightly heated.

Do not worry if the young leaves on the bush are not decorative. This is normal. New foliage is usually dull yellow or green and becomes variegated with age.

Diseases

The plant rarely gets sick, because it is poisonous. But errors in care can lead to the appearance of ailments.

Sometimes bushes suffer from anthracosis. The disease appears with frequent watering with cold water. A sign of anthracosis is red and gray ash spots on foliage. The fungus is very dangerous to the culture. It penetrates the tissues of the plant and infects it. Diseased bushes must be isolated and treated with an antifungal agent. All plants that have come into contact with croton must be treated with biological products.

Root rot is no less dangerous. It may appear due to the low acidity of the soil. A symptom of an ailment is pallor and foliage. Subsequently, the stems and roots soften. To combat rot, antifungal agents of a wide spectrum of action are used.

Spider mites can settle on weakened plants. In this case, a thin cobweb appears on the plant. The cause of the appearance of parasites is dry air and lack of watering.

When a light fluffy bloom appears on the foliage, we can say that this is a mealybug. Also, a scale insect can settle on Croton. In this case, heels appear on the foliage. When pests appear, the plant pot must be isolated and treated with soapy water. After the foliage must be wiped with vegetable oil. If the bush is heavily infested with pests, you can use Actellik or insecticides for treatment.

Instead of an afterword

Many growers consider croton to be a capricious plant. All the difficulties with growing it arise from improper care. The slightest errors cause violent reactions. The whimsical handsome man is a tropical inhabitant, it is not surprising that in our area it is not easy for him to take root. Croton, with proper care, can grow well in the house for up to ten years. A perennial plant in the hands of experienced flower growers is capable of reaching impressive sizes.

The main value of culture lies in its decorativeness. With proper care, Croton pleases with variegated foliage and large leaves. The plant is not prone to disease due to its toxicity. And yet, with a lack of watering and air humidity, crotons can be capricious and sick. This means that simply following the rules of care will avoid trouble.


Growing conditions

The air temperature for almost all types of indoor grapes should be 22 ° -25 °, not higher. In winter, the temperature can be reduced to 18 ° -20 °. As long as the bush is small and has not completely attached to the vertical support, it can be taken out into the fresh air in summer. Temperature drops are undesirable for cissus, especially for a two-color look. Try to avoid this.

When choosing a place for grapes, choose rooms in the east and west direction, where there are no drafts.

Indoor grapes love bright, but diffused lighting. It is better not to place it near the windows. Choose niches for it in the walls or places where sunlight will fall, but not direct sunlight. The plant is shade-loving, but dark places, without any light, are undesirable.

The increased dryness of the air is not suitable for indoor grapes. He will die very quickly. Prefers moderately humid places, but not damp. It is necessary to constantly monitor the soil moisture and prevent the earthen coma from drying out. The optimal composition of the soil will be a mixture of leafy soil, peat, humus, turf and sand. The ratio is 1: 1: 1: 1: 1. Moderate humidity, bright and diffused light, optimal temperature - will be the key to the lush and beautiful growth of outlandish vines.


Healing properties

Tradescantia has long been referred to as a medicinal plant. By attaching a leaf to the wound, you can quickly stop the blood and speed up healing. The medicated substances contained in the sap of the flower will disinfect the wound and prevent the entry of germs.

If you rub the juice of sore gums, you can cure even an advanced form of periodontal disease. On the basis of pomace, drugs are made for colds, stomach diseases and sore throat.

Attention: There are contraindications. Consult a specialist before use.

In the house, the benefits of the plant are obvious - it purifies the air. It has been scientifically proven to capture and neutralize electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, Tradescantia is often kept in office premises, where the body is harmed by working computer equipment.

Important! Tradescantia is poisonous to cats. Make sure that your pet cannot reach the plant.


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