Did you know that lupine is not only a beautiful but also a very useful plant? Lupine oil is not inferior in quality to olive oil, but it does not contain substances that slow down digestion.
Lupine is both decorative, green manure and medicinal culture at the same time. The root system of this plant is capable of storing and converting nitrogen into a form that is easier for plants to assimilate.
Lupine began to be cultivated about four millennia ago.
If you are interested in this culture, then from our article you will learn:
Read more about growing lupine below.
Lupine (lat.Lupinus) - a genus of the Legume family, which is represented by both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Translated from Latin "Lupus" means "wolf", and the plant itself is sometimes called wolf beans. Lupine flowers are widespread in nature in two regions: in the Mediterranean-African region, 11 annual and 1 perennial species of lupine grow, and in the Western Hemisphere, in the territory from Patagonia to Alaska and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, about 200 species of lupine grow. Of the American species, only the variable lupine, which the Incas were still engaged in, and the many-leaved lupine, are cultivated.
The lupine plant is drought tolerant, so some of its species grow in the deserts of Arizona, California, Texas, Peru and Chile, and even in the Sahara. In 1911, the English breeder George Russell created highly decorative species of lupines, which were called "Russell hybrids" and since then have been the most popular decoration of gardens and flower beds.
The root system of lupins is pivotal, sometimes extending 2 meters deep. The roots are covered with small swellings that absorb nitrogen from the air and enrich the soil under the plant. Stems are woody or herbaceous, branches are creeping, protruding or erect. Lupine leaves are alternate, on long petioles, palmate-compound, connected to the stem by a leaf cushion with a long stipule. Inflorescence is an apical raceme, on which a large number of flowers are whorled, semi-whorled, or alternately. The brush sizes in some species reach one meter, the color of the flowers is varied - yellow, white, red, pink, cream and purple lupins, as well as all shades of purple.
Lupine seeds of different species differ in shape, size, and color. The lupine beans of the Mediterranean species are larger than the American ones. Drying, the beans crack and scatter seeds around them - very small grains of lupine. Lupine not only decorates flower beds, it is also grown as a green manure: stems and leaves of lupine rotted in the ground become an excellent fertilizer. In addition, fodder lupine is grown.
Sow lupine seeds for seedlings in a loose soil mixture for germinating seeds, consisting of peat (one part), sod land (one part) and sand (half part). Before sowing, the seeds are mixed with powdered root nodules of old lupins to accelerate the growth of nitrogen-absorbing bacteria. Seedlings will appear in a week or two, and if you want all the seeds to sprout at the same time, you need to cover the crops with wet gauze and keep them warm.
It should be recalled that seed reproduction does not guarantee the inheritance of coloration and other traits of mother plants by young lupines. Lupine from seeds is usually grown for the purpose of a breeding experiment. Purple and pink colors dominate, therefore they can persist in the next generation, and the white color is most likely lost during seed reproduction. After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place - do not delay the transplant, since the tap root system will become a significant obstacle to you.
If you are using a seedling method of seed propagation, then sow the seeds in early spring, at the beginning of March. If you decide to sow directly into the ground in spring, then sowing lupine is carried out in April, after the snow melts, but the site should be ready in autumn. Many flower growers prefer to sow lupine before winter, at the end of October. There are many advantages in autumn sowing and there are almost no contraindications: the seeds will not have time to germinate before winter, since they will ripen in the ground in very comfortable conditions. Seeds are buried in the ground to a depth of 2 cm, then the site is mulched with peat, in the spring the lupine will rise together and bloom by August.
If you grow lupine in a seedling way, then, as already mentioned, lupine is planted when 2-3 leaves appear on the seedlings, and do not tighten so that there are no problems with transplanting.
Most lupins are suitable for slightly acidic or slightly alkaline loamy or sandy loam soil in a sunny area. To prepare the site for the spring planting of lupine seedlings, in the fall, the acidic soil is limestone or dolomite flour at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m², and this is enough for 3-4 years. Too alkaline soil is dug up with peat with the same calculation - 5 kg per 1 m². In the spring, germinated and strengthened seedlings are planted in the soil prepared in the fall at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other.
Lupine care is not difficult. If you grow perennial lupine, for the first year you will have to periodically loosen the soil on the site and remove the emerging weeds. Over time, adult plants will need to be huddled, since the root collar is gradually exposed, and the side rosettes are isolated. After five to six years of growth, old bushes will have to be removed, since the middle part of the bush dies off and the quality of flowering deteriorates markedly. Provide support for tall lupines so that their stems do not break in the wind.
If you want lupins to bloom until the very cold, prune withered inflorescences without letting them dry out. After such manipulation, perennial species are able to bloom twice a season. Watering lupins should be moderate, but in spring watering should be abundant.
Top dressing of lupins is carried out in the spring, in the second year of growth, with mineral fertilizers that do not contain nitrogen: about 20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of calcium chloride are applied per 1 m² of area. Top dressing is carried out every spring until it is time to plant new lupins.
During the budding period, lupine can be affected by aphids, at a later time - by the larvae of the sprout fly and nodule weevils. You will have to fight them by spraying the plants with insecticides.
Of the diseases, rot (gray and root), fusarium wilting, spots and mosaics, phomopsis and rust are dangerous for lupine. You won't have to fight diseases and pests if you follow the agrotechnical requirements for lupine, and first of all, the rules of crop rotation: the placement of lupine again on the site can take place only after three years. The best precursor for lupine is cereals.
As soon as the lupine fruit ripens, it cracks, and the seeds scatter in all directions. To prevent this, you need to collect seeds when the beans turn yellow and just start to dry. This will have to be done selectively in several steps.
When the lupins bloom, around the beginning of October, you need to cut off the flower stalks and leaves, collect the seeds, if necessary. Bushes of perennial lupins should be earthed up to cover the exposed root collar with soil, and then covered with sawdust for the winter - lupins are very cold in winter.
Let us present you some of the most famous species of lupins in nature.
Herbaceous plant with a height of 80 cm to 150 cm with a sparsely pubescent erect stem. The leaves are palmate, also pubescent below. Flowers are odorless, white, pink or purple in color, which for some reason was considered blue, and therefore called the species "blue lupine";
Comes from the Northwest of North America. It is winter-hardy, therefore it grows well in our latitudes. Height from 80 cm to 120 cm, stems straight and almost glabrous, the leaf of lupine multifoliate is palmate, on a long petiole, pubescent below. Inflorescences 30-35 cm long consist of many blue flowers. It blooms for about three weeks in June, subject to the condition of timely removal of wilted inflorescences, it blooms again at the end of summer.
Annual with sparsely leafy pubescent stem, the same pubescent leaves on long petioles, consisting of 5-9 lobes. Yellow flowers with a scent reminiscent of mignonette, collected in a whorled raceme;
Grows up to 150 cm in height. Its stem is erect, branched at the top. The leaves are palmate, densely pubescent from below in such a way that the villi form a silvery rim around the leaves. The upper side of the leaves is smooth. The flowers are odorless, white, pale pink or light blue, arranged in a spiral in the inflorescence.
In addition to these species, attention is also drawn to the following: changeable lupine, perennial lupine, small-leaved lupine, dwarf lupine, nutkan lupine, tree lupine and others.
In culture, hybrid varieties of multifoliate lupine are most often grown, such as:
But the most beautiful and favorite varieties of flower growers were brought out by the breeder Russell: "Burg Fraulin" - with a pure white color, Mein Schloss - with a red-brick tint, a series of undersized bright hybrids Minaret or Splendid - a variety group of monophonic hybrids and varieties with a sail of white or contrasting color.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Annuals Weeds Shrubs Semi-shrubs Siderata Plants on L Legumes (Moths)
Today, there are hundreds of species of lupine. Nevertheless, only a dozen of them can be called garden and decorative. Most often these are perennials that grow up to 50-150 cm.
The most famous species of this plant in nature are the following:
Lupine multifoliate Lupinus Polyphyllus
It is also worth remembering the following types of lupine: silver, changeable, tree-like, dwarf, etc.
As for the varieties, most often only a few of them are grown in culture. For example, the "Princess Juliana" variety grows up to 110 cm, has long clusters of white-pink flowers. The flowering period reaches 40 days.
Another variety is Aprikot. This plant has orange flowers. The inflorescences reach 40 cm in length, and the plant itself grows up to 90 cm.
At the moment, verbascum has about 250 species, in addition to this, scientists have bred a huge number of varieties. The most popular among gardeners are:
The height of such varieties as: Flower of Scotland, Buttercup, Sugar Plum, Summer sorbet, Summer sorbet, White candles, Jackie variety - does not exceed 50 centimeters.
The height of such varieties as: Blue Lagoon, Cherry Helen, Copper Rose, Clementine, Helen Johnson, Mont Blanc, Pink Domino does not exceed one and a half meters.
Densiflorum, Miss Willmott, Wega, C.L. Adams - these varieties reach two meters in height.
Purple verbascum: photo of a plant
The structural features of lupins make them in demand when decorating flower beds and other compositions in the garden. Multi-colored candles-inflorescences of culture can decorate any site, front garden or flower bed in the park. As a rule, vigorous lupins are rooted as a central tier in flower beds, and they can also become the backdrop for evergreen crops that form a dense living carpet.
With the help of multi-colored lupines, rockeries are made out, they are planted in alpine hills, when creating landscape compositions using decorative stone sculptures. Also, plants become an ornament of border flower arrangements, they can be planted along buildings.
As suitable neighbors in the flowerbed for lupins, colorful hosts, phloxes, irises and lilies act.
For information on how to properly grow lupines, see the next video.