Little Cherry Disease Info – What Causes Little Cherry Disease


By: Teo Spengler

Little cherry virus is one of the few fruit tree diseases that describe their primary symptoms in the common name. This disease is evidenced by super small cherries that don’t taste good. If you are growing cherry trees, you’ll want to know the ins and outs of managing this virus. Read on for information about the causes of little cherry, its symptoms and methods for control.

What Causes Little Cherry?

If you are wondering what causes little cherry disease (LCD), the pathogens have been identified as three different viruses. They are believed to be spread from tree to tree by mealybugs and leafhoppers. They can also be spread by propagation and grafting.

All three pathogens of this disease occur in the Pacific Northwest, among other locations. They are identified as: Little Cherry Virus 1, Little Cherry Virus 2, and Western X phytoplasma.

Little Cherry Symptoms

If your trees have little cherry virus, you likely won’t realize it until just before the harvest. At that time, you’ll notice that the cherries are only about half the normal size.

You may also notice that the fruit of your cherry tree isn’t the bright red you expect. Other little cherry symptoms include the taste. The fruit is bitter, and cannot be eaten or, in a commercial production, marketed.

Managing Little Cherry

Some cherry tree diseases can be treated successfully but, unfortunately, little cherry virus is not among them. No wonder cures have been found for this orchard problem.

Managing little cherry doesn’t mean, in this case, saving the tree. Rather, managing little cherry disease only means identifying the little cherry symptoms, having the tree tested, then removing it if it is diseased. All other cherries in the area should also be inspected.

However, don’t automatically assume that a tree with small cherries has this disease. Many factors can result in small fruit, from cold damage to inadequate nutrition. But with these issues, the leaves may also be affected. With little cherry, the entire tree looks great other than the fruit size.

Since this can be confusing, don’t make the decision yourself. Before you rip out your garden cherry trees, take a sample and send it out for testing. Your local extension office can normally help with this.

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Read more about Cherry Trees


What is Verticulum Wilt?

Verticulum wilt is a disease caused by a fungus in the soil. Plants pick up the disease via their root system, where the infection quickly spreads from root to tip.

The fungal infection is a death sentence for affected plants. As it spreads, it effectively cuts off the water supply to the plant’s foliage by causing the cells in the stems and branches to plug themselves.

According to the Morton Arboretum, there is evidence that there are two types of verticillium wilt that kill plants at different speeds: “There seem to be two forms of the disease, one in which plants die slowly over several years and another where they die rapidly within a few weeks.”


10 Common Tomato Plant Diseases (and How to Heal Them)

If you’ve ever grown tomatoes, then you’ve probably had to contend with tomato plant diseases. It’s easy to think of tomatoes as easy-to-grow garden vegetables, but that isn’t always the case. In fact, tomatoes can be pretty picky about their soil nutrients, water levels, and the way they’re spaced in garden beds. There are a lot of different diseases that can strike your plants, and sometimes I feel like I’ve seen them all in my own home garden. Learn how to identify the most common tomato plant diseases, and how to both avoid them and treat them effectively.

Early Blight

Many tomato gardeners get frustrated when early blight (Alternaria solani) strikes their plants. As the name suggests, this disease afflicts on tomato leaves early in the growing season, and can cause trouble all season long if you don’t act quickly. This affliction first appears as little brown spots on the the plant’s leaves, which then spread outwards and become a lot more noticeable. Eventually, the infected leaves will fall off the plant.

Alternaria sp. is a tough fungus that can survive in soil even over the winter. The easiest way to prevent it is to mulch your tomato plants immediately after planting, which prevents the spores in the soil from creeping up and infecting your plants. When you see tomato blight, snip off infected leaves to prevent it from spreading. Next year, plant your tomatoes in an unaffected area of the garden.

Septoria Leaf Spot

One of the most common tomato diseases—septoria leaf spot—appears just as its name suggests. This disease, shown here on wheat leaves, covers your tomato leaves with small, circular spots that have gray-white centers and darker edges. You’ll see this issue most often when the weather has been warm and wet.

Septoria (Septoria tritici) may look fairly harmless, but it will destroy your plants’ foliage. Leaves turn yellow, then wither away and fall off.

Prevent leaf spot by keeping a neat, tidy garden. Don’t place your tomato plants too close together, so air can circulate around the leaves. Since this filamentous fungus thrives in wet soil, you can avoid it by not overwatering. If leaf spot does appear, cut the infected leaves off your plants to slow the disease from spreading. Make a note of this issue in your gardening journal, and don’t grow tomatoes in the same soil next year. If the affliction persists, you’ll need to use fungicide to kill the spores, and/or dig out the beds and replace the soil entirely.

Fusarium Wilt

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) is most commonly found in southern U.S. states, but it can occur anywhere. When it does, it’s capable of wiping out entire tomato fields. It starts with drooping stems, but from there it progresses to an all-over wilting, and eventual total collapse. If you suspect you’re dealing with this type of fungus, cut the main stem of your tomato plant open, and look for the hallmark dark streaks running lengthwise through the stem.

This disease can be a huge problem, because the pathogen’s spores can remain dormant in soil for years. Once active, they can (and will) spread easily to other garden areas, too. You can try to prevent it by disinfecting tomato cages and stakes at the end of every growing season. Use a mixture of 1 part bleach to 9 parts water to clean these items to disinfect them completely.

Once your soil is infected with Fusarium, it’s extremely difficult to get rid of. Rotate your crops to keep tomatoes away from infected soil, and look for wilt-resistant tomato varieties when you’re shopping for new garden plants.

Anthracnose

When you see little sunken areas starting to appear in your tomato’s leaves, you’ll know they have a case of anthracnose. This fungal pathogen is one of the most common tomato plant diseases, and is caused by Colletotrichum phomoides fungus. It is extremely common, and it will eventually rot the entire plant, including the fruit. Anthracnose thrives in hot, wet weather, and can also afflict potatoes and onions.

Protect your plants from anthracnose by removing leaves from the plants’ lower 12 inches. This keeps foliage from coming into contact with wet soil, which encourages the growth of this fungal disease. One way to avoid this fungus is to refrain from over-watering your tomato plants.

You can also fend it off by rotating crops with those that aren’t members of the nightshade (Solanaceae) family, preferably every other year. So, if you plant tomatoes in your garden this year, avoid growing tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants in that spot next season. Try carrots, beets, and other root vegetables instead.

Blossom End Rot

Do your tomatoes have dark spots on their bottoms? If they do, you’re probably dealing with blossom end rot. This common disease is usually caused by soil that is deficient in calcium. It can also appear if tomatoes have been planted in alkaline soil, or have been watered unevenly. You can easily prevent this disease by enriching your soil with calcium, and watering regularly and evenly. If your tomato plants are having problems with drying out, use mulch to help keep the soil moist.

Be sure to test your soil’s pH level as well! Tomatoes thrive in soil that has a pH level of 6.0-6.5. If your garden beds are too alkaline, you can add sphagnum peat or other amendments to make it more acidic.

If you see blossom end rot in your tomatoes, simply remove the fruits that have been affected. This can help new fruits grow disease-free.

Powdery Mildew

Look for powdery mildew on your tomato plants in late summer and fall, or if you grow your plants inside a greenhouse. It appears on leaves as discolored, yellowish spots that have a fuzzy, powder-like substance on top of them. This will eventually progress to brown, dead areas all over the leaves.

Powdery mildew is also among the most common tomato plant diseases. It often shows up during periods of high humidity, or inside greenhouses (which are usually quite humid). In fact, there are three different types of powdery mildew that can afflict your plants: Leveillula taurica, Erysiphe orontii, and Oidium neolycopersici. Once these fungi show up, they can spread quickly.

Neem oil has proven to be effective at treating powdery mildew, as has sulfur. If the mildew has spread to several plants, a more widespread fungicide treatment might be needed. You can avoid this issue by spacing your plants well apart, and watering the soil at ground level, rather than pouring water over the leaves from above.

Bacterial Canker

If the edges of your tomato leaves turn brown, and yellowish closer to the center of the foliage, they have bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis pv michiganensis). It usually appears on only on side of a tomato plant. Bacterial canker is a huge problem in the garden, because it’s one of the most difficult tomato plant diseases to treat. It spreads quickly to other plants, and will eventually cause them to wilt and die.

Since this issue is often seed borne, make sure to buy heirloom, organic seeds from trusted companies. Should bacterial canker strikes, move healthy plants to a new area of the garden, and treat the afflicted plants with copper hydroxide or streptomycin spray. As a preventative measure, d on’t plant your tomatoes in the same spot next year. In fact, keep tomato plants out of the area for at least three years so the disease won’t make a comeback.

Fruit Cracking

If your tomato fruits are cracking, you’re dealing with a common problem that’s not quite a disease—but is definitely an illness. Fruit cracking is caused by insufficient light, water, temperature, or nutrients in tomato plants, which basically creates traumatized fruit.

You can prevent cracking fruit by growing tomato plants in raised garden beds that allow you to control the moisture levels of the soil. Use compost and mulch to maintain more constant soil moisture, and make sure your soil has plenty of calcium. Remove cracked fruits the minute you see them to avoid pest problems, since ants and other insects will be drawn to the exposed flesh within.

Verticillium Wilt

Don’t let the name of this disease fool you. Verticillium wilt doesn’t always cause wilting, but tomato leaves will become yellowish and dry when it strikes. This fungal disease can affect other garden plants in addition to tomatoes, which makes it particularly virulent. Since it affects the plant’s xylem vascular tissues, wilt makes it difficult for tomato plants to get water and nutrients from the soil. Deprived of both food and water, the plant eventually dies.

You’ll notice this disease most often in cool weather conditions. If verticillium wilt has affected your tomatoes, move healthy plants away from this area of the garden and don’t plant new ones there for at least four years. Avoid planting other nightshades such as peppers, eggplant or potatoes in that spot in future, or they might succumb to wilt as well.

Late Blight

Late blight is named not for the time of year it appears in the garden, but for the part of the tomato plant it strikes first: the oldest. The most mature leaves will be the first to develop this issue, which appears as misshapen, greenish-black patches on leaves. This blight grows on foliage quickly, and spreads throughout the garden if it’s not addressed.

Once late blight strikes tomato plants, remove and destroy all infected plants and move healthy ones to a new area of the garden. Don’t plant any other nightshades in this soil for at least four years.

Heal Your Garden

Hopefully this article will help you to identify common tomato plant diseases, avoid them, and treat them effectively if they appear in your garden. Once you know how to manage these issues, you’ll end up with healthy, beautiful plants, and delicious fruit.


Disorders

Blossom End Rot: Blossom end rot is a physiological disorder of tomato. Symptoms are water-soaked spots on the blossom end of the fruit. These spots enlarge and become black. Secondary infection by decay-causing organisms usually follows.

The cause of this disorder is a calcium deficiency in the developing fruit. Extreme fluctuations in moisture, rainy or cloudy weather with high humidity, cool temperatures, insufficient soil calcium, root pruning from nearby cultivation, and excessive ammoniacal (NH4 + ) nitrogen, potassium, or magnesium fertilization can also increase the chances of blossom end rot, especially early in the season.

Prevention & Treatment: Late spring planting of tomatoes should be at the recommended date for your area. The soil should be limed according to recommendations of a soil analysis report to bring the soil pH to 6.5, and to provide adequate calcium levels in the soil. Limestone is best applied 3 to 6 months in advance and tilled into the garden soil. Follow the soil report for recommendations for pre-plant nutrient (fertilizer) applications. If calcium levels are not sufficient but the soil pH is correct, then gypsum (calcium sulfate) is best tilled into the soil before planting at 1 to 2 pounds per 100 square feet.

Blossom end rot symptoms on tomato fruit.
Joey Williamson, ©2009 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Avoid excessive potassium or magnesium fertilization as these nutrients will compete with calcium for uptake by the plants. Epsom salts is an example of a magnesium source, so do not apply to garden soil unless a recent soil report indicates a magnesium deficiency.

Avoid ammoniacal nitrogen fertilizers for side dress applications (beside or around the plants), as ammoniacal nitrogen also will compete with calcium for uptake. Examples of fertilizers with ammoniacal nitrogen are ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and most complete fertilizers, such as 10-10-10. A calcium nitrate (15.5-0-0) side dress fertilizer is usually the best choice, and is applied monthly at 2 pounds per 100 feet of row.

Maintain a uniform supply of moisture through irrigation and adequate soil mulches. Mulches will not only keep the soil cooler and more evenly moist, but will suppress weeds, thus reducing the need for nearby cultivation that may damage tomato roots. Remove fruit with blossom end rot symptoms from the plants.

However, if the soil was not tested lime or gypsum was not applied pre-plant, and blossom end rot occurs, then applying gypsum at 1 to 2 pounds per 100 square feet as a side dress supplement has proven beneficial. See Table 8 for tomato cultivars with resistance to blossom end rot.

Sunscald: Sunscald occurs when tomatoes are exposed to the direct rays of the sun during hot weather. It is most common on green fruit. Decay causing fungi frequently invade the damaged tissue.

Prevention: Cover exposed fruits. Control leaf diseases.

Growth Cracks: Tomatoes crack when environmental conditions (drought followed by heavy rain or watering) encourage rapid growth during ripening. Some cracks may be deep, allowing decay organisms to enter the fruit and cause fruit rot.

Growth cracks on tomato fruit.
Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Prevention: Maintain even soil moisture with regular watering. Some tomato cultivars are crack-tolerant see Table 9 for suggested cultivars.

Poor Fruit Set: Poor fruit set occurs for several reasons:

  • Extreme temperatures: The blossoms drop off without setting fruit when temperatures are below 55 °F or above 90 °F for extended periods. Try Arkansas Traveler, Talladaga Hybrid, Homestead 24, Bella Rosa Hybrid, Top Gun Hybrid, Solar Fire Hybrid, Florida 91 Hybrid, Sioux or Costoluto Genovese for heat-tolerance.
  • Dry soil: Blossoms dry and fall when the plants do not receive enough water.
  • Shading: Few blossoms are produced when the plants receive less than six hours of sun a day.
  • Excessive nitrogen. High nitrogen levels in the soil promote leaf growth at the expense of blossom and fruit formation. Correct the nitrogen imbalance with superphosphate or 0-20-20 fertilizer.

Catfacing: This is a disorder caused by cold temperatures during fruit set. The fruit is extremely malformed and scarred, usually at the blossom end. Fruits that develop later in the season will not be affected. The cultivar Homestead 24 is resistant to catfacing.

Tomato foliage exhibiting leaf roll – the upward curing of lower leaves during high temperatures and drought.
Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Leaf Roll: Leaf roll of tomatoes may be caused by high temperatures, prolonged periods of wet soil conditions, and drought. It may also occur when tomatoes are pruned severely. The symptom is mostly on older leaves, with an upward curling of the leaflets, but may progress to affect up to 75 percent of the foliage. The rolled leaves may feel leathery and stiff. Often the condition of leaf roll occurs once the plants are under the stress of a heavy fruit set. Some cultivars are more prone to leaf roll than others.

Prevention & Treatment: The symptom of leaf roll does not significantly damage the crop. To help prevent this disorder, tomatoes should be planted on well-drained soil and be irrigated during periods of drought. For more information on physiological leaf roll, please see HGIC 2222 , Tomato Leaves Rolling?

Herbicide Injury: Drift from nearby sprays of broadleaf weed killers used on turfgrass, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, and non-specific herbicides, such as glyphosate, may severely damage tomato plants.

Distortion of tomato stems and foliage due to exposure to spray drift of 2,4-D herbicide.
Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Initial symptoms of glyphosate injury on tomatoes are characteristically seen as white/yellow discoloration at the base of the leaflets.
Joey Williamson, HGIC, Clemson Extension

Caution: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. Avoid the use of spray pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides), as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary. If spraying is required, always spray late in the evening to reduce the direct impact on pollinating insects. Always try less toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests and diseases. For example, sprays with insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, neem oil extract, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. Practice cultural techniques to prevent or reduce the incidence of plant diseases, including pre-plant soil improvement, proper plant spacing, crop rotation, applying mulch, applying lime and fertilizer based on soil test results, and avoiding over-head irrigation and frequent watering of established plants. Additionally, there are less toxic spray fungicides that contain sulfur or copper soap, and biological control sprays for plant diseases that contain Bacillus subtilis. However, it is very important to always read and follow the label directions on each product. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center.

Table 1. Fungicide Products for Home Garden Disease Control on Tomatoes.

Fungicide Active Ingredient Examples of Products Containing the Active Ingredient
Chlorothalonil Bonide Fungonil Concentrate (29.6%)
Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Landscape & Garden Fungicide Conc. (12.5%)
GardenTech Daconil Fungicide Concentrate (29.6%)
Hi-Yield Vegetable, Flower, Fruit & Ornamental Fungicide Conc. (12.5%)
Ortho MAX Garden Disease Control Concentrate (29.6%)
Southern Ag Liquid Ornamental & Vegetable Fungicide Conc. (12.5%)
Tiger Brand Daconil Concentrate (12.5%)
Mancozeb Bonide Mancozeb Flowable with Zinc Concentrate
Southern Ag Dithane M-45
Copper Fungicide 2 Natural Guard Copper Soap Liquid Fungicide Concentrate (1.8%)
Bonide Liquid Copper Concentrate (a copper soap) (1.8%)
Camelot Fungicide/ Bactericide Concentrate (a copper soap) (1.8%)
Bonide Copper Fungicide (7%)
Monterey Liqui-Cop Fungicide Concentrate (8%)
Southern Ag Liquid Copper Fungicide (8%)
1 RTU products are pre-mixed fungicides in a spray bottle.
2 For copper fungicides, the greater the metallic copper content, the better the control of bacterial & fungal diseases.

Table 2. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Early Blight.

Tomato Cultivar Other Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Mountain Supreme Hybrid VF D 69-70
Mountain Fresh Hybrid VFF D 77
Mountain Magic Hybrid VFF ISI 72
Plum Regal Hybrid VFF D 72
Plum Dandy Hybrid VF ISI 82
Cabernet Hybrid VFF I 60
Manalucie FSt I 82
Merlot Hybrid VFF I 59
Tommy Toe (cherry) none I 70
Mountain Merit Hybrid (moderate EB resist.) VFFFN TSWV LB D 75
Jasper Hybrid (cherry) FF LB S D 60
Iron Lady Hybrid LB S D 77
Matt’s Wild Cherry (moderate EB resistance) LB (moderate) I 60
Juliet Hybrid (mini-roma) (moderate EB resist) none I 60
Defiant PhR Hybrid (moderate EB resistance) VFF LB D 70
Legend (moderate EB resistance) LB D 68
Old Brooks (moderate EB resistance) LB I 78

Table 3. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Late Blight.

Table 4. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to All 3 Races of Fusarium Wilt.

Tomato Cultivar Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
BHN 640 Hybrid VFFF TSWV D 75
Charger Hybrid VFFFASt D 76
Crista Hybrid VFFF TSWV D 73
Floralina Hybrid VFFFA D 72
Tasti-Lee Hybrid VFFF D 75
Solar Fire Hybrid VFFF D 72
Top Gun Hybrid VFFFSt TSWV D 75
Mountain Merit Hybrid VFFFN TSWV EB (moderate) D 75

Table 5. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV).

Tomato Cultivar Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Bella Rosa Hybrid VFFASt TSWV D 75
BHN 444 Hybrid VFF TSWV D 75
BHN 640 Hybrid VFFF TSWV D 75
Capaya Hybrid VFASt TSWV D 70
Crista Hybrid VFFF TSWV D 73
Fletcher Hybrid VN TSWV D 74
Health Kick Hybrid VFFA TSWV D 74
Plum Regal Hybrid VFF TSWV D 72
Sophya Hybrid VFFSt TSWV I 75
Talladaga Hybrid VFF TSWV D 60-67
Top Gun Hybrid VFFFSt TSWV D 75
Mountain Merit hybrid VFFFN TSWV EB (partial) D 75

Table 6. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV).

Tomato Cultivar Other Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Champion II Hybrid VFFNTA I 62-65
Charger Hybrid VFFFASt D 76
Margo Hybrid VFFT D 70

Table 7. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Root-Knot Nematodes.

Tomato Cultivar Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Beefmaster Hybrid VFNASt I 80
Bella Rosa Hybrid VFFNA D 75
Better Boy Hybrid VFNASt I 75
Better Bush Hybrid VFN ISI 68
Big Beef Hybrid VFFNTASt I 73
Burpee’s Supersteak Hybrid VFN I 80
Bush Early Girl II Hybrid VFFNT ISI 54
Bush Goliath Hybrid VFN ISI 68
Celebrity Hybrid VFFNTASt ISI 70
Champion II Hybrid VFNTA I 65-70
Empire Hybrid VFFNASt D 72
First Prize Hybrid VFFNT I 75
Fletcher Hybrid VN TSWV D 74
Goliath Hybrid VFFNT I 70
Grandma’s Pick Hybrid VFN I 78-80
Jetsetter Hybrid VFFNASt I 64
Laroma III Hybrid VFFNA D 76
MiRoma Hybrid VFFN D 70
Park’s Whopper CR Improved Hybrid VFFNT I 65
Royesta Hybrid FFNT I 70
Super Fantastic Hybrid VFN I 70
Super Marzano Hybrid VFNTA I 90
Tiffany Hybrid VFNT I 70
Tomande Hybrid VFFNT I 68
Tough Boy Hybrid VFN I 75
Viva Italia Hybrid VFFNASt D 72
Mountain Merit Hybrid VFFFN TSWV EB (moderate) D 75

Table 8. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Blossom End Rot of Fruit.

Tomato Cultivar Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Manalucie FSt EB I 82
Mountain Spring Hybrid VFF D 72
Mountain Fresh Hybrid VFF EB D 77
New Yorker VA D 66
Ravello Hybrid VFT I 60-65
Wins All none I 80

Table 9. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Cracking.

Tomato Cultivar Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Abraham Lincoln Original none I 87
Aunt Ginny’s Purple none I 75-85
Box Car Willie none I 80
Campbell’s 33 Hybrid VFA D 69
Celebrity Hybrid VFFNTASt ISI 70
Charger Hybrid VFFFASt D 76
Delicious none I 77
Fantastic Hybrid VF I 65
Gardener’s Delight none I 65
German Head none I 80-90
Heinz 1439 Hybrid VFA D 70
Juliet Hybrid LB I 60
Mountain Spring Hybrid VFF D 72
New Yorker VA D 66
Pilgrim Hybrid VFFASt D 68
Pink Girl Hybrid VFT I 76
Plum Regal Hybrid VFF TSWV D 80
Porter’s Pride none I 70
Rutgers VFA D 75
Super Sioux none ISI 70
Supersonic Hybrid VF I 75-79
Thessaloniki none I 75-80
Tough Boy Hybrid VFN I 75
Chef’s Choice Orange Hybrid T Anthracnose I 75

Table 10. Tomato Cultivars with Resistance to Bacterial Speck.

Tomato Cultivar Other Disease Resistance* Plant Growth Habit** Days to Ripeness
Super Marzano Hybrid VFNT I 70-90
Health Kick Hybrid VFFA TSWV D 74
Viva Italia Hybrid VFFNA D 75
Charger Hybrid VFFFASt D 76
Mountain Pride Hybrid VFFASt D 77
Marcellino Hybrid none I 75-80
Ravello Hybrid VFT I 60-65
Tomatoberry Garden Hybrid none I 60-70
*Disease Resistance Codes:
V Verticillium wilt resistance
F Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance
FF Fusarium wilt races 1 & 2 resistance
FFF Fusarium wilt races 1, 2 & 3 resistance
A Alternaria resistance
St Stemphylium or gray leaf spot resistance
N Root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance
T Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance
EB Early Blight resistance
LB Late Blight resistance
S Septoria Leaf Spot resistance
**Plant Growth Habit Codes:
D Determinate plant growth habit (concentrated fruit set)
I Indeterminate plant growth habit (fruit set throughout the summer)
ISI Indeterminate short internode (a compact growth habit with longer fruit set)

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Original Author(s)

Marjan Kluepfel, Former HGIC Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson University
James H. Blake, EdD, Extension Associate/Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University
Anthony P. Keinath, PhD, Vegetable Pathologist, Clemson University Coastal REC, Clemson University

Revisions by:

Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.


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