Read the previous part. ← Landscape of Tsarskoe Selo parks
From the north, the park is bounded by a granite embankment of a rectilinear canal with twelve cascades. It is adjoined by the first street of Tsarskoye Selo - Sadovaya, along which the old Kavalersky houses are located.
The eastern border of the regular part of the park runs along the second and third Lower, or Cascade ponds.
The layout of this part of the park is emphatically geometric and symmetrical. Garden masters Jan Rosen, Jagan-Kaspar Focht worked on the creation of a regular garden. The garden was arranged in the Dutch style of the Baroque period with numerous flower beds, straight paths and canals, with terraces, with rather narrow alleys in the center of the garden, not intended to reveal views of the palace. It was typical for the Baroque style to create some "reticence", mystery, ambiguity. Baroque, as later Gothic buildings, were surrounded by trees, which almost hid them.
The front parterre is framed by closed trellises of clipped linden, which grows in the form of a bush and forms high living walls, green in summer and brownish-reddish in winter. On the south side of the parterre, ancient linden trees have survived, which now have a spherical crown, supported by a regular haircut.
In winter, the pattern of powerful trunks and an openwork compact crown are especially clearly visible, and, sprinkled with snow, they look like sleeping black and white graphics against the background of the colored facades of the Agate Rooms. Trimmed trellises adjacent to old linden trees acquire a reddish color of the bark of young shoots closer to spring. It looks unusually touching and unexpectedly bright against a snowy background, especially in bright sun.
The General, or Hermitage Alley divides the parterre into two parts and runs along the main axis of the park through the center of the palace, built on the highest point of Tsarskoe Selo.
From the first terrace, on which the parterres are located, a small staircase leads down to the second terrace. It is decorated with four bosquets, in which the now tall trees of maple and linden grow. The edges of the General Alley on this section, according to the canons of regular planning, are framed with marble statues and busts.
The third terrace is an open space with two symmetrically located mirrored ponds-pools, framed by stone "frames" with baroque fillets in the corners. From the side of the alleys, these corners are also marked by curly contours of low-cut bushes of the Thunberg barberry, which completely replaces the boxwood that does not winter in our area.
The banks of the ponds are significantly understated in relation to the surrounding alleys, which in the warm season allows you to admire the reflection in the water surface of the changing colorful range of foliage of trees and shrubs.
This terrace ends with a transverse alley with tall larch trees, in the lower tier on the other side of the alley there are spruces with dark needles. A small staircase in the central alley, also decorated with sculptures, connects the terraced part of the Old Garden with the lower one located on the plane. The basis of the layout of the lower part of the regular garden is a trident of alleys emerging from a semicircular area: one central and two lateral radials.
These alleys reach the Rybny Canal, which was opened in the times of Peter I and Catherine I. The canal was intended for draining the place, for raising fish to the tsar's table. It was planted with fir and spruce trees, which, according to legend, were planted by the sovereign himself. Five bridges are thrown across the canal, coinciding with the intersection of the axes of the alleys.
In the middle of the garden, three avenues diverging at an angle are crossed by a straight transverse alley that runs from the canal embankment with cascades to the Grotto pavilion built in the Baroque style. All of them are framed by trellises of sheared lindens, forming closed bosquets inside themselves. In these inner "green halls" grow taller standard lime trees with a cubic crown shape and several old apple trees.
This part of the regular garden was arranged as a maze of clipped trees and bushes, which was an integral part of such Dutch-style palace gardens. Their peculiarity was the abundance of various places of solitude in the form of green pavilions, grottoes, bosquets, trellis, envelope alleys (with an openwork frame instead of a roof, along which branches of lianas grew, creating green tunnels).
The labyrinth existed as a garden venture not only in the West, but also in Russia for a long time, including in the royal garden in Izmailovo in the 17th century. It is interesting that at different times it served different purposes and had different meanings. Over time, the labyrinth became one of the garden fun, entering into which one had to be able to get out. In the era of Romanticism, long walks are in vogue, and the labyrinth, at an opportune moment, lengthened the paths of guests walking in the park.
The central or Hermitage alley runs along the central axis of the labyrinth. It is planted with standard lindens imitating a large tub culture. Their crown is cut in the shape of a cube. Various geometric shapes of linden crowns create an interesting space, live green halls, niches, secluded places for walking. Even in summer, when we see "green on green", the cropped forms make a very strong impression.
Against the background of the "green" walls, white marble busts and sculptures, placed in semicircular niches at the intersection of the alleys in front of the "Grotto", look spectacular. After 1743, the sculpture was transferred to the Old Garden, partly from the Summer Garden, for which it was ordered according to the instructions of Peter I. These were the works of the Venetian masters D. Bonazza, A. Tarsia, P. Baratta, D. Zorzoni especially for parks in Europe.
From the bridge on the Hermitage Alley, two ray alleys diverge like a second trident. Two radial alleys run towards them from the western façade of the Hermitage, and seven more radial alleys extend from the opposite, eastern side. If one could look at this part of the park from above, it would turn out that the Hermitage, which is cruciform in plan, is placed in the center of the Big Star, which is bordered along the perimeter by a double rectangular frame of straight alleys lined with tall maples and linden trees. (The plan of the parks is presented on a large stand near the main entrance.)
The central alley ends with the Hermitage building, surrounded by dense thickets of trees. This place was once called the Wild Grove because the trees were not trimmed there, unlike the garden on the upper terraces. The Hermitage is the architectural and compositional dominant of the lower half of the regular garden.
In the middle of the 18th century, it was surrounded by a figured moat with water, a balustrade, numerous sculptures, vases and green bushes of trees. This pavilion was typical of the romantic gardens of the era. Richly decorated inside, it amazed the guests of the Empress with technical innovations that were perceived as a miracle. As if by magic, without the presence of servants, a luxuriously laid table rose from an opening niche in the floor. Nothing interfered with the secluded, sophisticated receptions in this "place of solitude", which in translation means the very name of the pavilion.
At the end of the 18th century, by order of Catherine II, the moat was filled up, marble slabs were removed from the site in front of the building, and part of the sculpture on the facade and roof of the pavilion was removed. Now the pavilion is under restoration, but you can see the restored moat, marble paving of the site and facades with a characteristic finish designed by the architect FB Rastrelli. In the surrounding massif, young trees are regularly planted to replace the lost ones: birches, lindens, oaks.
The regular garden ends with the Lower, or Cascade Ponds. Mighty trees now grow on their banks, reflecting in the smooth surface of the waters. There are tall larch trees, oaks, lindens, silvery willows, golden-leaved and purple-leaved maples in autumn. At the junction of the Cascade Pond and the Cascade Canal, clumps of Siberian deren with crimson stems have grown picturesquely, which makes this corner elegant and colorful even in winter.
In the spring, when the Wild Grove is still transparent, carpets of oak tree anemones wake up there; at the beginning of summer, marsh marigolds with glossy leaves are gilded. Autumn landscapes along Sadovaya Street and Ekaterininsky Park are the brightest in the varied colors of the foliage of maples and lindens that soared up into a high closed wall.
The Gatchina castle is similar to the claims of its owner - Paul I. There is a lot of medieval architecture in the arrangement of this building, which came from knights clad in heavy armor. The author of the castle project was Antonio Rinaldi. It is believed that it was this Italian architect who created an intricate system of underground passages and doors, with the help of which the emperor moved around the castle unnoticed by prying eyes.
However, the myths are only partially confirmed, only 1 underground passage was discovered. But they also say that he was already before the appearance of the castle. It was not created at the behest of Paul, but went to him "by inheritance" from the former owner there, Count Orlov. It was built exclusively for decorative and aesthetic purposes as a garden and park structure of the coastal part of the Silver Lake.
There was also a gate to this dungeon, called the "Echo" Grotto, and they represented the exit to the outside from the dungeon, which connected the palace and the lake shore. This structure was erected for the purpose of rescue in case of danger. So the count wanted to protect himself from all sorts of unexpected intrusions, fearing to be caught off guard.
Pavel the First often used this manhole, disappeared from the castle and suddenly appeared on the shore of the Silver Lake. He did all this in a matter of minutes, because the stroke length is only 120 meters.
Later, the Grotto became famous as a unique acoustic facility. Its sound effects attracted many curious people here. It was said that if a person, approaching the grate of the Grotto, said something, then literally in a minute his words would return from the ground to the surface as if in an otherworldly bass. If you shout into this darkness: "Paul", then an ominous answer will surely come from the darkness of the dungeon: "He is dead."
Even such a rhythmic "play on words" with Echo from the other world was invented. If you ask him: "Who ruled here?" The echo will answer: "Paul, Paul" ...
Tsarskoe Selo. Catherine Park. The chapter "The regular part of the Catherine Park (Old Garden)" of the book "Pushkin. Palaces and parks "author: Petrov A.N. publishing house "Art", Leningrad, 1964
The Grand Tsarskoye Selo Palace, numerous pavilions, cascades, bridges and memorial monuments are inseparable from the surrounding parks and together with them form one grandiose whole.
The Yekaterininsky and Alexandrovsky parks went through two main stages in their development. The first of these was the period of construction of regular gardens, the second led to the creation of vast landscape parks. The new parks included, as independent parts, the old gardens, which lost their regular character after the termination of tree cutting, but retained, with minor changes, the original layout.
The construction of parks was an innovation for Russia at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. Peter I himself directed the creation of several parks in the new capital and its environs, at the same time showing exceptional concern for the preservation of forests, which are necessary primarily for shipbuilding.
Cutting woods near St. Petersburg and on the territory of the city itself was prohibited without special sanction, on pain of the most severe punishment.An exception was made only for those owners of suburban summer cottages on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, "who want to clean up and cut the forests for a walk, as is usually the case to clean groves." In forest thickets, turned into parks, it was allowed to build "promising roads or alleys." [ TsGAVMF, f. 212, d. 4, 1719, h. 2, l. 486. Decree June 23, 1723 ]
Russian gardens of the 17th century and European medieval gardens had a utilitarian character. They grew fruit trees, berry bushes, flowers and herbs. Usually, for the construction of estates and gardens, places were chosen that were distinguished by beauty, picturesque and richness of natural resources. And on the Sarskaya manor, in the first years after its transfer to the property of Catherine I, the greatest attention was paid to the cultivation of fruits, berries and vegetables.
In the orchard on the manor in 1718, there were over one and a half thousand apple trees, eight hundred cherry trees, many hundreds of black and red currant and gooseberry bushes. [ T.B. Dubyago. Towards the restoration of the Catherine Park in Pushkin. Scientific works of LISS, vol. 10.M. - L., 1950, p. 72. ] Only after redevelopment in the 1720s. it acquired the character of an amusement garden - covered alleys, trellis pavilions, and decorative ponds appeared in it.
The new aesthetic principles of park construction could not be reconciled and combined with their utilitarian use. Fruit trees gradually migrated from the territory of Tsarskoye Selo gardens to greenhouse farms. [ Greenhouses and greenhouses were located in the Old Garden along a stone fence. Ridges for vegetables were arranged in curtains even in the 1760s. ]
An important role in the development of Russian landscape gardening in the first half of the 18th century and in the emergence of individual palace and park ensembles was played by the study of the best European examples, and especially the gardens of Versailles.
In the personal library of Peter I were kept uvrazh, published in France in the second half of the 17th century, dedicated to Versailles, Trianon and Marly. They served as guides in the work on the creation of royal residences in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, and above all the ensemble of the Upper and Lower Gardens in Peterhof.
Catherine I, the owner of the Sarskaya manor, could not even dream of a garden competing not only with the famous works of Western European gardening art, but also with Peterhof. The scale of construction on the manor was very modest, and the size of the garden was insignificant. Only after the reconstruction of the entire ensemble, begun in 1743, the territory of the Old Garden expanded, new pavilions between the palace and the Menagerie were decorated with a New, or Upper, garden.
The question of who was the author of those new ideas that were embodied in the 1740s - 1750s. in gardening works in Tsarskoe Selo, can only be solved presumably. The order dated June 13, 1745 serves as the thread that points the way to his solution: “He found the French artisan Girard in the village of Tsarskoye and show him the current parterres in the garden, instead of which to order him to be new, having made, announce the drawings and when he announces to report to her majesty. "
[ TsGIAL, f. 466, op. 36/1629, 1745, d. 67, l. 24-26. For information about Nicolas François Girard, see the collective work “Russian architecture of the first half of the 18th century. Research and Materials ”, published under the editorship of Acad. I.E. Grabar (Moscow, 1954, pp. 365-368). Girard was not "artisan" in the sense that we understand this word today. He was Leblond's assistant and came to Russia with him as one of his "draftsmen" (dessinateur). Architect, specialist in landscape gardening, Girard for a number of years worked on the orders of gr. X. Minich was not in the civil service. His leading role in the development of garden projects in Tsarskoe Selo, confirmed by the cited document, is very likely. ]
Girard, if he was the author of the reconstruction project of the Old Garden, was bound by the already established layout.It is possible that this prevented him from developing the composition of the Old Garden in width and depth, expanding it, as was done in Versailles, on the continuation of the central axis of the ensemble, over vast spaces. [ T.B. Dubyago. The history of the development of the Catherine Park in Pushkin. 1947, p. 25. Manuscript in the GIOP archive. ]
The transfer of the experience of Western European park builders to Russian soil and even individual Borrowings did not determine the final result and the overall impression left by Russian parks. They retained their distinctive national character. This could not be otherwise, since the appearance of the parks was formed gradually, not only as a result of the long-term purposeful activity of their builders, but also under the influence of local natural conditions, which have their own specifics. The composition of the vegetation in the parks and the replacement of some of its groups by others depended on these conditions.
Numerous documents from the 18th century indicate that the most widespread and valued tree in the regular parks of Tsarskoe Selo was the linden tree, which lends itself well to shearing, suitable for planting in damp low-lying areas, tolerating northern frosts and the humid climate of the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
After the refusal to cut trees, the main species used by Tsarskoye Selo garden masters when planting in the alleys became an oak that does not tolerate crown pruning and is not very suitable for regular park construction.
Oaks were planted in the alleys of the regular Old Garden only because of the lack of linden trees. There is a known order, which dates back to the 1740s, on replanting oak trees planted “according to predictions,” that is, in alleys, into a birch grove behind the Rybny Canal and on replacing them with standard lindens.
The garden was decorated with numerous works of decorative sculpture. The garden builders cherished the idea of creating fountains - one of the must-have accessories of a regular park. But they had to leave it, since there were no sources that could be used for their device. Only one fountain was built in the Old Garden. The reservoir where water was pumped for him was apparently installed in the attic of the palace. The fountain did not last long.
The basis started in the 1740s. the reconstruction of the Old Garden gave rise to the idea of building the Hermitage on the continuation of the central alley of the Old Garden, on the main compositional axis of the ensemble.
The finishing work of the Hermitage was still in progress when Rastrelli began to build the Grotto on the banks of the Big Pond in the Old Garden. The grotto connects the waters of the Big Pond with the green areas of the garden. After its construction, a new, additional axis was outlined in the garden layout, perpendicular to the main one.
The territory of the Old Garden also expanded: the Lower Ponds became its southern border. The new northwest border was secured by the construction of the monumental Katalnaya Gora. For this pavilion, a place was chosen on the upper platform of the hill overlooking the pond and garden. In the middle of the Big Pond, on an island, a new spectacular pavilion "Hall on the Island" has replaced the old wooden lusthaus.
But the further development of the palace and park ensemble went not along the path of expanding regular gardens, but along the path of construction of landscape parks on the adjacent territory.
After the refusal to maintain the regular Old Garden in the form that it received in the 1740s and 1760s, its character and visibility changed radically. In the middle of the 18th century, the palace and park pavilions, located on the territory of the Old Garden, were all visible at the same time. They dominated the garden ensemble, towering over rows of trimmed trees and bushes that had clear, geometrically correct outlines. This is how we know the Old Garden from the famous images made by M.I. Makhaev and F.G. Barisien.
The trees subsequently blocked the view of the palace from the park. The Hermitage turned out to be hidden in the back of the garden. But the Old Garden has not lost its charm. Time is the enemy of the regular and an ally of landscape park construction.The freely growing trees spread their branches widely, and now in the mighty oaks and old linden trees, the same age as the Great Palace, we see the main decoration of the park.
The modern appearance of the oldest part of the Catherine Park is very far from the original, although it has retained a geometrically correct regular layout - a frequent and complex network of straight alleys. This is due not only to a change in the nature of the vegetation. New buildings appeared in the Old Garden in the second half of the 18th century, such as the Hermitage Kitchen, the Upper and Lower Baths, and granite bridges on the Fish Canal. One of the two rectangular symmetrical ponds on the third ledge of the garden was redesigned and made round with two semi-lunar ponds on the sides.
Alleys of old linden trees that have preserved traces of haircuts and an alley of beautiful powerful oak trees take the visitor away from the palace into the depths of the Old Garden. They are crossed by a “fir perspective” along the Rybny Canal. The perspective of the Rybny Canal and the alleys on its sides divides the oldest part of the garden into two parts - the upper part, which was worked in the past with ledges that are still noticeable today, and the lower part, with the Hermitage in the center.
Light wooden bridges were originally thrown across the Rybny Canal. Later they were replaced by granite and metal bridges. [ In the decree on November 11, 1774, one of the points concerned the construction of two stone bridges across the Rybny Canal. "In the Old Garden," the decree said, "through a transverse canal, make two stone bridges on arches from hewn granite, one along the alley past the Grotto, and the other on the Hermitage alley." The bridges were built in 1775-1778. Design drawings of the bridges were presented to Catherine II by V. I. Neelov (TsGIAL, f. 487, op. 13, 1774, d. 3, l. 30). ] The Rybny Canal ends with a "small sluice" and a dam, formed in the 1770s. in the form of a cascade of cut stone. At the base of the dam there is a pile of boulders.
Parks and gardens of ancient civilizations. The development of gardening art is closely related to the development of civilizations. Since ancient times, people have not only settled in favorable natural and landscape conditions, but also sought to create corners of ennobled nature - gardens and parks.
Gardens in Ancient Egypt. In the III and II millennia BC, the ancient Egyptian civilization was the leading civilization in the world. Here they began to drain the swamps, grandiose necropolises with pyramids and tombs were erected in Sakkara and Giza, grandiose temple ensembles in Karnak and Luxor, memorial temples and necropolises of pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings near Thebes, etc. Terraced gardens were created at the temples, the centers of the compositions of which were the centers of compositions. Palm alleys led to the temples. Rectangular pools were also focal points in the gardens of wealthy residential buildings. A variety of plants and flowers were planted in the gardens, including those brought from other countries.
Parks and gardens in the Mesopotamia of the Tigris and Euphrates. On the fertile lands of the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (the territory of modern Iraq), one of the most ancient civilizations was formed, which gave the world a number of important discoveries: a wheel, a cart drawn by oxen, pack donkeys, a sailing vessel, an irrigation system. The priests studied the stars, contemplated the beauty of nature, thought about the causes of the phenomena, and were engaged in gardening.
Three periods are distinguished in the development of the Mesopotamia civilization: the Sumerian-Akkadian (IV-II millennium BC), Assyrian (I millennium BC), and New Babylonian (VII-VI centuries BC). There is little evidence of the Sumerian-Akkadian period. The Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods are better studied.
The gardens and parks of Assyria and Babylon were distinguished by their large size and luxury, which the rich rulers of the Mesopotamia countries could afford. Natural plantings were transformed into hunting and amusement parks. With the general regularity of the parks planning, which was due to the irrigation system, the plantings were located freely. The parks used a rich assortment of rare trees, shrubs, flowers.There are evidences of large parks with diverse vegetation in Dur Sharukin during the reign of Sargon II (711-707 BC), in Nineveh during the reign of Sinacherib, son of Sargon II. Artificial hills and lakes were created in parks, gazebos and pavilions were built.
Received wide popularity Hanging Gardens of Babylon in Babylon (IX-VII centuries BC) - one of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World. It was a grandiose four-tiered structure, located on the banks of the Euphrates, with terraces rising in steps to a height of about 25 m. Powerful pillars supported the vaults and formed through passages. The terraces were connected by marble staircases. Ornamental trees, shrubs, flowers were planted on the terraces the way they grew in natural conditions: lowland plants - on the lower terraces, alpine ones - on the upper ones. The garden was irrigated with a water-lifting wheel by a system of fountains, cascades and streams. The terraces offered a view of the city and the Euphrates River (Fig. 3.1.3) [23, 58].
Fig. 3.1.3. Graphic reconstruction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon -
one of the seven wonders of the ancient world
Parks and gardens in Persia. Ancient Persian civilization emerged at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. She was like a bridge between Asia and Europe. The territory of Persia (modern Iran) was the birthplace of agriculture. The art of sculpture came from Persia to India. The mosques and mausoleums built by the Islamic rulers of India were also influenced by the iconic architecture of Iran. The formation of the Mughal school of painting in India became possible thanks to the Persian artists who brought their idea of the beautiful, pure mineral paints, thin brushes, hand-made paper used by the Persians.
Persian has been the court language in India and Afghanistan for centuries. Many new plants were brought from Persia to Ancient Greece and Rome, which changed the economies of these countries. And the very idea of gardens came to Europe from Persia.
Aryan tribes migrated from the eastern and northern regions of the Caspian Sea to the Iranian Highlands around 1700 BC. e. During the Bronze Age, they were engaged in cattle breeding, bred horses. The very word "Iran" means "the country of the Aryans." The population of modern Iran comes from the same nomadic tribes from which the Greeks, Romans, Teutons, Slavs, peoples of North India and East Pakistan descended.
The rulers of Persia built huge parks with rare decorative and fruit trees, flowers, which were called paradis (paradise). The parks were divided into several areas and were intended for hunting wild animals and included richly decorated pavilions and grottoes.
At the turn of the XVI - XVII centuries. Shah Abbas I the Great rebuilt Isfahan, giving it the character of a magnificent residence. The large (510 x 165 m) rectangular Meydane-Shah square with buildings richly decorated with glazed decor has become the center of the city. On the western side of the square is the vast palace complex Ali-Kapu ("High Gate", 15th century, expanded in the 17th century), behind which stretched gardens (partially preserved), which were surrounded by a wall about 6 km long. Gardens with shady alleys, fruit trees and flowers, ponds, marble pools, fountains and flowing water, decorative animals and birds symbolized heaven on earth.
The most famous garden of Iran - Chor-Bagh in Isfahan (street of four gardens). Its length is more than 3 km, width - 32 m. The garden descended in low terraces along the slope. On the axis there was a canal with pools and fountains on the terraces. Water from the terrace to the terrace fell in small cascades. Subsequently, "chor-bagh" began to be called a type of garden, the distinctive features of which are the division of its territory by canals into four parts.
Parks and gardens in India. Ancient Indian civilization is one of the oldest. In India, seals have been found dating back to the 3rd millennium BC.In India, mathematics, astronomy, literature, painting were born, the role of which in the development of world science and art can hardly be overestimated.
The cities of the ancient Hindus were well planned. Before the arrival of the Aryans in Punjab, Sindh, Rajasthan, the city developed on the basis of a thriving agriculture. Around 1600 BC. e. in India, the Aryans appeared - nomadic tribes who came from the lower reaches of the Caspian Sea. The newcomers represented the culture of the Bronze Age. They kept large herds of livestock. The Aryans already knew copper and gold, but did not know iron. A second wave of Aryans came to India around 1000 BC. e. The discovery of iron dates back to this time.
IX-VII centuries. BC e. were an era of bright spiritual flourishing of the Indian people, their literature and art. The sacred books "Vedas" and "Upanisha-dy" reflect the religious views, ethical and spiritual values of the people. The first example of classical literature of this period is considered to be "Brahmanas" - books that explained and interpreted the teachings of the Veda.
Ancient Indian civilization gave birth to Buddhism, a religion that arose in the 6th century. BC e. and spread to India, China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and other countries of the East. Named after the founder - Buddha. The ultimate goal of a person's life in Buddhism is nirvana - a state of supreme bliss, detachment from all everyday worries and aspirations, detachment from everything personal and merging with the "divine fundamental principle" and the Universe.
Since the beginning of the XVI century. India was ruled by a dynasty of the Great Mughals who came from Central Asia. In various regions of India, many magnificent historical and cultural values and architectural ensembles of this period have been preserved. The flourishing of gardening art in India is also associated with the dynasty of the Great Mughals. There are two main types of gardens. This period was characterized by two main types of gardens: gardens for fun and gardens-tomb.
Entertainment gardens had a square or rectangular shape and were surrounded by a high wall. The garden was divided into two (sometimes more) terraces, along which an irrigation canal lined with stone with ponds and fountains passed. From terrace to terrace, water flowed along the stone ledges, called chadars (white plume of water). Chadars most often had a wavy shape or the shape of shells. As in Persia, in India the channels of shallow canals were laid out with blue tiles, which created the illusion of depth. In hot climates, water is the life and soul of the garden, so lands with mountain springs were chosen for gardens. The gardens were full of flowering trees, flowers, singing birds. Flowering plants symbolized life, youth, hope.
Tomb gardens created for the souls of the dead to rest in peace and fragrance. The most famous tomb garden is located two kilometers from the city of Agra, at the Taj Mahal mausoleum. The mausoleum was built in the middle of the 17th century. at the direction of Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mum-taz-Mahal. Many years later, the Sultan himself was buried in it. The mausoleum, standing on a 7 m high platform on the banks of the Jamna River, is distinguished by the perfection of proportions of architectural volumes. In plan it is a 104 x 104 m square with cut corners. The structure, with a total height of 81 m, is faced with snow-white polished marble and is covered with five domes, of which the central bulbous dome rises significantly above the rest.
The mausoleum is adjoined by a regular garden measuring 300 x 300 m with ponds, canals and fountains. The canals divide the garden into four squares (as in the Iranian chor-bagh gardens), each of which is divided by paths into squares with sides of about 35 m. The mausoleum and the garden together create a magnificent ensemble (Fig. 3.1.4) [581 -
Parks and gardens of the ancient world. Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations laid the foundations for modern Western civilization. The Greeks created city-states, of which Athens was the largest.The motto of ancient Greek culture was the search for truth, beauty, harmony between man and nature. The ancient Roman civilization left behind not only architectural monuments, works of art that demonstrate
Fig. 3.1.4. Plan of the garden at the Taj Mahal mausoleum in the vicinity of the city of Agra, India
are presented in numerous museums, but also construction technologies, legislation, the foundations of government.
Gardening art in ancient Greece. One of the first types of public gardens in ancient (Ancient) Greece were sacred groves, adjacent to the temples of the gods or planted in honor of prominent people, worshiped as gods.
The most famous gardens of Ancient Greece - Academy - a park with shady alleys, where, under the shade of trees, Plato held talks with the disciples of Plato (427-347 BC) and Lyceum grove (Lyceum, Lyceum), in which taught and wrote philosophical works by Aristotle (384-322 BC), a student of Plato.
Gardening art in Ancient Rome. In ancient Rome, gardens were developed in atrium-peristyle residential buildings, in country villas, as well as urban public gardens. When laying out gardens and placing buildings, terracing of slopes was used. Baths, baths, fish pans, arranged in country villas, needed a lot of water. To provide water at the highest point of the villa, an underground reservoir was created, surrounded by trees so that the water would not be heated in the heat. The pipes provided water throughout the garden.
Flower parterres were arranged in the gardens - xystos, the sculpture was housed. The terraces were surrounded by balustrades. Got spread topiary art - curly cutting of trees and bushes.
In the composition of the gardens, the main axis of the main building was emphasized, taking into account the opening views. The beautiful landscape was of decisive importance when choosing a site for the construction of the villa.
Parks and gardens of China. Chinese civilization has had a tremendous impact on the development of mankind. In China, silk, porcelain, gunpowder were invented, but the achievements of Chinese philosophy, art, and culture are even more important. For almost 2000 years, China has developed in a closed manner, thanks to which the Chinese culture is distinguished by its originality. Later, its influence penetrated into Central Asia, Indochina, Korea, and Japan.
In the cultural history of China, there are two prominent religious teachers - Confucius and Laozi. Confucius (Confucius, or Zhuceyao) is a legendary Chinese sage, the founder of Confucianism, one of the three main religious teachings in China. Confucius (551-479 BC) is credited with two books - "The Book of History" and "The Book of Odes". In the first, he collected the sayings of the legendary rulers, in the second - old ballads and songs. Confucius formulated the golden rule: "Do not do to another what you do not wish for yourself." He preached harmony in life, and his religion was ethics. The image of the ideal person created by him was based on the main virtues: intelligence, courage and goodwill. He saw self-improvement as the root of social development, and sincerity as the trait everyone should strive for. Confucius attached great importance to beauty, truthfulness and fidelity.
Laozi (Li Er) is an ancient Chinese philosopher, founder of Taoism, the second of the three main religions in China (the third religion is Buddhism). Laozi (604-517 BC) was the curator of the imperial library at the Zhou court. His main work is "The Book of Virtue", in which he calls for self-deepening and liberation of his "I" from the shackles of everyday life. Laozi preached virtue in all its forms. “Repay the offense with good” “Good to me - I am also good. But with the unkind, I will still be kind to make them better. "
Taoism is also characterized by love of nature and the preaching of peace. He had a strong influence on poetry, painting, gardening art.
Buddhism came to China in 64 AD. BC, during the reign of Emperor Mingti of the Han dynasty.During the three-hundred-year reign of the Tang Dynasty (618- 907), there was a lively connection between China and India along the "Great Silk Road". Buddhism had a significant impact on public life and political situation in China, on its architecture, painting, literature and gardening art.
Chinese researchers believe that the history of gardening art is more than three thousand years old. The most famous are the imperial gardens. The free layout of these gardens is combined with strictly symmetrical compositions of palace buildings and rectangular courtyards. In the most important compositionally places were gazebos, bridges, usually painted in bright colors - red, emerald green, yellow, etc.
Many emperors were patrons of gardening art. So, Emperor Qin Shi Huang, on whose orders during the period of the "Warring States" (475-221 BC), the Great Wall of China was built to protect against the raids of nomads from the north, with a total length of 6350 km, is also known as the owner of a huge park.
Famous Yiheyuan Park (Tranquility Park) at the summer palace of the Chinese emperor on the outskirts of Beijing, built in the 18th century, occupies an area of 330 hectares, of which only one-fifth is occupied by mountains, narrow strips of land and islets, and four-fifths are water areas. The park presents all the typical landscapes of China and the main techniques of gardening art.
IN Beihai Park (North Sea), located in the center of Beijing, next to the Forbidden City, out of 104 hectares, 54 hectares are occupied by lakes. Above the park is a mountain located on one of the islands, which offers a picturesque view of the park and the Forbidden City.
In ancient China, three main types of garden and park ensembles developed: large imperial parks, gardens of monasteries and temples, and small private gardens at residential buildings. In garden and park compositions, the natural landscapes of China were creatively recreated using the principles: yin - to act depending on local conditions jie - to make the most of the surrounding nature to determine the main and secondary contrast - large and small, light and dark, wide and narrow, high and low in small things, to achieve a big effect, strive to achieve harmony of proportions, consistent disclosure of species, take into account the time factor in the perception of landscapes.
Large imperial parks were created with a view to the perception of spatial composition in motion. In the parks, special routes were laid, while moving along which landscape pictures were successively revealed. Small gardens were created with the expectation of perception from static vantage points, from which beautiful views opened up.
In China, for a long time, especially expressive natural landscapes have been revered, such as, for example, the mountain landscape on the Liyang River near the city of Guilin, which was called "the most beautiful place in the world." A peculiar canonization of such landscapes is reflected in gardening art (Fig. 3.1.5).
In gardens and parks, compositions of their stones are created in combination with tree and shrub groups, a variety of water devices. Gardens and parks are decorated with gazebos, pavilions, galleries, as well as sculptures of lions and other animals, birds, stone steles with verses and sayings of sages. At the entrances to parks, on viewing platforms and in other compositionally important places, "pailows" were installed - ornate gates of a peculiar shape.
"There is heaven in heaven, on earth - Suzhou and Hangzhou" - this Chinese proverb came from the XII century. In the description of Marco Polo, who visited the city of Suzhou in 1276, there are many enthusiastic impressions. Even then, the city had 6,000 bridges, many pagodas and temples. During its heyday, Suzhou had more than
Fig. 3.1.5. Drawing overlooking the historic Chinese park
100 gardens and parks.Historical maps show that the city reached its present size in the 12th century. The old part of the city is surrounded by a wall, which has been partially preserved. Suzhou is one of the most ancient cities not only in China, but in the whole world. The flourishing of the city is associated with the completion in the XIII century. the construction of the Great Chinese Canal, which stretches from the north of the country (Beijing) to the city of Hangzhou for 1782 km and constituted an alternative to unreliable sea routes. The canal, as grandiose structure as the Great Wall of China, unlike the latter, continues to be actively used to this day. Suzhou, located far from the sea, became a major port and trade center, where grain warehouses were located, and silk production was established. In the XIV century. the city became the leading center for the production of silk in China. It was the city of the Chinese aristocracy, famous scientists, artists and architects. The city reached the peak of its development in the 16th century.
In rich trading cities, gardens and parks were built not only by emperors and their governors, but also by merchants, industrialists, and government officials who had resigned. In Suzhou and Hangzhou, masterpieces of Chinese gardening art, created in the 12th-16th centuries, included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List, have been preserved. They do not have the official splendor of the imperial parks.
Wangshiyuan Garden (Fisherman's Garden) in Suzhou was created in the XII century. like a private garden. On an area of 0.4 hectares there is a pond of 400 sq. m, picturesque artificial mountains, compositions of trees, shrubs, flowers. Careful compositional and spatial organization of the garden allowed its owners to admire the beauty of nature at all seasons. Nowadays it is a monument of the world cultural heritage, which is annually visited by millions of tourists (col. Fig. Ш-2-5).
Garden Zhuozhenyuan(garden Modestofficial) in Suzhou, created in the XVI century. on an area of 4.1 hectares as a private property. The garden is a monument of landscape gardening, included in the List of World Cultural Heritage. The water space occupies three-fifths of the garden area. The facades of the main buildings face the water bodies. In the northern part of the garden, there are two islands with artificial slides and grottoes. There are gazebos on the islands and on the banks of water bodies, from which picturesque views of the water with lotuses open up. The islands are connected to the shores by bridges, which are pleasant to walk along. Flowers, herbs and trees grow in the water and on the shore, which create expressive landscape compositions (Fig. 3.1.6).
In the gardening art of China, the postulates were widely used Feng Shui (feng - air and shui - water) - the traditional Chinese art of harmonious formation of the living environment based on the study of the laws of nature. Feng Shui postulates use and develop the ancient philosophy of Taoism, which preached the primacy of nature, the need for it
Fig. 3.1.6. Plan of the historic private garden of Zhozhenyuan (Garden of the Modest Official) in Suzhou, 16th century, World Heritage Site
cognition, taking into account the processes occurring in nature when organizing the environment of human life [901.
The influence of Feng Shui on gardening art was manifested in the choice of the location of gardens and parks, the inclusion of natural complexes in their composition - rivers and lakes, mountains and hills. Park compositions were formed not only according to the laws of harmony and beauty, but also taking into account the laws of energy movement. Much attention was paid to the changes occurring in nature (movement of water, wind, light and shadow, fog, rain, snow, etc.) and human sensations (joy, sadness, etc.), which is associated with the idea of the unity of nature and man.
Only by deeply understanding nature can one correctly generalize its laws and repeat its typical types in the construction of gardens and parks.
The Chinese believe that water brings life to the garden. Even in an area rich in water resources, reservoirs in the gardens were dug artificially.Lotuses and other hydrophytes swam on the water in order to fill the reservoir with life, while it was forbidden to cover the entire water surface with plants, otherwise an obstacle was created for the reflection of buildings in the water. The banks of the reservoirs were made winding and shaped with stones so that, standing on them, one could admire the landscape or play with the water [361.
Parks and gardens of Japan. The first Japanese gardens appeared in the 7th century. As an artistic phenomenon, the Japanese garden was formed in the X-XII centuries. and reaches its heyday in the XIV-XVI centuries. Japanese gardening art was influenced by the Chinese. In the XII-XIV centuries. the teachings of the Zen Buddhist sect had a great influence on Japanese culture, including gardening art. Long-term contemplation and self-absorption, according to Zen teachings, could lead to a sudden insight and knowledge of the truth. In art, this is an artist's moment of inspiration.
In the XIII century. theoretical works on gardening art appeared, which were later developed and supplemented. The doctrine of the types of landscapes was created, which is generally accepted in modern park construction and is used in the formation of park compositions.
Compositional techniques prompted by nature were widely used in Japanese gardening art: contrasting combinations of stones of different shapes, trees and shrubs, mosses of different textures and colors. Reservoirs with a mirror surface and streams with murmuring water were used. At the same time, the best option was a fast flowing stream flowing into the lake. In the center of the landscape composition, there was often a waterfall. Paths made of flat stones served as passages through small streams. If there was no water, the builders created a dry stream, the bottom of which was covered with sand or pebbles and decorated as if it was filled with water.
The old Japanese gardens did not have lawns, instead there was densely packed earth, which was often covered with sand or gravel, lined with furrows, sometimes in the form of intricate patterns. For walking, flat stones were used to form paths. The main architectural structure - a dwelling house, a temple - was located in the center of the garden. The composition of the garden was built in such a way that picturesque views could be seen from the main building (color fig. Ш-1-9).
Trees and shrubs were selected according to the contrasting colors of leaves and flowers, preference was given to evergreens. Sakura, peach trees were planted so that you can admire them during spring flowering, maple - for admiring the colorful splendor of purple foliage in autumn. Banana trees were often planted near the house specifically in order to listen to the "music of drops" during the rain and supplement the visual impressions with auditory ones.
The gardening art of Japan was greatly influenced by the tea ceremony, which required the ability to express complex and multifaceted content in simple forms. The participants in the tea ceremony walked through the garden to the tea pavilion. The composition of the garden was supposed to promote concentration and self-awareness.
The arrangement of gardens in a small area has perfected the art of growing dwarf plants - bonsai.
The ability to see the important in small was manifested in the art of composing artistic compositions from flowers - ikebana.
In the gardening art of Japan, the following main types of gardens and parks have developed: palace parks "islands and lakes" hilly or flat gardens at monasteries, temples, residential buildings, gardens for holding a tea ceremony (Fig. 3.1.7) [23, 44] ...
Fig. 3.1.7. Hilly garden, one of the typical types of historical Japanese gardens
The best garden, created under the influence of the ideas of the Zen sect at the beginning of the 16th century, is considered rock garden at Ryoanji monastery in Kyoto, included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. It is a small rectangular area (about 23 x 9 m), surrounded on three sides by a low stone wall.On the leveled sandy plane, groups of stones of different shapes are asymmetrically located: five, three, two, three, two. There are 15 stones in total. Each group is surrounded by brownish-green moss. This moss is the only accent of color in the ascetic monochrome garden. The composition of the garden does not seem frozen, it changes depending on the time of day and year, the illumination of the stones, the density of the shadows they cast, the shades and texture of each stone. From any vantage point of the terrace, only 14 stones are visible, which creates the effect of mystery, meaningfulness hidden behind the outer laconicism and simplicity (col. Fig. Ш-2-11).
Until today, Japanese gardening art has survived not only in the form of revered masterpieces of the distant Middle Ages, but also as living creativity. The Japanese garden and the European garden are not just dissimilar or different, but largely opposite in their content and philosophy. The European Park is nature, transformed, decoratively "improved" by man. Japanese gardens embody philosophical ideas about life, the nature of things, the macrocosm.
Gardens in Europe in the Middle Ages. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the political and economic situation in Europe changed radically. Numerous feudal states were constantly at war with each other, which forced them to build defensive structures and defend cities with walls. The cities behind the fortress walls were densely built up, which limited the possibilities of landscape gardening.
In the Middle Ages (V - XV centuries) in European cities, gardens were created within the city fortifications, outside the walls of monasteries and castles. Gardens of the European Middle Ages were predominantly utilitarian in nature: they grew vegetables, medicinal plants, fruit trees and shrubs, but there were also separate decorative blotches in the form of lawns with flower beds. These were the so-called indoor gardens, occupying small areas and bounded by walls. Straight or diagonally crossing paths in the center divided the courtyard area into simple geometric shapes. The geometric layout of the garden was supported by ordinary planting and cutting of trees, the regular nature of the beds with medicinal and ornamental plants.
A characteristic element of medieval gardens was maze - a section with specially intricate paths separated by clipped greenery. Labyrinths usually had the shape of a square or hexagon.
Arabian medieval gardens in Spain. In VIII in. Spain was conquered by the Moors, as the Arabs were then called. The rule of the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula lasted for eight centuries. This was another conquest of the powerful Arab Caliphate, formed in the 7th century. on the lands of Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, North Africa, including Egypt. Based on the cultural achievements of past eras, the Arabs created their own original culture.
The main religion of the Arab Caliphate was Islam. This new religion, founded by Muhammad (570-632), was at that time a revolutionary doctrine. Islam preached brotherhood: Muslim to Muslim brother and also equality: master and servant should eat the same food. The principle of equality, which was asserted by Islam, was very popular among the oppressed caste classes. The spirit of nobility and brotherhood, the simplicity of the teaching about one God made a great impression on people. While campaigning against idolatry, Muhammad faced strong opposition in Mecca and fled to Medina in 622. But in 629, Muhammad conquered Mecca again. And by the end of his life, he already owned all of Arabia. In 632, Abu Bakr became Muhammad's successor. After him, Omar (634-644) was the caliph. Within 25 years, the Arab army conquered Syria, Persia and Egypt. Later, during the time of Walid I, North Africa and Spain were conquered. Thus, the Arabs controlled all trade routes from China, India and Africa.
In 749 g.Abdas Abbas became the first Abbasid caliph, whose capital was Baghdad. The Shia Abbasids, followers of the Prophet Ali, held more liberal views than their Sunni predecessors.
Under Harun al-Rashid (786-809), Baghdad became a major trade and cultural center. Arab, Greek, Jewish scientists came here. The Caliph sent them to different parts of the Eastern Roman Empire to search and acquire all the works of Greek philosophers available there. Thus, the Arabs received the works of Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Galen, Euclid, Ptolemy, which were translated into Arabic and provided with qualified commentaries. This is how the richest Arab culture was born, which absorbed the best elements of the Persian and Egyptian cultures, the science of the Greeks and Hindus .
Arab culture had a great influence on the life of the peoples of Spain. Toledo became a major center of education, and Cordoba became the most civilized city in Europe: in the 10th century. there were 70 libraries and 900 public baths. The Moors introduced the Spaniards to new musical instruments, including the guitar. Chess, borrowed by the Persians from the Hindus, was later brought by Muslims to Spain, and then spread throughout Europe. The Arabs introduced new agricultural and horticultural crops (sesame, rice, lemon, melon, apricot, shallots, etc.).
Arab medieval gardens, usually enclosed and walled on all sides, were distinguished by their sophistication. The geometricity of their compositional construction was emphasized by a network of narrow channels dividing the territory into areas, in the design of which a significant place was given to rectangular and square lawns and harmonious color combinations of plants. In small courtyards, the main decorative elements were small pools lined with colored tiles, sheared evergreen shrubs.
The most famous works of gardening art in Spain to this day are the gardens created by the Arabs in the XIII-XIV centuries. - Gardens of the Alhambra and Generalif palaces in Grenada. The main palace-fortress of Grenada - the Alhambra (Red House) - began to be built in 1238 and took 120 years to build.
Alhambra Gardens have a layout and composition typical for intimate Arab gardens. These are small yards (100-150 m 2) with water devices and dense plantings of trees and shrubs. Many flowers. Individual areas are located at different levels and are isolated from each other. In every patio, you get through an opening in the wall. Water is the main decoration of the gardens: it flows from one pool to another through small open channels, flows in cascades, rises in jets of fountains.
The main courtyard of the ensemble - Myrtle courtyard, includes a large rectangular pool surrounded by a hedge of myrtle trees, over which towered crowns of plane trees. Next to the Myrtle Court is located The courtyard of the lions.In the center of the courtyard there is a fountain in the form of a large bowl, which is supported by 12 lions, from whose mouths water flows in thin streams.
Generalif's Gardens, the summer residence of the emirs of Grenada, like the gardens of the Alhambra, are designed as isolated plots located on 8 terraces. They are distinguished by the abundance of water devices. The water flowing out of the rock at the highest site is collected in a reservoir and distributed throughout the garden. The centerpiece of the ensemble is Canal courtyard 40 m long with a narrow white marble canal, from both sides of which there are inclined streams of fountains. The Generalif's terraces offer a beautiful view of the Alhambra, located 150 m below, and the city (Fig. 3.1.8) .
The General and the Alhambra have no shortage of water coming from the Sierra Nevada mountains. The hotter the day, the more water comes from the melting snows at the top of the mountains.
The Arabs also played a huge role in the development of European science. From Spain and Sicily, Arab civilization began to penetrate into France and Italy.Her greatest gift to Europe was paper, which the Arabs learned to produce from the Chinese and built in the 12th century. the first paper factories in Spain and Sicily. One of the largest contributions of the Arabs to world science was the borrowed from the Hindus and the introduction of zero into arithmetic. Before that, in Europe, they used Roman numerals, the limit of which is very limited. The algebra created by Diophantus of Alexandria was not widely studied until the Arabian Enlightenment. The Arabs have made great strides in medicine.
Fig. 3.1.8. Plan and sections of the terraces of the Generalif's gardens, the summer residence of the emirs of Grenada, XIII-XIV centuries, a monument of world cultural heritage. The scale is given in meters.
The Arabs were not only the bearers of science, but also its creators. With the help of new instruments, Arab scientists obtained precise knowledge about the shape of the Earth, about the position and number of planets. Astronomy has grown from its original astrological form to become an exact science. Botany and chemistry as independent sciences also owe their appearance and development to the Arabs. They discovered potassium carbonate, silver nitrate, nitric and sulfuric acids.
After the expulsion of the Arabs from the Iberian Peninsula, the traditions of Arab gardening art did not die. The Mudejar style has been preserved (Mudejar - Muslims who remained in Spain). Monuments of the Mudejar style include Atkasar castle gardens in Seville (XIV-XV centuries), built on the model of the Alhambra and including a number of courtyards, the most famous of which is the courtyard of Mary Padilla [23, 25].
Terraced Italian gardens during the Renaissance. The era of the Renaissance (Renaissance) is a period of flourishing of artistic culture in Europe. The masterpieces of art and literature created in the period of the great bicentennial (1340-1540) still remain unsurpassed.
At the turn of the XIV-XV centuries. in Italy, trade and crafts developed rapidly, which served as the economic basis for the development of cities. At the end of the XIV century. the population of Milan, Venice, Florence, Palermo was 100 thousand inhabitants or more, while the population of London, Cologne, Barcelona did not exceed 50 thousand inhabitants. The development of cities has influenced the development of culture. The secular and ecclesiastical aristocracy, wealthy merchants and bankers invested heavily in the construction of palaces, country villas, in the improvement and decoration of cities. A period of relative calm and order came, therefore palaces and villas were built for convenience and enjoyment, and not to protect against attack.
The Renaissance era is glorified by the names of such great artists as Michelangelo (1475-1564), Raphael (1483-1520), Titian (1477-1576), Correggio (1494-1534), Veronese (1528-1588), Tintoretto (1518-1594) and Caravaggio (1565-1609).
The Renaissance era left a significant mark on the art of landscape gardening. Gardens at palaces and villas revived and developed the traditions of landscape gardening that formed in the era of Ancient Rome. Italian architects (Vignola, Ligorio, etc.) developed techniques for laying out a regular garden, which was an organic element of the architectural ensemble. In Alberti's treatise "10 books on architecture", serious attention is paid to the issues of laying out gardens.
The most interesting gardens of the Italian Renaissance are concentrated in the regions of Florence and Rome - in the provinces of Tuscany and Lazio. A typical example is Villa Lapte's garden in the vicinity of Rome. The garden occupies 1.4 hectares and is located on 5 terraces with a height difference of up to 16 m. The garden has a clear axial construction of the plan. The building of the villa is located on the fourth terrace and consists of two identical square pavilions located symmetrically to the main axis of the garden. Water devices are complemented by figuratively trimmed trees and lawns. The flower arrangement is modest - a small number of orange trees in pots and flowers in pots. The garden is surrounded by a large park.
The simplicity and severity of the gardens of the early Renaissance was gradually replaced by the rich plasticity of the late Renaissance and Baroque.
The most famous works of gardening art of the Italian Renaissance are the garden of Villa d'Este in the town of Tivoli, 6 km from the ancient Roman Villa of Hadrian and the Boboli Gardens in Florence.
Villa d'Este garden, designed by Pirro Ligorio in 1575 for Cardinal d'Este, it is a 3.5 hectare terraced garden with an elevation difference of about 50 m. The villa is located on the upper terrace overlooking the garden. The garden has an axial compositional-spatial structure, with the axis oriented to the center of the villa.
The garden is decorated with water devices: an alley of one hundred fountains, an oval fountain with a cascade falling in a semicircular wall into the pool, an organ fountain, in which, thanks to a complex hydraulic device, a unique sound effect is created by the Dragon Fountain with powerful vertically gushing water jets.
The entire hydraulic system of the garden works under the natural pressure of water. On the territory of the garden, there are many beautiful sculptures and park structures that were erected over two centuries (Fig. 3.1.9).
Boboli Gardens, created at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence were begun by the architects Broccini and Ammanati in 1549, continued by Buontalenti and completed by Giulio and Alfonso Parigi only in the 18th century. The gardens have two compositional axes at an angle to one another. The main compositional axis is oriented towards the central part of the Palazzo Pitti. Amphitheater along the slope of the hill have terraces with panoramic views of Florence. The second compositional axis begins at
Fig. 3.1.9. Garden of the Villa of Cardinal d'Este in Tivoli, XVI century, monument to the world
the far end of the plot and is oriented towards the parterre in front of the Palazzo Pitti building, where both axes intersect. It is several times longer than the main compositional axis. Small gardens, visually isolated from each other, are symmetrically located along it, each of which has an individual compositional-spatial solution.
A feature of the Renaissance Italian gardens is their terraced arrangement on the relief. Terraces with retaining walls, decorated with sculptures, are connected by wide staircases, fenced with green walls made of clipped evergreens. The gardens are axially planed with regular parterres and terraced bosquets. There are many fountains, cascades and other water devices in the gardens; decorative shearing of plants was widely used.
In the second half of the 15th century. the ideas of the Renaissance from Northern Italy spread to France, Spain, Germany, the Netherlands and England [23, 25].
French regular parks in the 17th-18th centuries The culture of the Italian Renaissance had a great influence on the culture of France. This influence also affected the development of French gardening art.
In the middle of the 17th century. In France, absolutism was strengthened and art became the subject of special care of King Louis XIV, who viewed it as a means of exalting his power. The ideas of absolutism were reflected in the creation of French regular parks, the ideology of which was developed and embodied by André Le Nôtre (1613-1700). Under his leadership, parks were built and re-planned: Vaux-le-Vicomte (1656-1661), Versailles (1661-1700), Tuileries (1664-1672), Clagny (1674), Sau, Meudon (1680), Saint-Cloud, Chantilly, Choisy (1693), Marly (1699) and a number of others.
French regular parks were symmetrical along the main compositional axis, but unlike the Italian terraced gardens, where the same principle of compositional design was applied, they were located on flat terrain. This made it possible to form large open spaces. The nature in them was emphasized artificial: trimmed trees and shrubs, decorative parterres with flower beds of complex patterns, mirror surfaces of the pools.
The first large park ensemble, designed and built by André Le Nôtre, together with architects Louis Leveaux and Charles Lebrun, for the French Minister of Finance Fouquet - Vaux-le-Vicomte. The park covers an area of more than 100 hectares, its length is 2.5 km. The central part of the park complex has a clear regular layout, in which the main compositional axis, oriented towards the palace, is highlighted. The large open space in front of the palace is clearly visible, the composition includes parterres and water surfaces. The periphery of the complex is designed as a forest park.
The pinnacle of landscape gardening art in France in the 17th century. considered park at Versailles, created for Louis XIV. The swampy flat area with small forest has been transformed into a spatially rich and varied park ensemble.
The Versailles palace and park complex makes a strong impression on visitors, also due to its enormous size. Versailles park occupies an area of 1738 hectares, of which the front part is 100 hectares. The main compositional axis (east - west) is 4 km long. The Grand Canal, 1.4 km long, is located along it. The facade of the palace (architects Louis Levo and J. Hardouin Mansart) has a length of 500 m.
From the main premises of the palace - the king's bedroom - a grandiose panorama of the park opens. The front part of the park complex is a parterre in front of the palace. Below the high terrace in front of the palace, there are bosquets - dense green tracts of trees surrounded by high walls of clipped greenery. Some of them are designed as open spaces inside. There are 14 thousand fountains in the park, many of which are decorated with sculptures. The water supply for the fountains was designed by Pierre de Francini. Marcy, Tubi, Long, Girardin participated in the sculptural decoration of the palace and park.
In the Versailles palace and park complex, the compositional technique used by André Le Nôtre earlier in Vaux-le-Vicomte is repeated - a three-beam radial layout of streets oriented towards the palace. Versailles was supposed to glorify the "sun king" - Louis XIV. The streets symbolized the rays of the sun radiating from the palace. The central ray is the street leading to Paris, which is also symbolic. A similar meaning lies in the radial-beam construction of the alleys of Versailles Park, diverging from
Fig. 3.1.10. The main compositional axis of the Versailles Park
compositionally important points - the beginning of the Grand Canal, Royal Square.
The main purpose of the alleys was to reveal distant perspectives, which determined their width. Therefore, the alleys could include lawn coverings, for example, the Royal Alley, which opens up the prospect of the Grand Canal, into which the setting sun goes in the evenings (Fig. 3.1.10,3.1.11).
Fig. 3.1.11. Plan of Versailles Park, 17th century, a monument to the world
The ideas of A. Le Nôtre had a great impact on the development of European gardening art in the 17th - first half of the 18th century. Regular parks are widespread in all European countries [16, 23, 25J.
English landscape parks in the 18th-19th centuries. Thanks to the industrial revolution and the development of the navy, England in the 18th - early 19th centuries. became the leading economic power in the world and extended its influence to North America, Australia, the countries of the East. In the wealthy country, the construction of houses and parks began.
The landscape parks that have replaced the regular ones differ from them not only in compositional techniques, but also in philosophy. Linear plantings of trees and shrubs were replaced by group plantings, arrays of green spaces with natural contours, glades and lawns of free outlines appeared. The desire to imitate nature manifested itself in the free planning of parks with the identification of relief features, in the creation of reservoirs with winding banks, curvilinear park paths.
The parks reproduced picturesque natural landscapes.However, this was not a simple "ennobling" of natural landscapes; man-made landscape compositions were created in which there were no random elements. A thoughtful ratio of open, semi-open and closed spaces was created. Pedestrian paths were laid, walking along which one could observe a successive change of landscape paintings. To strengthen the connection of the parks with the surrounding landscapes, ditches were arranged instead of fences or hedges were masked by green spaces.
The 18th century is called the Age of Enlightenment. This is the period of idealization of the "golden age" of antiquity. The parks housed a variety of romantic structures - ruins, grottoes, hermitage huts (hermitages) imitated a rural idyll with decorative pastures of cows and sheep, "peasant" dwellings. Landscape painting by such artists as Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, Antoine Watteau, Honore Fragonard, and others had a significant impact on the development of gardening art.
It was during this period that the Europeans became acquainted with Chinese gardening art, which struck the imagination of European travelers. Books were published with excellent prints of the Chinese imperial gardens and parks.
At the same time, English landscape parks are not borrowing the techniques and principles of park construction in China; English landscape parks express their own idea of the beauty of nature.
A typical example of an English landscape park is Stowe Park, located in the Buckingham area (about 100 km from London). It was created on the site of a regular park, the redevelopment of which was begun in 1714 by C. Bridgman, and completed in 1738 by William Kent (1685-1748) and his student Lancelot Brown (1716-1783). In plan the park has the shape of an irregular trapezoid. Behind the palace, located in the depths of the park, there is a large meadow, and behind it is a lake. In the park, picturesque landscapes with multifaceted perspectives are formed, green spaces are skillfully placed, creating a play of light and shadow. When creating the park, the technique of optical inclusion in the park composition of the adjacent landscapes was used, thanks to the breaks in the walls surrounding the park. Park structures: the temples of Bacchus, Venus, Friendship, Palladium Bridge - served as an example for many imitations.
Kew Park in London, located on the banks of the Thames, occupies an area of 160 hectares. In the formation of its layout and landscape compositions from the beginning of the 18th century. attended by: Bridgeman, Chambers, V. Kent, V. Ayton, L. Brown. Thanks to the efforts of J. Banks and D. Hooker, a rich collection of plants brought from different continents was collected in the greenhouses and nurseries of the park. In 1841, by royal decree, the park was declared a National Botanical Garden. Nowadays it is also a World Cultural Heritage Site.
The theorist and practitioner Humphrey Repton (1752-1817) had a great influence on the development of the landscape direction in European gardening art. He wrote a well-known treatise on park construction, published in 1803, and formulated the principles for the design of landscape parks: the natural beauty of the landscape should be emphasized and its imperfections should be hidden; must be subordinate to a single plan.
From England, landscape gardening art spread throughout Europe. In the XVIII-XIX centuries. landscape parks are widespread in Germany, France, Russia and other countries. Theoretical works and practical guidelines on landscape park construction were published. Many regular parks during this period were converted into landscape ones [16, 23, 251.
Parks in Russia in XU1I — XIX cc. During this period, many palace and park and manor-park complexes were built on the territory of the Russian Empire.
During the lifetime of Peter I, country palaces with gardens and parks began to be built along the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. A feature of these ensembles was the terraced structure and the presence of each of them "upper" and "lower" gardens, separated by palace buildings. The lower gardens overlooked the bay. The construction of the ensembles was started by architects J.-B. Leblon, N. Michetti and others. They built their compositions on the model of the works of A. Le Nôtre, Levo, masters of the Italian Renaissance. It should be noted that even the early ensembles differ significantly from their foreign counterparts, which is due to the peculiarities of the natural landscape conditions, the materials used, Russian building traditions, and the creative individuality of the authors of the projects.
In the first half of the 18th century. the construction of palace and park ensembles was continued and developed by Russian craftsmen and children of foreigners who were born in Russia: M.G. Zemtsov, B.-F. Rastrelli, V.I. Neelov, - as well as architects who came to Russia: A. Rinaldi, C. Cameron, P. Gonzago. In parallel with the development of seaside palaces and parks, the construction of palace and park ensembles of Tsarskoye Selo, Pavlovsk, Gatchina was carried out.
Taking into account the experience of creating French regular and English landscape parks, most of the historical parks in Russia included a ceremonial regular zone near a palace or manor house and a landscape zone on the periphery of the park. Even one of the earliest parks in Strelna has elements of free planning.
A masterpiece of landscape art is palace and park complex in Peterhof, in which a unique system of fountains has been created. They are numerous and varied and operate from the natural pressure of water supplied through canals from distances of up to 22 km. The center of the composition is the Grand Cascade with the Samson fountain. The entire palace and park complex has a complex spatial composition and covers an area of more than 100 hectares. At the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th century. in Peterhof, large landscape parks were additionally created - Alexandria, English, Kolonistsky, Lugovoi.
Catherine and Alexander parks in Tsarskoe Selo form a single complex. The center of the composition is the Catherine Palace, in front of it there is a regular baroque part of the Catherine Park, on the west side of which there is a landscape part of the park with a pond. On the other side of the Catherine Palace is the regular part of the Alexander Park, behind which is the green massif of the Menagerie, designed as a landscape park. The creator of the Catherine Palace and the regular part of the Catherine Park is B.-F. Rastrelli, the landscape part of the Catherine Park - C. Cameron, the Aleksadrovsky Palace and Park - J. Quarenghi.
Pavlovsky park — one of the best landscape parks not only in Russia, but also in Europe. It was conceived and executed by the architect Cameron in the 1780s. V. Brenna, P. Gonzago and other park builders who worked in Pavlovsk later did not make significant changes to the central part of the ensemble. The composition of the Pavlovsk park develops along the valley of the small river Slavyanka. In the walking area along the river, sequential landscapes are formed. Park compositions of the Big Star, Old and New Sylvia, White Birch adjoin the river valley, passing into a natural environment (Fig. 3.1.12, 3.1.13).
In the second half of the 18th century. - the first half of the 19th century. manor parks became widespread. The best manor parks, which belonged to the wealthy nobility, were close in scope to the palaces in the vicinity
Fig. 3.1.13. Plan of a landscape park in Pavlovsk, 18th century, a monument to the world
St. Petersburg. In Moscow and its environs there are magnificent manor-park complexes Kuskovo, Ostankino, Arkhangelskoye and many others.
Russian manor gardens are distinguished by lyricism, they are always spatially connected with the natural environment, on a human scale [16, 23.
Classic gardens and parks provide inexhaustible material for modern park creators. At the same time, a combination of different planning techniques and compositional-spatial organization of park territories is often used. For example, in modern parks, regular planning is used near the main entrances, near park structures with a large number of visitors. Landscape park compositions are created in places intended for walking, relaxing rest.
Separately, it should be told about the construction of ponds in the Catherine Park. When the garden was laid, work began immediately on the design of reservoirs, since there were no natural sources of water in this area.
The large pond was often shallow and fed only on marsh and rainwater. Initially, everything was so bad that most of the time the mirror ponds near the palace stood without water at all, and by the time Their Majesties arrived, water was delivered from St. Petersburg.
The problem of water supply in Tsarskoye Selo was solved only in 1749 - the Vittolovsky canal was dug from the village of Bolshoye Vittolovo. Since the keys feeding the canal are 9.5 meters above the park level, the system worked perfectly. The construction of a whole network of reservoirs began: the Big Pond was turned into a full-flowing lake, streams were let through the ravines, dams were built and the Lower and Small Cascade Ponds were made. Picturesque waterfalls appeared.
It's amazing how history developed, two ruling empresses, both Catherine, led the creation of Catherine Park at different times, and their parts are strikingly different from each other. In this there is both continuity and the idea of combining opposites, because the park does not show dissonance of parts, but on the contrary, as if flows from one to another.
Following the construction of St. Petersburg, Their Majesties decided to make themselves a summer residence south of the new capital. Dacha, to put it simply. Although it is difficult to speak in simple words about such a miracle of architectural thought and a masterpiece of gardening art as the Catherine Park, now it is the city of Pushkin, and during the time of the Russian Empire - Tsarskoe Selo, the place of life and rest of the imperial family and the nearest courtiers in the summer. It is understandable why parks play such an important role here, why as much effort was invested in them as in the construction of the palace itself - outdoor recreation was at the forefront. And this nature had to be made as lush and luxurious - to match the palace. Catherine's park is divided into 2 parts - a regular garden in the classicism style, formed under Catherine I and developed under Elizabeth Petrovna, as well as a landscape park in the English style, created by Empress Catherine II - fashion changed at that time.