Manure is a popular organic fertilizer that is widely used in rural areas. It is not always convenient for urban gardeners and truck farmers to use it. Quality manure or humus is often difficult to buy. In our article, we will talk about ways to replace the popular fertilizer.
Liquid fertilizer from cut grass is a budget, safe and effective way to grow horticultural crops. The herbal infusion contains a full range of essential substances that are easily absorbed by them. To prepare a liquid fertilizer, you will need:
In hot weather, the infusion is ready in one, maximum two weeks. It becomes green and transparent without suspended solids. Complex fertilizer (NPK complex) or nitrophoska allows to speed up the fermentation process. It is necessary to add 30-40 g of nitrophoska per 50 liters of water to a barrel with grass, and the process will be completed in 3-5 days. Use a useful composition at the rate of 0.5 liters of solution per 10 liters of water for spraying and watering the beds.
The value of poultry droppings in the content of calcium - 2.5%, nitrogenous substances - up to 2% and phosphatides (organic phosphorus). The fastest way of cooking:
Experienced gardeners believe that it is enough to make bird droppings as top dressing in the garden once every three years. And it will work!
Harmless, free, effective - everything a gardener needs combines a nettle fertilizer that is used as a liquid herbal supplement. All garden and berry crops respond well to it, except for onions and garlic. The recipe is simple: 1 kg of green crushed mass is poured with 10 liters of water. Leave to ferment for 10-15 days in an open container, stirring. When the liquid becomes dark green and transparent, the nettle solution is ready. For watering tomatoes, cucumbers and berry crops, the infusion is diluted 1: 5, for cabbage and parsley - 1: 1. If spraying is necessary, dilute the infusion 1:10 and filter.
Obtaining humus from sawdust is a laborious method that takes a long time. But it is also used as a substitute for manure. First you need to prepare a compost heap. The basis is laid on 20-30 cm of garden soil, the same layer of sawdust is poured. Then 30 g of urea is diluted in 10 liters of water and poured with this solution sawdust. Grass or plant tops, food waste are placed on top. The compost heap is covered with slaked lime, bone meal and ash. The heap “ripens” for 2-3 years. Every spring it is shoveled.
Siderata are annual plants that quickly gain green mass, honey plants. They are planted for use as an organic fertilizer. Siderates include mustard, lupine, wheat, beans, calendula and other plants. Some of them are sown in vegetable gardens or greenhouses before winter, such as mustard. In early spring, it gains a sufficient green mass, it is mowed and buried in the beds. Others, like phacelia or calendula, are planted in the aisles - they repel pests and attract honey insects. Siderates are used in compost heaps, which are prepared before winter. In terms of their properties, they are superior to animal fertilizers and as a manure substitute, this is an excellent solution.
Compost in terms of popularity and frequency of use is the second after manure. Depending on the components, the compost is divided into: grass, mixed, peat, sawdust-sod. For its maturation, a pit, or a box with removable sides, or a free area in the garden, about 2 by 3 meters in size, is placed. Straw is laid at the bottom of the pit or box. , sawdust, dry foliage. Then food waste, green tops of plants, the same green manure are laid. A balance should be observed between carbohydrates and nitrogen, that is, between the dry component and the green mass. Their ratio should be approximately the same.
Peat is an organic material decomposed and formed in swamps. According to the place of formation, they are distinguished: lowland, riding and transitional.
When used in vegetable gardens, peat improves the structure of the soil, increases its acidity and air permeability.
It is preferable to use peat as a fertilizer in compost pits, mixing it with ash, green manure, nitrogen fertilizers. Such compost is shoveled several times during the season. 20-30 kg of finished compost is used as fertilizer per 10 sq. meters of garden land. We talked about only a part of organic mineral fertilizers that can be used as a substitute for manure. Combines their safety of use, efficiency and low cost. Which one to use is up to you.
Fertilizers can be not only in packs on the counter, but also in our trash can, in the water from under the aquarium, which we periodically change, or in plant residues, which many of us do not compost, but corny burned and, what is most offensive, even the remaining ash is literally blown into the wind, collected in garbage bags and thrown into containers.
Composting as a natural fertilizer. © David Austin
By doing this, we not only spend a lot of money, from year to year throwing away fertilizers that are at our fingertips and buying those that adorn the store shelves in beautiful packs, but we often ruin nature by not returning the products of its own vital activity there. , and stuffing it with not always useful chemical balls and granules of different colors, which the soil still needs to bring to a normal state accessible to plants.
That is why the soil, even being enriched with "chemistry", can be depleted from year to year, crop yields can decrease, and the varieties and fruits of these varieties become completely different from what they were before.
Let's talk today about which of the substances that are at hand in the kitchen or in the garden can become natural, useful and effective fertilizers for our garden, vegetable garden, flower garden.
BEST NATURAL VEGETABLE FERTILIZERS
1. Bread leaven for cucumbers
To get a rich harvest of cucumbers, you need to feed them regularly! Bread leaven is perfect for this. It's easy to cook!
Fill a bucket 2/3 full with sliced brown bread crusts, cover with water and press down with something heavy. Otherwise, the crusts will float when the bread begins to sour. Place the bucket in a warm place for a week. Then dilute the starter culture with 2 l. water. And pour this bread remedy over the root cucumbers. Such dressings can be carried out once a week from the beginning of flowering until the beginning of wilting.
2. Feed the onion with ammonia
The tips of the onion feathers turned pale, and the feather itself became yellowish! He lacks nitrogen. A solution of ammonia will help to replenish it.
It is done like this: in 10 liters. Dissolve 3 tablespoons of water. ammonia. And in the evening, pour the onion with this solution under the spine.
3. Coniferous infusion will get rid of aphids
To do this, pour 500 g of pine or spruce needles with 2 liters. water and let it brew in a dark place for a week. Dilute with water (1: 7) and spray before use.
4. Tobacco against the Colorado potato beetle
I discovered this method of dealing with the Colorado potato beetle by accident. Somehow young people were resting at the dacha with barbecue and, of course, with cigarettes.
Knowing my negative attitude towards smoking, the guys took a small metal bucket, poured water into it and threw cigarette butts into it. In the evening, I decided to collect the Colorado beetles. Without hesitation, she took a bucket of cigarette butts and began to shake off the bugs into it. Later I decided to see if the bugs had crawled out. But it turned out that they were all dead!
Plant fertilization: organic fertilizers (manure, bird droppings, green manure, nitrogen, natural minerals, peat, coal, ash), organic fertilizers from store shelves.
In order to live, plants need to eat. They get their nutrients from the soil. Of course, garden soil already has a major source of nutrients. But it should be constantly replenished. This should be done primarily by introducing organic fertilizers into the soil, and then mineral fertilizers.
It is a natural organic fertilizer. It would seem that how can he harm the soil? But the unreasonable introduction of manure into the soil is just as harmful as its lack. An experienced gardener will never put cheese manure into the soil, but pass it through the compost. Cattle manure kept on straw bedding contains all the essential nutrients. Horse dung matches it, but it is too warm. Horse dung is good for early filling in greenhouses. As a fertilizer, it is used in the form of compost.
6. Bird droppings
Poultry manure, especially chicken manure, is a very powerful fertilizer. It contains more nitrogen than manure, it also contains phosphorus and potassium, but in much smaller quantities. Why, with such a supercomposition, you ask, is poultry manure so inactively used? There are basically two reasons. Firstly, bird manure has an extremely unpleasant odor, and secondly, it contains a large amount of weed seeds and helminth eggs. In addition, fresh droppings react too actively, which is why it can harm the plants.
True, science has found a way out. Today, the industry offers gardeners to use dry poultry manure. It is prepared by thermal drying at very high temperatures. The result is a gray granular fertilizer. The unpleasant smell, however, remains, but it cannot be compared with the original one. Nutrients in dry droppings are preserved, but weed seeds, eggs of worms and flies die. Dry droppings should be diluted with water at the rate of 100 g per 10 liters of water, insisted and used to feed plants during the growing season. Better yet, prepare compost by mixing dry manure and peat in a 1: 2 ratio. If desired, you can add mineral fertilizers to such compost.
A wonderful organic fertilizer is herbal nutrient solution. How to cook it? Pick up herbs. It is best to start with nettles. Chop the grass, then put it in a plastic or wooden barrel and fill it with water. During fermentation, the slurry will foam, so you cannot fill the barrel to the top. Stir the herbal slurry daily with a stick to release the accumulated oxygen. In sunny, warm summers, green manure will ferment especially strongly. Often gardeners complain that the herbal slurry emits a too strong, unpleasant odor. You can get rid of it by adding a few drops of valerian extract to the liquid. After about two weeks, the slurry will clear up. Fermentation is over, green manure can be applied.
Nettle slurry should not be used undiluted. It must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. It should be watered at the root. Nettle goo well nourishes exhausted plantings of tomatoes, cabbage, celery, cucumbers. But this fertilizer is not suitable for beans, peas and onions.
8. Nitrogen - from legumes
Legumes have an excellent ability to enrich the soil with nitrogen. These plants "work" together with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Clover, vetch, lupine, and vegetable crops - peas and beans - are excellent nitrogen accumulators. Plants planted in the beds where legumes grew in the previous year practically do not need additional feeding. By the way, legumes also loosen the soil, because their root system extends deeply in breadth. Above ground legumes are also good green fertilizers.
9. Natural minerals
The group of natural mineral fertilizers includes soil improvers, for example, stone flour. This is stone dust, waste from quarries and stone processing industry. The composition of the flour depends on the processed rocks. The most valuable stone flour from granite and basalt, it serves as a source of trace elements and minerals, has the ability to retain a large amount of water, which is important for improving sandy soils. In general, any stone flour improves the structure of the soil, delays the removal of nutrients from it.
It binds nutrients especially well and improves the lumpy structure of the soil with calcium. It neutralizes excess acidity. It should be borne in mind that the dose of calcium fertilizers cannot be overestimated, otherwise the reaction of the soil solution will be alkaline. It will be difficult to correct the oversight, and the alkali will damage the plants. Calcium is introduced gradually and directed. For example, on loams, stone dust containing calcium can only be applied once.
Peat is a medicine for the garden. Usually peat is considered as a remedy for the vegetable garden. Its main merit is that it has the ability to absorb a lot of water and thus regulate soil moisture. It is also used to improve the structure of light sandy soils. But even on damp, clayey soils, peat can, to a certain extent, bind excess moisture. However, peat can acidify the soil, then dolomite flour or lime must be used to neutralize it. Peat contains almost no nutrients, so it must be enriched with mineral fertilizers, compost, stone flour.
If you grow tomatoes in an apartment, then this top dressing will be most effective for them. In an apartment, tomatoes often have an underdeveloped root system, this top dressing can save the situation. Do not think that such fertilizer will work only for apartment seedlings - after such feeding, tomatoes will form the strongest root system several weeks earlier than ordinary sprouts, even in a garden bed or in a greenhouse.
To prepare such an infusion, you need to mix 10 grams of dry yeast, 2 tablespoons of sugar and 10 liters of warm water. After preparing the mixture, leave it for several hours. The resulting concentrate is diluted in a 1: 5 ratio with water and the bushes are watered. Already 3 days after applying the solution, the tomatoes will increase in size, and the leaves will thicken, acquire a bright green hue.
These mixes contain huge amounts of nutrients that bring plants back to life, helping to fully grow, develop and bear fruit. This nomenclature includes complete mineral fertilizers, as well as complex fertilizers.
Fertilizer in which phosphorus and nitrogen are contained in a 50/50 ratio... It is used for different types of applications, for fertilizing garden and vegetable crops, as well as in agro-industrial production. This substance is obtained by a neutralization reaction with ammonia with a mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids. The nitrophosphate formula looks like this: NH4H2PO4 + NH4NO3.
Manufacturers produce the following classifications of this mineral fertilizer:
Nitroammophos is used with excellent results on sod-podzolic, chestnut, chernozem and sierozem soils.
It is the best mineral fertilizer for clays. It is optimal to apply it to clay soils with slow diffusion in the autumn, and to sandy soils before spring plowing.
it three-element complex (N + P + K), which fertilize the soil, using it as the main plant nutrition. Agronomists recommend it for almost all garden crops.
It consists of various salts - ammophos, superphosphate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, precipitate, gypsum, ammonium chloride and various impurities. It is produced in the form of small balls, soluble in water.
It is a complete mineral fertilizer that is used during spring sowing, as well as throughout the entire growing season.
Nitrofoska is actively used not only by large agro-industrial complexes, but also by simple summer residents on their plots. Fertilizer is very good for tomatoes (they become larger and sweeter), and for cucumbers, which, after using it, are not affected by various diseases.
Nitrophoska is very effective both for continuous and local application. For feeding potatoes, a chlorine-free form is used. For this particular vegetable, it is much more useful than nitroammophos. The tubers are larger, and do not get sick with scab and other common diseases.
Potassium, magnesium and phosphorus are the main elements of this complete mineral fertilizer.
Its formula looks like this: (NH4) 2SO4 + (NH4) 2HPO4 + K2SO4. Ammafos is used, unlike other representatives of this group, not only in unprotected soil, but also in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Another difference from other complex mineral fertilizers is that ammophos contains a rather rare, but very useful substance - sulfur, and in significant quantities. The main advantage of this top dressing is that it contains no chlorine and sodium.
This fertilizer is produced in the form of small light granules. It has a high friability, which makes it easier to use. Differs in high uniformity of distribution of elements over granules
Ammafoska is used as a universal top dressing. It is especially good for flowers. Roses, after introducing it into the ground, begin to bloom more abundantly and luxuriantly, and peonies and phloxes reduce the growth of the vegetative mass, and increase the number of flower ovaries.
This is a complex mineral fertilizer that includes the main nutrients for all plant flora. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, like the three whales, form the basis of this mix. Diammophos has universal use, it is used for all types of crops and for any soil.
Diammonium phosphate is produced in the form of small pink beads. It is processed with anti-dust reagents, which increases its friability and hygroscopicity. It has a neutral pH factor, this helps the fertilizer not to affect the acidity of the soil.
The remains of diammophoska are not washed out of the soil, and are further used by subsequent generations of plants, which ensures a long aftereffect of this feeding. It can be used not only for pre-sowing and sowing application, but also for foliar and root dressing.
Treatment with this mineral fertilizer is ideal for tomatoes during flowering. It helps the plant to fight all types of pests by increasing the quality of the digestibility of nutrients.
It is difficult to imagine a modern garden without such elements of landscaping as ornamental shrubs, which bring bright touches to the variegated palette of shades of plant compositions. Ornamental shrubs for the garden act as spectacular tapeworms that decorate open areas, hedges along paths or serve as a backdrop for variegated flower arrangements. Their presence transforms the appearance of any garden and makes it more elegant and festive It is difficult to imagine a modern garden without such elements of landscaping as ornamental shrubs, which bring bright touches to the variegated palette of shades of plant compositions. Ornamental shrubs for the garden act as spectacular tapeworms that decorate open areas, hedges along paths or serve as a backdrop for variegated flower arrangements. Their presence transforms the appearance of any garden and makes it more elegant and festive.
All rights to the site materials belong to:
SP Ziganshina R.Z. 129226,
Moscow, st. Agricultural, 18, bldg. 3