The herbaceous plant common fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is considered a species of the genus Fennel of the family Umbrella. Among the people, it is also called voloshsky dill, or pharmacy. Under natural conditions, fennel can be found in Western Europe (France, Spain, Italy, England and Portugal), in North Africa (in Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) and in Southeast Europe (in Bulgaria, the countries of the former Yugoslavia , Greece and Albania). In addition, such a culture can be found in Central, North and South America, Central and West Asia, as well as New Zealand. It prefers to grow in ditches, on rocky slopes and in weedy areas.
Such a culture is grown in a large number of countries. The first mentions of fennel were found in the herbalists of Ancient India, which were written about 5 thousand years ago. Such a plant was also known in Ancient China, it was used there for cosmetic and culinary purposes, it was also known about it in Ancient Egypt, it was believed that, in addition to its medicinal and taste properties, it has power over evil spirits. The ancient Saxons also believed that such a plant has mystical properties, they used bundles of such grass to protect their homes from witchcraft. The Greeks used fennel as a choleretic, diuretic and abortifacient, and it was also used to get rid of fleas. In the writings of Dioscorides, Avicenna, Hippocrates and Pliny, mentions of such a plant are found. In the Middle Ages, this culture began to be cultivated throughout Europe and the Czech physician Mattiol, who served at the court of Archduke Ferdinand, devoted a treatise called "The Power and Effect of Fennel" to it. In the 18th century, the pharmacist Stephens created a medicine for kidney and stomach diseases on the basis of fennel, which is highly effective, the English Parliament decided to pay him decent compensation for the fact that this recipe was made public. This plant is used as a spice in the national cuisines of a large number of countries, including both Asian and European.
Fennel is cultivated as an annual, biennial or perennial. The fusiform root is fleshy and wrinkled; it branches strongly in the upper part. The color of all aerial parts of the plant is green with a pale blue bloom. The height of the strongly branching rounded straight stem varies from 0.9 to 2 m. The cirrus alternately located leaf plates are four or three times dissected, the lower foliage has petioles, and the upper one is sessile on the sheath of a narrow-oblong shape, the length of which is 30-50 mm, to the apex it is expanded ... Double umbellate inflorescences reach 3-15 centimeters across, they consist of yellow flowers. Bushes bloom in July – August. The fruit is a bare, oblong-shaped, brown-green, glabrous fruit, its taste is sweet, the length is from 0.5 to 1 cm, and the width is from 0.2 to 0.3 cm.The fruits break into 2 parts, their ripening is observed in September ...
How to grow fennel part 1
For propagation of fennel, the seed method and the method of dividing the rhizome are used. The seed remains viable for 2-3 years. They use both podzimny sowing of seeds, so they are sown at the beginning of the spring period. In warm regions, dry seed is used to grow fennel as a perennial, which is sown in open soil in July or August. When purchasing the seeds of this culture, it should be borne in mind that there are 2 types of seed: the first variety is used to obtain fragrant greens, and the second is a vegetable, when grown, greens are obtained, and also heads of cabbage with high taste.
For sowing this crop, it is recommended to choose those areas where snow accumulation was observed in winter. Fennel is thermophilic and therefore grows very poorly in shaded areas. Light loamy or sandy loam soils are well suited for cultivation. Good predecessors for such a plant are row crops and winter crops, as well as herbaceous annuals. Spinach, peppers, beans, tomatoes, beans and caraway seeds should not be grown in the vicinity of fennel, because it inhibits the growth of such plants. Experts advise growing this crop next to cabbage and cucumbers, as it scares away such a common pest as aphids with its aroma.
If sowing will be carried out in the spring, then the preparation of the site should be done in the autumn. To do this, liming of acidic soil is carried out, and after at least 15 days, 2 tbsp is introduced into it under deep digging. l. superphosphate, 1 bucket of compost or humus and 2 liters of stale sawdust per 1 square meter of land. In spring, before proceeding with sowing seeds, the surface of the site is loosened and leveled. For sowing before winter, it is recommended to choose those areas in the soil of which fertilizers were applied for previous crops. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer to the soil specifically before planting this plant, since because of this it will ripen very slowly.
During sowing, the seed must be buried in the ground by 20 mm, while the row spacing must be at least 0.6 m.If sowing is carried out in early April, then after planting the bed must be watered, and then its surface is covered with a film that is removed only when the first seedlings appear. A week and a half after the emergence of seedlings, they will need thinning, while the distance between the plants of vegetable varieties should be from 20 to 30 centimeters, and between the seedlings of green ones - from 10 to 15 centimeters. In regions with a fairly cold climate, it is recommended to grow fennel through seedlings.
Growing fennel from seeds
It is quite easy to grow this culture on your site. Such a plant should be provided with timely watering, weeding, feeding, it also needs to be protected from diseases and harmful insects, and also loosen the surface of the earth between the rows 3 times during one season. If vegetable varieties are grown, then they need to be spud twice or three times during the growing season to a height of 30 to 70 mm. This is necessary in order to whiten the heads of cabbage, and even after hilling, they become more fleshy and juicy.
This plant loves water. If it rains regularly in the summer, then on average it will need to be watered once every 5 days, while 1 to 1.5 buckets of water are taken per 1 square meter of the garden. If the crop is grown on light soil, then watering should be more frequent. Particular attention should be paid to watering when growing vegetable varieties, since if they do not have enough water, this will have an extremely negative effect on the quality of the termini, while the bushes themselves can go into the stem. It should also be remembered that with insufficient watering, the bushes begin to launch their roots into adjacent beds.
When it rains or the fennel is watered, the surface of the earth around the bushes must be loosened without fail. To reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening, the surface of the garden bed should be covered with a layer of mulch.
Fennel responds best to feeding with mullein solution. In order to prepare it, you need to combine water with cow dung in a ratio of 10: 1. You can also use a solution of chicken manure, however, in this case, water and organic matter are combined in a ratio of 20: 1. You can also feed this culture with an infusion of herbs. In total, during the growing season, the bushes must be fed 2 times. The first time the bed is fertilized immediately after the seedlings are thinned out, and the second - when the formation of flower arrows begins in green varieties, and when growing head varieties 4 weeks after the first feeding.
Cutting of greens of fennel is carried out after the height of the bushes is equal to 0.3 m, the fact is that at this time it has the most intense smell. Cut the greens early in the morning, before the dew has dried, or in the evening, when the sun goes down.
It will be possible to start collecting the heads of cabbage after they reach 10 centimeters in diameter. Heads of cabbage need to be cut to the very root, but at the same time, petioles with foliage about 20 centimeters long should remain on them. Cut heads of cabbage should be laid out in a shaded place in the fresh air, they should stay there for some time. Then they cut off all the petioles except one, which is shortened to 10 centimeters, then they are removed for storage. They are stored buried in the sand in a cool place, since they can be stored in the refrigerator for no longer than half a month.
As a rule, the first flowering is observed only in the second year after sowing fennel. And the collection of seeds can be carried out only after the bushes have faded. It will be possible to collect them only when the pale green inflorescences change their color to brownish yellow. Cut them carefully and hang them in a well-ventilated, dry, cool area to dry with newspaper sheets underneath. After the umbrellas are well dry, you will need to shake out the seeds from them onto a leaf. When they are separated from the plant debris, they are scattered into bags made of paper. For storage, they are placed in a dark and dry place.
How to grow fennel h 2
Fennel has a fairly high resistance to diseases, but still sometimes it suffers from stem or root rot, cercospora or rust.
If the bush is sick with cercosporosis, angular small spots of yellow color are formed on all its green parts. Over time, the color of the spots becomes darker, they merge with each other. The affected parts of the bush turn yellow and then die off. For the purpose of prevention, the crops should not be allowed to thicken. The affected bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%), Kaptan or Kuprozan.
Root rot kills fennel. At first, foliage wilting is observed, and then it withers, becomes brown and dies off. If you dig a hole 15 centimeters deep near the bush, you can find the blackened roots. The affected plant must be dug up and removed from the site along with the soil that is adjacent to the roots. If the disease was detected at the initial stage of development, then it is recommended to stop watering the fennel, and also spray it with a solution of a fungicidal drug.
In plants affected by stem rot, shoots and stems are damaged. At first, part of the stem or shoot decays, after which it dies off. In some cases, foliage is also affected. As a rule, the plant rots at the level of the soil surface, and also above, while the first symptom of the disease is the appearance of a white bloom, then small brown spots form on the surface of the stem. After the signs of this disease are found on the bush, you need to stop watering it, then you need to remove the plaque, and coat the affected areas with a strong solution of potassium manganese, after which the plants are powdered with wood ash.
If the bush is affected by rust, which is a fungal disease, then brownish-orange tubercles appear on its aerial parts, as well as pustules, which cause increased evaporation of moisture. If the plant is very badly affected, then the foliage begins to fly around it. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, it is necessary to cut off all the affected stems and foliage, then the fennel is sprayed with a solution of the fungicidal preparation.
Fennel has the ability to scare off various pests, but it must be borne in mind that many crops cannot get along with it. For example, aphids, fleas, snails and wood lice never settle on it, so it is recommended to place a bed with such a plant next to vegetable crops, which often suffer from them. But this is only if these crops can get along with fennel. However, the larvae of the May beetle, meadow moths, wireworms, and also the caterpillars of the scoop can still harm him.
The meadow moth is a polyphagous harmful insect that can greatly harm the garden. In length, such a butterfly reaches 10 mm, in females, the wingspan is about 26 centimeters, and in males - up to 20 centimeters. The color of the forewings is brownish-gray with dark spots; there is a yellow stripe at the outer edge. The hindwings are gray with 2 stripes. The black-headed caterpillar of such a moth has a gray-green color, while a dark stripe runs along the back. This pest is distinguished by its fertility, therefore it is very dangerous for cultivated plants. Caterpillars eat everything that comes their way, leaving only petioles and veins from the foliage. The butterflies themselves eat nectar; therefore, during the years of mass summer of meadow moths, there is often a noticeable reduction in the amount of honey that is produced in this area. This happens once every 8-10 years, during which time gardeners and gardeners have to try hard to preserve the harvest. Various methods are used to kill moths. If there are relatively few pests on the site, then they can be collected manually, while it must be borne in mind that the more weeds on the site, the higher the likelihood that moths will settle on it. If there are a lot of harmful insects, then chemical preparations must be used to destroy them, while Metaphos, Decis, Fufanon, Phosphamide and Karbofos are the most effective.
Winter moths are also a polyphagous harmful insect that is very widespread. The color of the front wings is dark gray, almost black, while they have 3 stripes of an even darker shade, and there is also a thin black border.In the female, the hind wings are light brown, and in the male, white. The caterpillars of such an insect are painted in an earthy gray color, while at a later stage of development, a dark stripe forms on their back. This culture can be harmed by the butterflies themselves and their caterpillars, which are very voracious. For prevention purposes, you need to adhere to the rules of fennel agricultural technology, and also systematically carry out weeding. If there are a lot of scoops on the site, then an insecticidal preparation will be required, which is used to combat the meadow moth (see above).
There are not very many varieties of fennel. Oilseed varieties:
In addition to these varieties, greens with a high content of essential oils and healing fragrant fruits give such varieties as: Zephyr, Oksamit of the Crimea, Martisor. Pepper has a pungent taste.
Breeders from Italy and Russia are mainly working on the development of vegetable varieties of fennel. The most popular among gardeners are the following Russian varieties - Corvette, Luzhnikovsky Semko, Soprano, Rondo, Aromat, Casanova: the height of the bushes is from 0.5 to 0.6 m, ripen in 60–70 days, the weight of cabbages is on average 0.25 kg. And the following vigorous late Russian varieties are also popular - Leader and Autumn handsome: the height of the bushes with a delicate smell is about 1.8 m, the color of the foliage is pale blue. The hybrid early ripening variety Udalets is also widely known, after only 40–55 days after the emergence of shoots, a dense head of whitish color weighing 100–350 grams grows, while it reaches 10 to 18 centimeters across.
The most popular are the Italian varieties Sicilian, Zelma, Carmo, Florentine, Italian round, Bologna: the height of the bushes is about 0.6 m, and the heads of cabbage reach 15 centimeters in diameter. However, it should be borne in mind that when grown in mid-latitudes, such varieties are characterized by a tendency to shoot arrows. The varieties grow best in the middle lane: Zeta Fino, Cantino, Romanesco and the Dutch hybrid Rudi, they are also highly resistant to flowering. The most popular table varieties of fennel are Grebnevoy and Ogorodny.
Since ancient times, people have used fennel as a healing agent. The plant's essential oils and fruits in powder form have the greatest medicinal value. However, only the foliage, seeds and heads of such a plant are used in cooking. It contains vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B9, calcium, sodium, selenium, magnesium, copper, zinc, potassium, iron, chromium and aluminum, ash and dietary fiber. The fatty oils contained in this plant include such valuable acids as: linoleic, petroselinic, palmitic and oleic.
Fennel and products based on it have a disinfectant, mild antispasmodic, and weak diuretic effect. Fennel is recommended for newborns with intestinal spasms in the first months of life, but it is imperative to adhere to the dosage prescribed by the treating doctor. Dill water, known to many, is prepared using the fruits of this plant. Fennel essential oil cleanses the body of toxins and toxins, so it is often used after heavy meals or after eating fatty foods. The powder of this plant is used in the manufacture of cough tablets, because it has an expectorant effect. It is recommended to use this plant for the following diseases: pneumonia, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, ARVI, laryngotracheitis. Fennel and products made on its basis help to restore appetite, which was lost during the illness, as well as improve digestion. Due to this, it is used for various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including during constipation. During pregnancy, fennel-based products are used to eliminate attacks of toxicosis, and after childbirth they are used to normalize digestion. In addition, in lactating women, such drugs help to stimulate lactation. This plant is also used in cosmetology and perfumery.
Fennel is most commonly used as:
Fennel Useful Properties
Some people may have an individual intolerance to such a plant. It is recommended to use fennel very carefully and in small doses for people with epilepsy, pregnant women and diarrhea. In addition, if a person is in poor health, then using this plant in too much can contribute to the development of bleeding.
The growing area of these plants is geographically located in the African, Asian, North and South American subtropics and tropics.
As a rule, for garden landscape design, 3 types of begonias are most often used, which are further broken down into a large number of varieties:
By height, these plants are divided into:
Garden begonia Baby Wing
Garden begonia Ambassador
The plant has phytoncidal properties, cleans the air from pathogenic microorganisms. You can often hear the saying: "Begonia in the house - to the joy of the owners." When a plant develops well and blooms, harmony and prosperity reign in the house.
The taste of the raw kohlrabi stalk plant resembles a cabbage stump, but much softer, sweeter and juicier. Speaking about the beneficial properties of kohlrabi cabbage, it is worth saying that the vegetable belongs to dietary products, since it has a combination of nutrients that is favorable for human health. It contains mineral elements: potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron. Kohlrabi is also rich in vitamins (C, A, B, PP), vegetable proteins, carbohydrates.
Potassium salts contained in kohlrabi normalize the work of the heart muscle, promote the elimination of excess fluid from the body. Fiber helps remove cholesterol from the body, which is important for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Vitamins have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, and also allow the vegetable to be used as a remedy for the prevention of infectious diseases, diseases of the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Kohlrabi is also useful for disorders of the kidneys, liver, spleen.
Preparations based on fennel have a carminative and antispasmodic effect, stimulate the secretory function of the digestive glands, contributing to normal digestion, have a mild diuretic effect, and are used as an expectorant. They are often prescribed for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by spasms, flatulence. Dill water is given to young children.
Fennel is indicated for diseases of the kidneys and biliary tract, bronchitis, scanty menstruation, whooping cough and puberty. The infusion of fruits is taken orally and compresses are made from it for mycoses.
Fennel is used as a disinfectant and expectorant. Folk healers recommend washing the eyes with a decoction of seeds for conjunctivitis, as well as applying it to the skin with abscesses, taking it orally for flatulence, insomnia, abdominal pain, coughing and to increase lactation. To alleviate a sore throat, to eliminate hoarseness, the effects of alcohol and drug poisoning, a herbal decoction is used.
Fennel oil also has beneficial properties. Fennel essential oil is used to cleanse the body, remove toxins and toxins. It has a laxative effect, is shown as a diuretic and for toxic liver damage. It is used to eliminate constipation, nausea and flatulence, increase appetite, and also to activate the production of their own estrogen in women during menopause. Renovation of premises using essential oil reduces the amount of fungi in the ambient air by 5 times.
Fennel is added to food to improve metabolism. If you chew 5 g of fried plant seeds after a meal, digestion will improve and your breath will become fresh. The seeds can be chewed during motion sickness in transport to get rid of bouts of nausea and dizziness.