Did you know that the pyramidal shape of the cypress is not a creation of nature, but the result of the work of breeders? And the fact that Plutarch advised to write laws only on cypress boards, because they are not destroyed by time?

Cypress wood has no layers, it is cut both lengthwise and across, so even small parts can be made from it.

A miniature cypress was bred for indoor cultivation, which nevertheless has almost all the properties inherent in huge forest trees.

The article on our website contains all the information that is necessary for growing this wonderful ephedra at home, and we will be happy to share it with you.

Growing conditions

Mountain pine planting and care:

Landing : the distance between plants is from 1.5 to 4 m. The planting depth is 0.8-1 m or more, the root collar is at ground level. Pines have deep roots and are therefore wind-resistant. At a young age (up to 5 years) planting tolerates well. Mature trees should only be replanted with a prepared root system or frozen ball.

Care : during planting, nitroammofoska or humus earth is introduced. During the first two seasons after planting, mineral fertilizers are applied in small amounts: 30-40 g / m 2. The formation of a thick litter contributes to the accumulation of humus. Pine trees are drought-resistant and additional watering is not required. Thick pine needles keep moisture in. Loosening is necessary when compaction of the soil. Shoot growth can be slowed down, and the crown can be made thicker by cutting off part of the annual growth. Young pines and decorative forms with delicate needles suffer from winter burns. They can be protected by spruce branches, which are removed in mid-April. Adult pines are hardy.

Reproduction : by sowing seeds in 2-coniferous species, they are sown mainly in spring, preliminarily stratifying for a month in 5-conifers - in autumn, or in spring, after 4-5 months of stratification, which is more effective than autumn sowing. It should be borne in mind that pine seeds ripen only in the second year after pollination. Reproduction by cuttings fails. Rare, highly decorative species can be propagated by grafting.

Using : Pines have long been used in ornamental gardening, where they are valued for their beautiful crown shape, the unique charm of slender, bright trunks, the variety of shapes and colors of needles and cones. Usually they are used to create massifs in forest parks. Pine trees form the structural basis of the garden, serve as its skeletal plants. Some pines are valuable nut-bearing plants that produce edible, oil-rich seeds - nuts.

Protection of conifers from pests and diseases, factors, timing, methods of control.

Unpretentiousness conifers is not always the key to their successful cultivation in the garden. There are often disappointments when a favorite plant dies for reasons that are not entirely clear. therefore protection of conifers from pests and diseases requires special attention.

There are many biotic factors that damage conifers, - this is pests and diseases, the source of which is in the immediate natural environment - in forests, gardens, urban plantings, as well as in imported soil and the planting material itself.

Any seedlings, whether they are with a closed root system, and even more so in a burlap with dilapidated lumps, are always weakened. This is due to many days of transportation, damage to the roots during digging and many other factors. In the best case, the plant "comes to life" in the third year, and depending on the size of the planting material, such a process can stretch for a period from four to

seven years old. Transplanted plants, especially the first two years, are very susceptible to fungal infections and are often attacked by pests due to weakness.


Pests of conifers can be divided into three main groups: needle-gnawing, sucking and stem pests. Insect larvae, gnawing at needles and young shoots, are more often found on trees during active growth and development of shoots, until they become lignified. The most damaged are European spruce, Serbian spruce and Canadian spruce, and thorny spruce hardly suffers. Despite the damage to the needles, the buds of the next year, as a rule, do not die and in the next season the needles are restored if there is no reappearance of the pest.

Pines suffer more from sawflies. In recent years, there have been local outbreaks of the number of such sawflies as the star weaver. Pine sawfly nests can often be seen. With severe damage, massive death of branches occurs. Cedar pine and s. Veimutova, to a lesser extent S. mountain and with. habit.

Green moth caterpillars may appear on pines, but this is more common where pine forests are near the site. Fighting large sawfly larvae and caterpillars is not difficult. The main thing is to spot the first appearance of pests in time and carry out local treatments with insecticides. To do this, you can take any contact drugs, for example, "Fury" or "Actellic". The most important thing is to periodically inspect the plants from mid-May to late June, during the active growth of young shoots. It should be noted that junipers, yew, thuja in central Russia are practically not damaged by leaf-eating pests.

Aphids, hermes, scale insects, ticks

The next group is sucking pests. These include different types of aphids, hermes, scale insects, false scale insects and some others, as well as herbivorous mites. They are called sucking because they feed on plant sap. More often they damage young shoots. When fed, these pests release droplets of sugar-containing liquid called honeydew. By the secretions, it is easy to determine the location of not only aphids, but also scale insects and false scales. From mid-May to the end of June, aphid colonies can be found on spruce, larch, fir, and on some types of pines. On a cedar pine, with. Weymouth, firs, pseudo-larch and larch sucking insects hermes are often found. Following them, sooty mushrooms settle on sticky sugary smudges, spoiling the appearance of the tree. After feeding them, deformed shoots and needles remain, which more often than others become infected with fungal infections. The connection between the development of Siberian hermes on young shoots of cedar pine and their death from the fungal disease of scleroderriosis is clearly visible.

It is very difficult to fight hermes on cedar pine and with. Veimutova. The outer covers of these pests are covered with "downy" outgrowths, through which insecticide aerosols do not penetrate, therefore it is best to act on them through the sap of the plant. Such insecticides are called systemic. The drugs "Aktara" and "Commander" are used.

In the middle lane, the Canadian spruce 'Conica' dies in 90-95 cases or practically loses its decoration due to spring sunburn. For the same reason, firs and long-coniferous pines, such as with. black Austrian, many species of juniper do not survive with us.

On junipers, thujas, scale insects are occasionally found, but they do not cause much harm. Various types of spruce are often damaged by the spruce false shield. Due to its large size and mass, it causes significant harm to plants. The appearance of this pest is easy to detect by wasps and flies, which in bulk arrive on sugary secretions. Often, the yew false shield began to appear. You can also use Aktara and Commander preparations against the scabbards and false scabbards.

Among the sucking pests, the most "difficult" ones are herbivorous mites. Most often, spider mites are found on spruce, fir, larch and juniper. The shoots are covered with cobwebs, the needles die and subsequently crumble. This is reflected not only in the appearance of the plants, but also in their condition. Mass reproduction of mites on conifers can occur throughout the summer and more than once. It is easy to detect their presence by the abundant cobwebs on the shoots, and then make out with the help of a magnifying glass with a high magnification. Colloidal sulfur preparations and Fitoverm are most often used against ticks.

Bark beetles

The next group is stem pests. Among them in the first place are bark beetles. For pines, the greatest danger is represented by pine beetles and bark beetles-engraver, for spruces - by bark beetles a typographer and engraver, for firs and pseudo-wood beetles - by an engraver. Most often, the owners of the trees learn about the colonization of conifers with bark beetles after their death, when the bark peels off and the pests become visible. Therefore, it is very important to prevent colonization, since when the bark beetles are already under the bark, the tree can be saved in rare cases. Their presence can be identified by the drill meal that spills out of the round holes in the bark. Preventive treatments against stem pests are an occupation for the plant protection specialist. For the first two or three years, all fresh plantings of pines, spruces, firs, and pseudo-shrubs must be protected from bark beetles.

Rust and other diseases

The most difficult problems arise with plant diseases, both with their diagnosis and with treatment. On pines, a disease such as rust is often found. Orange bubbles filled with spores appear on the needles at the bottom of the crown. If rust symptoms were observed in previous years, then it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of the crown, especially with excessive moisture. To do this, use copper-containing drugs (HOM, "Abiga-Peak"),

It is much more difficult to fight necro-cancerous diseases. On cedar pine and especially often on the village. Weymutova, there is a disease such as rust cancer. The bark cracks on the branches and trunks, orange-yellow vesicles filled with spores appear from the cracks. After sporulation, necrotic wounds with abundant resorption remain. This is a chronic disease that most often leads to the death of the tree, especially if the trunks are damaged. In some cases, at the initial stage of the disease, treatment gives a positive result. It is necessary to thoroughly clean the wound to healthy tissue, treat it with a strong (3-5%) solution of copper sulfate and apply a protective composition. The branches affected by the infection are cut and the cuts are disinfected.

Sometimes on different types of firs, rust cancer can be observed, forming fusiform thickenings on the trunks and branches. If thickenings appear on the branches, then it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, but if they appear on the trunk, then the tree is doomed to death.

Another disease that often occurs on cedar, Weymouth and mountain pines is scleroderriosis, or "umbrella disease". In this case, the apical bud dies off on the shoots, the dead needles hang, a significant part of the shoot is damaged, and subsequently the disease covers the entire branch. Cedar pines suffer from scleroderriosis very much. In the spring, dead red shoots can be found in the crown of almost any cedar. It is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of dead shoots to a living bud and repeat it throughout the season as "mushrooms" appear. In wet seasons, especially during a long warm autumn, the disease can progress quickly if you do not monitor the state of the crown and do not prune in time.

Sowing dates for eggplant seeds

Eggplants are distinguished by a long growing season and a slower pace of development. Depending on the length of the period from germination to technical maturity, eggplants are divided into 3 groups:

  • early,
  • average
  • late.

In early eggplants, the technical ripeness of the fruit occurs 85-90 days from germination, in the middle 90-120 and in the late 120-150 days.

In the southern regions of Russia and other regions, eggplant seeds are sown for seedlings in late February - early March. Seedlings are planted in open ground from mid-May - until the first decade of June. Depending on the timing of fruit ripening, sowing for seedlings is shifted in relation to the first term by 10-12 days.

You can sow early, middle and late varieties of eggplants for seedlings at the same time, but the timing of transfer to open ground will be different: early eggplants at the age of 45-55 days, average 55-70 days and late 70-80 days. You can plant seedlings at an earlier date on a permanent basis, if it outgrows (stretches) and the weather conditions are suitable.

In the middle lane and northern regions of Russia, when planting seedlings in open ground or unheated greenhouses, under temporary shelters, eggplant seedlings are planted at the age of 60-70 days, that is, sowing for seedlings is carried out on the 15th of March. Planting on a permanent basis is extended until the first ten days of June, when stable warm weather sets in. Late varieties can also be grown in these regions, but heated greenhouses, additional lighting and other additional conditions are needed (which is unprofitable).

Eggplant. © Brittany Hotard

How to grow a saxifrage

Good sturdy plants can be obtained by growing saxifrage from seeds. But they will bloom only after one or two years. Plants obtained by dividing the mother bush or by cuttings will give faster flowering.

Reproduction methods

Perennial saxifrage is easily propagated by cuttings. Each process has root rudiments. They can be rooted in a pot with a parent plant or in separate containers filled with loose soil, which will include sand and peat. The cut is made with a sterile knife and treated with charcoal.

Adult plants are easily shared by young rosettes. They already have aerial roots with which they root next to the mother plant.

Seed propagation

Propagating by seeds, saxifrage produces a large number of young and strong plants. You can plant seeds both in open ground in spring or autumn, and through seedlings.

Seeds for seedlings are planted in February-March. The soil must be loose and disinfected. The seeds are small, for even distribution on the ground, they are pre-mixed with sand. Water well from a fine spray, press down. The container with seeds is covered with foil and refrigerated for three weeks. After the seeds have passed stratification, they are taken out and placed in a well-lit place, periodically opening and ventilating.

At the stage of two to four leaves, they are dived into separate pots, put out on the street for hardening. Seedlings can be transplanted into open ground in June.

Watch the video: Colourful conifers

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