Natural stone at all times was rightfully considered the most popular building material. Granite, marble, sandstone, dolomite, limestone serve as a reliable and unusually beautiful basis for the construction of foundations and houses, the arrangement of reservoirs and paving paths, the creation of architectural elements and the refinement of buildings. Artificial analogs of natural stone, which have the same aesthetic appearance, but differ in higher quality characteristics, have enjoyed no less popularity in recent years. Laying decorative stone is a simple procedure that can be mastered by any person who has even the slightest idea of the finishing work.
The technology of laying artificial and natural stones with the correct geometric shape is based on the already familiar principles of brickwork. But to work with wild stones, known for their imperfect form, you still need to additionally possess knowledge and skills.
The stone can be laid both on the basis of a binder and fastening solution, and without its use. Based on this, in construction, wet and dry masonry methods are distinguished.
A characteristic feature of dry masonry is the thorough selection of the most matching stones and meticulous adjustment of them to each other
Dry technology is especially difficult when working with natural torn stones, each of which has its own thickness, height and width. To increase the durability and reliability of the masonry, all the gaps between the stones are filled with earth or bonding mortars. This method is often used in the construction of low fences and fences, as well as when laying curb stones. Here is an example of dry masonry:
Wet masonry is used in the construction of tall buildings, which are one-piece monolithic structures. This method of masonry is easier to implement, since it does not provide for a careful fitting of adjacent elements.
Filling gaps and voids between stones, mortar ensures the hardness and stability of any building
Most natural stones have an irregular torn shape. When selecting stones, it is important to consider the load. Stone tiles, the thickness of which does not exceed 1-2 cm, are used for facing vertical planes and facades. When arranging sites with high traffic, it is enough to use stones about 2 cm thick as a covering.And for areas where heavy structures and equipment are supposed to be placed, stones more than 4 cm thick should be taken.
The length of rubble stones varies, as a rule, in the range of 150-500 mm. Hard and durable stones are well suited for the arrangement of foundations, retaining walls, hydraulic structures and other structures. The rubble stone is thoroughly cleaned before laying. Large cobblestones are split and crushed into small pieces.
For rubble laying of wild stone with your own hands, untreated large pieces of rocks are suitable: shell rock, granite, dolomite, tuff, sandstone, limestone
To work with natural stone you will need: a - a sledgehammer, b - a small hammer, c - a metal rammer, d - a wooden rammer
In the process of plinting, boulders are crushed using a 5 kg sledgehammer and the sharp corners of small stones are chipped with a hammer weighing 2.3 kg. Something like this is done:
When building vertical structures, the largest and most stable stones are installed as a base in the bottom row. They are also used when arranging corners and intersecting walls. When laying subsequent rows, it is necessary to ensure that the seams are slightly offset relative to each other. This will increase the strength and reliability of the structure under construction.
The solution is spread on the stones with a slight surplus. During the masonry process, the stones are sunk into the cement mortar using a hammer-cam. After tamping, the excess spreads along the vertical seams between the stones. The gaps between the boulders are filled with rubble and small stones. The seams look most neat, the width of which along the length of the row is no more than 10-15 mm.
Advice. If the solution gets on the face of the stone, do not immediately wipe it off with a wet rag - this will only lead to clogging the pores of the stone. It is better to leave the solution for a while so that it hardens, and then remove with a spatula and wipe the surface of the stone with a dry cloth.
Since the dressing of seams of buta and irregular boulders is very problematic to perform, when laying natural stone, it is necessary to alternately place rows of butt and spoon stones.
This dressing is based on the principle of chain dressing, which is often used for brickwork. Thanks to this technology, the structure is stronger and more durable.
At the final stage, it is necessary to grout the joints with a spatula and, if necessary, rinse the coating with running water.
As an example of this "wet" technology, you can show the following piece of work:
As an example of making an artificial stone with your own hands, we want to offer you this video instruction in 2 parts:
Now you can talk about the installation rules. In the process of laying artificial stone, you can use the method with or without joining.
In the first version, when laying stones, a distance between them of 1-2 cm is maintained, in the second, the stones are tamped close to each other
Most of the artificial stones are rectangular in shape. Therefore, brick laying technology can be applied to work with them. Laying in spoons is a method of laying bricks, in which it is placed with a long edge to the outside of the structure, and laying is poked when the stone is located with a narrow edge.
For the construction of structures made of artificial stone, the classical method is most often used, in which, in the process of spoon laying, each subsequent row is placed with some offset of the bricks relative to the previous one.
With this method of dressing, the vertical seams of the nearby rows do not match, thereby increasing the strength of the building.
Among the most popular decorative stone laying methods, one can also distinguish: Flemish, English and American.
Decorative stones are used not so much for the construction of buildings and the creation of landscape design elements, but rather for their decoration. The basis for their production is: porcelain stoneware, agglomerate or cement mortar.
The outer surface of facing artificial stones can repeat the features of any natural stone: marble, limestone, slate ...
In order for the lined surface to retain its aesthetic appearance for a long time, a number of recommendations must be followed when laying decorative stone:
The masonry is performed on a leveled, degreased surface. For better adhesion, the base must be moistened with water. The tile with the applied adhesive must be firmly pressed against the surface of the base with vibrating movements and fixed for a couple of seconds. Long vertical seams should be avoided during installation.
After the installation is completed, in order for the decorative stone to serve as long as possible, it is advisable to cover it with a protective soil or water repellent.
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Choice of shape and color paving slabs - a determining factor when creating decorative paving in the garden.
However, some techniques for working with paving slabs can add variety to garden paving, and even when using just one type tiles, without combining with others, several different types of paving can be done.
The most successful for these purposes are simple forms. paving slabs - "paving stones" and
Decorative seams paving allows you to create three types of paving. Laying with a minimum seam (in construction terminology - "no seam") between individual tiles is used in the "winter" type of paving.
It is most suitable for winter operation, i.e. to clearing snow and ice. But even the smallest seams, nevertheless, require processing. Seams are sealed with dry mix or fine sieved sand.
Styling tiles with a 20-25 mm joint, filled with soil and sowed with lawn grass, allows you to create a paving with a geometric pattern of green grass, which is easy to mow with a lawnmower.
This type of paving is called "summer" because it is impossible to clear it of snow without damaging the grass. It looks more light than the previous one, and visually "belongs" to the garden, and not to the house and other building structures. Laying the tile "with a seam" sifted by grass allows the track to bend easily if it has undulating curves in the project.
Finally, tiling "every step" with a tile-to-tile distance of 150-200 mm is used when tiling "square" tiles or for stacked squares from "paving stones".
The space between the individual tiles is sown with lawn grass. This type of paving looks like part of a lawn and is often used for summer walking paths in relatively large gardens. Such a track is also easy to bend, give it a nice turn or bend.
Decorative inserts in the paving canvas, made of other materials or tiles of a different color, allow to indicate the places of passage, the direction of movement.
So, a path made of a different type of tile can pass through a paved resting area or a paved adjoining terrace, as if leading visitors into the garden. Ideally, paving materials are combined with each other and with the decoration of the house, garage, fence.
When designing paving, it is necessary to take into account the entire paving area, not forgetting about the blind area, for example, and about the paths between the beds in the garden.
Blind area - protection of the foundation of the house from moisture destruction, necessary in a northern climate. Usually, the blind area is cast from concrete, and its width ranges from 60 cm to 1 m. Paving slabs can also be laid on a concrete blind area, using it as a rigid base.
In this case, the blind area, often playing the role of a path for passage along the walls of the house, will be compositionally connected with the road and path network of the site. The blind area can be expanded so that paved terraces and platforms are formed.
Paths can run away from them and from the canvas of the blind area into the garden, and vast areas connecting the house with outbuildings can form a cobbled courtyard.
The surface of the blind area should have a slight slope of 0.5-1% from the house to drain water from the foundation. When laying paving slabs on the blind area, this slope must be maintained.
Here it should be noted that pipes for draining water from the roof are brought out to the blind area. The water flowing from the pipes gradually destroys the blind area, swamps the adjacent space, erodes the soil and can even cause basement leaks.
To drain water from the roof drain, industrial-made concrete trays are installed in the blind area. At the edge of the blind area, the so-called water ladders are mounted, which receive water and drain it outside the site through the drainage system. If there is no drainage system, you can drain water into drainage wells that are no closer than 3 m from the foundation.
The dimensions of the wells are calculated based on the area of the roof of the house, the type of soil on the site, the level of groundwater. The most commonly used dimensions of drainage wells are 1.5x1.5 m along the upper perimeter and at least 2 m deep.
One well receives water from a 25 m2 roof. The well is lined with geotextile, which prevents siltation, and is filled with large rubble or rubble stone. A layer of fertile soil is laid on top. The branch pipe should enter the well 30 cm below its top and have a slope of at least 2-3%.
Materials to the topic:
|If you decide to build. To read.||The main thing is a solid foundation. To read.||We are building a bath. To read.|
|What to build walls from. To read||We build a fence according to the rules .. Read.||So that the roof does not go. To read.|
So, decorating the blind area, do not forget that it must fully preserve its functions.
Often landscape-style projects have complex paving configurations based on circles and ovals. It is rather difficult to carry out such paving without having to cut the tiles.
In this case, a combination of large and small tiles is beneficial, for example, a 400x400 mm square and 200x100 mm paving stones. On winding paths and on sites, the edges are made with small tiles, which are also cut - this is less noticeable than "crippled" large squares. Small tiles also produce beautiful edging and curbs, giving the irregular pavement a finished look.
A curbstone should not be used in garden construction. It interferes with mowing the grass directly at the edge of the path, makes it look heavier and, most importantly, prevents the free flow of water from the path.
All garden paths and paved areas should have a slope of 1-2% from the middle to the edges and a longitudinal slope of 1% for rain and flood drainage.
If you are making garden paths with your own hands, then you need to know the main stages of laying paths. Proper preparation of the base is of great importance in paving paths - a guarantee of the strength and durability of the garden covering.
The first step, which requires special precision, is the marking of the line of the garden paths. When marking, you can use threads or small pegs. Remember that the more complex the outlines of the garden paths, the clearer their markings should be (in this case, it is wiser to use a light powder - alabaster or sand).
The second stage is soil removal. The thickness of the soil layer removed depends on several factors (type of soil, type of coverage, purpose of the track). As a rule, soil is removed under footpaths with a layer of 15-20 cm. There are different points of view about whether there should be paths in the garden above or below the soil level.
Paths just below the lawn look cleaner and also make it easier to mow the lawn. But on the paths below the lawn, water may accumulate. Therefore, from the point of view of practicality, it is better to place garden paths above the lawn, which will increase the life of the garden cover.
The third stage is the laying of the foundation (of two layers) in dug, compacted trenches. There are two options here: concrete or crushed stone. Concrete is stronger and more durable, such a foundation will last for many years, it will cost more than crushed stone and almost cannot be adjusted.Crushed stone is cheaper, but its service life will be 15 years, after which cracks and displacements are possible.
However, a concrete foundation is most often used when laying access roads for pedestrian paths and paths with a small load, it is enough to arrange a crushed stone drainage cushion. The second layer of the foundation is a sand-cement mixture. It is recommended to lay geotextiles between the two layers of the foundation (as well as under the first layer), which will provide drainage (and in the second case, prevent the foundation from sinking into the ground).
The fourth stage is the installation of the selected coating. Often, special water repellents are used to increase the life of garden paths. It is advisable to treat the paths in the garden with such a coating every year.
Do not forget to arrange a border for the garden paths. On "soft" tracks, it will prevent the coating from shifting, and on hard tracks, it will prevent soil from getting on the tracks themselves. The curb is made of different materials - metal, plastic, wood, brick, stone, sometimes it is enough to dig in the curb tape along the edges of the paths.
Of course, each homeowner is guided only by his own desires and financial capabilities, choosing a decorative stone for facade decoration. However, there are several design techniques that have already become traditional and are used especially widely:
Thus, if you want to make your home original, for finishing the facade you may need three types of decorative stone at once - one for the basement, the second for openings and corners, and the third directly for the walls.
For the decoration of this house, a decorative stone of the same texture, but of a different color, was used - brown for the corners, and light gray for the walls.
A half-timbered house will look even more attractive if you use artificial stone to decorate its basement and individual sections of the walls.
House-chalet. Such buildings usually have a height of two floors, with the lower one always stone, and the upper one wooden. You can create such an effect with a facing stone.
Count how many types of decorative stone were used to decorate this facade! As many as four, and the window opening was decorated with stone platbands, clearly created to order according to individual sizes
A dark, rather rough stone for the basement and much lighter and more delicate for the walls. One of the main design techniques
Due to the fact that facing brick is easy to install and is cheaper than decorative stone, it is a more popular option for facade decoration. In addition, there is a huge number of colors and textures for such a cladding, which allows you to experiment with the design.
Unlike decorative stone, facing bricks are more often used to decorate the entire facade. After such facing, any house will look like an old mansion, respectable and solid
In this article, we have not touched upon such important issues as the technology of laying decorative stone and the preparation of walls. This is a rather broad topic that requires a separate discussion. We just tried to convince you of the advantages of artificial stone and offered several of the most common options for finishing the facade.
Leonardo Stone offers you: