Growing celery, parsley and parsnips


White roots

I really love spices and spices. As far back as I can remember, as soon as I learned to cook, I always added them to various dishes. The very first spices that I used in cooking were parsley and dill.

Now on the shelves of shops and in the market you can find such a variety of spices and herbs that it is simply impossible to pass by without buying something new. One day I was attracted by a packet of white roots, and I bought it out of curiosity. It included parsley root, celery root and parsnip root.

When I added a dry mixture of white roots to the soup, the taste and smell of the finished dish pleasantly surprised me. I added roots in cereals, in sauces, in soups, and always white spices were in place. At that time, I was already growing leafy celery and leafy parsley on my garden plot, so I had some experience, but this was the first time I heard about parsnips.

There was not a large selection of seeds then, and I bought what I had. Unfortunately, I could not find root parsley, but I was able to buy seeds of parsnip without the name of the variety and root celery of the Apple variety.

I can't say that the first harvest of white roots made me especially happy. But now, when there is already experience, and new, more productive and high-quality varieties of parsley, celery and parsnips appear on the seed market, it is much easier to grow a good harvest of white root crops.

Features of spicy green crops

These three plants have a lot in common. Fragrant celery (Apium graveolens), garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and sowing parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) are biennial plants of the celery family. In different types of celery, leaves, petioles and root crops are eaten, in parsley - roots and leaves, in parsnips - leaves and root crops. In the first year of life, the plants form a basal rosette of long-petiolized leaves (in root varieties, there is also a root crop), in the second - a flowering stem and seeds. Under unfavorable cultivation conditions, some plants bloom in the first year of life, but the seeds of these plants are not suitable for further sowing.

The Mediterranean is considered the birthplace of celery. It has been known as a medicinal plant since the 3rd-2nd centuries BC. Celery has been used as a spicy vegetable in Italy since the 16th century. In Russia, this culture began to be grown only in the 18th century. Three varieties of celery are used in gardening - root, petiole and leaf.

The homeland of parsley is considered the mountainous regions of the Mediterranean, where it still grows wild today. This plant was originally used as an ornamental and spice plant. In Europe, parsley was cultivated as a vegetable in the 14th century, and in Russia - in the 18th century. In culture, there are two varieties - root parsley and leaf parsley.

The origin of the parsnip is not known for certain. In the wild or feral form, it is found in North America, Great Britain, Italy, the Caucasus, Turkey and Western Siberia. The root of such a parsnip is inedible. It was cultivated by the Incas in Peru. Parsnip seeds were discovered during excavations of Neolithic settlements in the territory of modern Switzerland. The ancient Greeks attributed it to a particularly valuable plant with a pleasant taste and aroma. Wine and beer were made from it. Before the appearance potatoes in Russia parsnip and turnip were the most common vegetables. Now parsnips are grown and used mainly for the production of canned food.

Celery seedlings

Despite the fact that these three plants have a lot in common, there are some peculiarities in growing each of them. For example, when growing root celery, you have to use the seedling method. Indeed, some of its varieties require at least 180-200 days from sowing seeds to harvesting.

I sow root celery from mid February to March 10th. To do this, I spread the untreated seeds on the surface of the sifted slightly moistened soil mixture, slightly compact the crops, gently water and cover with glass or film, leaving the container with soil and seeds in the light. I do not sprinkle the sown seeds with soil, since light is needed for their germination. This is an important point.

If celery seeds are fresh and of high quality, then friendly shoots appear already on the 7-10th day. If I am not sure of their quality, then before sowing, I treat the seeds with any biostimulant (Epin, Zircon, aloe juice). As soon as the first shoots appear, I remove the film or glass and leave the seedlings in the light, protecting them from direct sunlight. Seedling care mainly consists of moderate watering.

Grown plants with two real leaves I dive into peat pots or paper cups. At the same time, I immerse the seedlings in the soil for half of its stem. After picks, after 15 days, I feed the plants with complex fertilizer. The optimum temperature for growing seedlings is 15 ... + 18 ° С.

A few days before planting seedlings in the ground, I harden them. Before planting in a permanent place, I water it with water. So that there are not many lateral roots, when planting in the ground, I do not deeply deepen the young plants of root celery. In summer, I do not cut leaves for salads from root celery and root parsley, so as not to weaken the root crop. Good care is essential to get a good harvest.

After all, root celery is a demanding culture: the bed should be sunny, the soil is loose, fertile, and the reaction of the soil should not be sour... All summer I regularly water, loosen and mulch the beds with celery. I apply organic fertilizers, especially fresh manure, under the previous crop, i.e. a year before planting (this applies to both root parsley and parsnips). When grown using fresh manure, root crops branch out strongly.

Sowing parsley and parsnips

Both of these crops are cold-hardy. For example, shoots of root parsley and parsnips can withstand temperatures down to -7 ° C, so I sow them in early spring, as soon as the soil warms up. Parsley seeds can be sown before winter in November, but if thaws occur after sowing, the seeds can sprout and then die from sudden frost.

I have been preparing the beds for spring sowing of root parsley and parsnips in the fall, then I make furrows on them, into which I will sow seeds. In the early spring, I spill furrows with hot water, sow seeds and sprinkle them with earth. I sow parsley seeds shallowly, but parsnip seeds - to a depth of 2 cm, since they are much larger than parsley seeds. I cover the crops with plastic wrap or non-woven material.

Root parsley and parsnips cannot be grown by seedling method, because the root is damaged during transplantation, which subsequently branches heavily. But to get an earlier harvest of parsley, I sow seeds in paper cups in February, in the spring I plant the grown seedlings in open ground. The most favorable for root parsley is the distance between plants up to 5 cm, and for parsnips - up to 10 cm.

Parsnips and parsley are unpretentious plants that are drought tolerant and light-loving. The soil for cultivation should be fertile and loose, and for parsnips it should also be deeply cultivated, since the parsnip root reaches a length of 50 cm or more. For varieties that form a round and short root crop, deep digging of the site is not necessary. For parsnips and parsley, a few heavy watering in dry weather is sufficient. If the rains were good, then there is no need to water. Excess moisture for these root crops is undesirable.

Harvest

The best time for harvesting root parsley, root celery and parsnips is late September - early October. At a later date, the harvest is worse stored. Root crops of parsley, celery and parsnips retain their high culinary and dietary properties when stored in sand or in open plastic bags at a temperature of about 0 ° C and high humidity. If the winters are snowy, then the roots of parsley and parsnips do not even need to be dug out, they are well preserved in the ground in a garden bed under a small shelter. I don’t leave the celery root in the ground - in our country it almost always freezes out, even when covered.

Varieties

Root parsley varieties

For summer consumption and for drying, I grow parsley of the variety Sugar... Its root crop is medium in size, cone-shaped, weighing 50-60 g, has a harmonious taste and pleasant aroma. It is an early ripening variety with a growing season of up to 100 days, but it is not suitable for long-term storage.

For long-term storage, it is better to grow a variety of root parsley. Yielding... He, too, is early maturing, has a dark green foliage with a strong aroma. Its root crop is medium in size with white flesh and a yellow core.

I really liked the variety of root parsley The final... Its seeds have recently appeared on the market. This is a mid-season variety, its vegetation period is up to 130 days. The mass of the root crop is 140-200 g, it can be dried and frozen.

Root celery varieties

Seed sellers currently offer over a dozen varieties of root celery. I mainly grow mid-season varieties weighing up to one kilogram. These are the varieties: Esaul, Albin, Egor, Dutch variety The president... All of them have a growing season of up to 180 days. Root crops of these varieties are leveled in shape, have few lateral roots, have a pleasant taste and aroma, and are well stored in the cellar or in the refrigerator.

Parsnip varieties. There are few varieties of this culture, and even less on sale. I grew an early ripening variety Round with a rounded root vegetable weighing up to 160 g and an early variety Best of all with a conical shape of a root crop weighing up to 200 g. Last year, I grew a parsnip variety Parsnip PP firm "Russian Garden". It is a very good medium early variety with large cone-shaped roots that have a pleasant taste and aroma.

Read the second part: Celery, parsley and parsnip in cooking and traditional medicine →

Tatiana Lybina, gardener,
Zhezkazgan, Republic of Kazakhstan
Photo by the author


Parsnip

Parsnip Is a vegetable that is similar to parsley root, with larger leaves. The taste is very spicy and aromatic, close to the family of celery plants. Considering this plant, you can see that the root crop is spherical, small, with a rough surface. The root vegetable itself is of a yellowish light, and its flesh is white. The stem is most often even and highly branched. The leaves are pinnately branched with blunt edges. Smooth above and rough below. Parsnips can be classified as celery or umbelliferae. It blooms with small yellow flowers.

This plant is one of the most fortified among vegetables. It contains a lot of carbohydrates, which are easily absorbed by the human body, as well as proteins, fiber, sugar, starch and much more. Also contains salts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper and vitamins C, B1, B2. The richness of the aroma is given by the essential oils in it.

Parsnips are very good for planting, as they easily overwinter outdoors. The plant easily tolerates cold, and even frost. The plant begins to germinate at a temperature slightly above zero. Moreover, the seedlings can withstand a slight frost. The best temperature for a quick and good harvest of parsnips is about 15 degrees Celsius. The favorable soil for the cultivation of this culture is loamy with a deep dug up layer, as well as fertile. The plant is not picky. Parsnips are grown in the same way as carrots, and most often even together with it. After applying manure, or after germination of cucumbers, onions and other light plants. In the fall, the soil is pretreated with superphosphate and potassium chloride, and in the spring with urea. So, sowing begins with the introduction of seeds into the soil to a depth of three centimeters. For the most successful harvest, it is important to maintain moisture, for this it is watered three or even four times. After good moistening, no matter artificial irrigation or natural rain, the earth is loosened.

Parsnips are harvested just before the frosts in late autumn. In the case of a winter house, the leaves are removed, and the rhizome is earthed. After harvesting, the plant retains its beneficial properties longer if it is stored in a cool place covered with sand.

Like any living creature, the parsnip has enemies that easily defeat it. These include: septoria, black spot, white and gray rot, wet bacterial rot and is damaged by caraway moth.

By applying all the helpful tips, you can produce a vitamin-rich crop.

Parsnips are used in the preparation of various dishes, in aromatherapy and phytotherapy. So it stimulates the appetite and restores digestion. Strengthens blood vessels and is also pain soothing. And it has an antispasmodic effect in urolithiasis and kidney stones. Parsnip has a tonic property and is used in case of loss of strength, spring ailments, after serious illness. That is, it is used as an aphrodisiac. Dried root vegetables of parsnips are used in seasonings in the form of powder or mixture. The green leaves of parsnips, although mildly spicy, are also used in cooking, both fresh and dried. It is often used when preparing soup mixtures for future use, and is added to any vegetable dishes for flavoring. Parsnips play an important role in the canning industry, being an indispensable ingredient in many canned foods, such as vegetables. Parsnips are very good for canning, pickling cucumbers, in pickles. It is also a very valuable crop for feeding animals and birds.

Parsnips contain a foul-smelling essential oil. The content of essential oil in different areas of growth ranges from 1.1 to 2.1%. The essential oil contains ethyl and octyl alcohols, petroselinic and butyric acids. In addition, the fruits contain furocoumarins belonging to the psoralen group, xanthoxin, isopimpinellin, and a small amount of spondins. The content of different furocoumarin components varies in different parsnip varieties. The richest in furocoumarins are the "Student" and "Guernsey" varieties. Parsnips contain up to 10% fatty oil and flavonoid glycosides.

Furocoumarins, especially xanthotoxin, are also found in other parts of the plant, but in much smaller quantities. The herb contains an essential oil.

Parsnip is used in dietary nutrition for cholelithiasis and kidney stones, padagre, after serious illnesses, for nervous diseases, tuberculosis, emphysema, pneumonia, bronchitis, to improve the function of the digestive system. Parsnip stimulates appetite, stimulates the activity of endocrine glands, metabolism, strengthens capillary walls, relieves spasms, has a strong diuretic effect, promotes the removal of stones and salts with an analgesic, bactericidal and sedative effect.

For medicinal purposes, they prepare decoctions of roots, leaves or fruits... To prepare the broth, 1 tablespoon of herbs (or leaves) are poured with 2 glasses of water, boiled for 10 minutes, insisted for 2 hours. Drink 1 / 3-1 / 2 glasses 3 times a day, 20-30 minutes before meals.

A decoction of leaves, roots or seeds is used to treat hair loss. For this, the broth is taken orally in 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day. At the same time, fresh root juice or a tincture of leaves, seeds or roots in a ratio of 1: 10 is rubbed into the scalp every other day for a month. If necessary, repeat the course of treatment in a month.

Infusion of roots used as a tonic and tonic for general loss of strength and recovery after heavy operations. For its preparation, fresh chopped roots (2 tablespoons) are mixed with 3 tbsp. tablespoons of granulated sugar. Pour them with a glass of water, boil for 15 minutes, insist for 8 hours and drink 1/3 cup 3-4 times a day 15 minutes before meals.

Parsnip juice contains very little calcium and even less sodium, but it is very rich in potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, chlorine. The nutritional value of this vegetable is not as high as that of some other tubers, but the healing properties of the juice, leaves and roots of parsnips are very high.

The high silicon and sulfur content helps to overcome brittle nails. Phosphorus and chlorine are especially useful for the lungs and bronchi, and therefore juice is an excellent food for patients with tuberculosis and pneumonia.

A large percentage of potassium is so valuable for the brain that parsnip juice is very successfully used for many mental disorders. Attention! Parsnip is not recommended for people who are sensitive to sunlight and suffer from photodermatosis. Contact of wet skin with parsnip leaves and fruits causes burns, inflammation of the skin of the hands, especially in blondes.

Parsnip preparations have strongly pronounced antispasmodic properties and photosensitizing activity, that is, they increase the sensitivity of the skin to sunlight. The drug has photosensitizing properties beroxane... It helps to restore skin pigmentation in vitiligo or leukoderma, as well as in the treatment of alopecia areata. Beroxan is used internally in the form of tablets or externally in the form of a solution for rubbing.

Another parsnip preparation - pastinacin used to prevent attacks of angina pectoris in mild forms of coronary insufficiency and in neuroses, accompanied by spasms of the coronary vessels. It is used internally in the form of tablets.

Parsnip is important as a vegetable and herb used in the canning industry.

The medicinal and technical raw materials are the fruits of the sowing parsnip. The color of the fruits is light brownish straw, the essential oil tubules are dark brown. The smell is weak, peculiar, the taste is spicy, slightly pungent. In the raw material, the following content is permissible,%: moisture no more than 10 ash total 6 organic impurities 10 mineral impurities 1. The content of the sum of furocoumarins in terms of absolutely dry raw materials must be at least 1%.

Raw materials are packed in 30 kg bags. Store in a dry, ventilated area on racks. Shelf life is 3 years.


Influence of the phases of the moon on plants

  1. New Moon is the worst time for gardening work. Do not plant or transplant anything. This unfavorable period lasts three days, the day before the new moon, the new moon and the day after.
  2. Waxing Moon - The moon grows by itself and pulls up the energy and sap of plants. This is the best time to work with plants that ripen above the ground (greens, herbs, fruits, vegetables, flowers). You can plant, transplant, graft, and so on.
  3. Full Moon - during this period it is also not recommended for planting and transplanting plants, but it lasts one day. You can do weeding, dressing, pest control of the garden.
  4. Waning Moon - juices and energy are directed down to the roots, so try to work with root crops, bulbs.

Growing celery, parsley and parsnips - garden and vegetable garden

Seed preparation.

Experienced vegetable growers do not like fresh seeds, they let them mature for at least a year. In general, the seeds of cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin remain viable for up to six years; tomatoes, beans, cabbage, rutabagas - five years for carrots, parsley, lettuce, spinach, onions - two or three years for parsnips, celery, dill - a year or two.

Pre-sowing seed preparation includes sorting, checking for germination, dressing, heating, soaking and stimulating growth, bubbling, pelleting, germination and vernalization. Here are how many agricultural techniques - the whole system. Let us dwell on them in the stated sequence.

Sorting ... Large the seeds it is easier to sort one by one, removing small, injured and with traces of diseases. Seeds can be sorted in 3-5% sodium chloride solution. They are poured into the solution in small portions, thoroughly, but without shaking, mixed and kept in liquid for up to 10 minutes, after which the seeds that have floated up are removed, and the seeds that have sunk to the bottom are washed and dried twice (spreading the seeds for drying is necessary in a thin layer). Cucumber seeds can also be sorted in regular water.

The next agricultural practice is germination test ... It is usually carried out three to four weeks before sowing. But if the seeds are stored as recommended in a cool dry place, this work can be done at any time. At home, they usually use gauze, paper, lightweight fabric, or even felt or cloth as an improvised bed. The material covers the bottom of a flat dish, and seeds moistened with water are spread over the entire surface. The same material is applied on top, moistened. “The bed * is covered and kept at room temperature for several days.

The germination energy of cabbage, radish, radish, cucumber is checked on the fourth day of beets, sorrel, onions, spinach - on the fifth carrot, dill - on the sixth tomato - on the seventh parsley, celery - on the eighth.

Germination large seeds (pumpkins, peas, beans, corn) are best done in well washed, dried and sifted sand, which must be kept evenly moist at all times. Seeds are planted to a depth of 2 - 3 cm.

When determining the results of the experiment, the number of sprouting (hatching) seeds is calculated for each hundred. The germination rate is easily calculated as a percentage. If the germination rate does not exceed 10 - 15%, there is no point in using such seeds.

Etching and heating. Dressing is carried out to prevent disease and to treat disease-affected seeds. Many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of vegetable crops are transmitted through seeds. Etching can be carried out in solutions of potassium permanganate, formalin, mercuric chloride.

It is easiest to pickle heated cucumber seeds in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 g of water at a temperature of +25. + 30 ° C) for 20 minutes. The same technique is suitable for the seeds of squash, squash, pumpkin. Then they need to be rinsed in running water. To protect cucumbers from bacteriosis (ulcers on fruits with the release of a sticky liquid), soaking the seeds in a solution of streptomycin (500 units per 10 g of water) for a day will help.

Tomato seeds are pickled in a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate at a temperature of +30 .., + 35 ° C for 5 - 8 minutes. You can also keep them for 15 minutes in a solution of several elements: 1 g of potassium permanganate, 0.2 g of boric acid, 0.1 g of copper sulfate per 1 liter of water.

Usually, at home, more or less experienced vegetable growers save the seeds in a cool dry place. At light subzero temperatures, they retain their viability better - as a result, the seedlings are friendly and strong. And immediately before sowing, the seeds need to be warmed up. A good result is given by solar irradiation of all types of seeds for 2 - 4 days. In this case, they must be mixed every 30 minutes. You can also warm it up under a lamp. This will cause intensive sap flow, and, consequently, the supply of nutrients to all parts of the awakening sprout.

Soaking and growth stimulation. If you want the seedlings to appear 4 to 7 days earlier, do not consider it superfluous to soak, initially germinate and vernalize vegetable seeds. Wrap the seeds in a thick cloth (you can also use gauze folded in several layers), moistened with warmed up to +20. + 25 ° С rain, snow or magnetized water. This increases the germination activity. Quickly cooled boiling water has the same effect.

Seeds of carrots, tomatoes, beets, parsley are soaked for two days cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage, lettuce, radish - up to twelve peas, beans - up to six hours. Seeds it is better to sow cucumbers in open ground with slightly nailed ones. In this case, the groove in the ground should be moistened with warm, preferably rainwater.

The bottom of the groove into which the seeds of carrots, beets, parsley are sown can be moistened with a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 10 l) with the addition of 10-15 g of complete fertilizer with microelements.

Plants' seeds resistant to stalking (carrots, parsley, annual onions for turnips, celery), after soaking and the beginning of germination (no more than five percent of the seeds) are subjected to partial vernalization. Optimal terms of vernalization: for carrots, onions - 15 - 20 days before sowing, parsley and celery - 20 days.

During the period of vernalization, the temperature is maintained from -1 to + 1 * C. Thanks to this reception, growth stimulants are formed in the seeds, the yield increases.

Sparging. The name is complicated, but the trick is simple. This is nothing more than aeration of the seeds in water. Air bubbling gives a good result. Aquarium compressors can be used for this purpose. Oxygenation is carried out at a water temperature of about + 20 ° C. Duration of bubbling at room temperature for peas - 6-10, lettuce and radish - 12 - 18, carrots and onions - 18 - 24, pepper - 20 - 24 hours. If the seeds are not immediately sown after this, they must be dried to their original moisture content.

Pelleting. Conducted with a view increase seed germination , prevention of diseases, repelling pests. The essence of the reception is to envelop the seeds with a nutritious mixture of peat, humus and mineral fertilizers, fastened with a liquid adhesive.

Dry peat and humus are crushed and sieved on a sieve. The particles of the components used for pelleting should not exceed 0.15 - 0.25 mm (depending on the size of the seeds). Slaked lime is added to the peat mixture in an amount sufficient to neutralize the acidity of peat and mineral fertilizers. You can add micronutrient fertilizers to the mixture in very small doses (manganese sulfate, boric acid, copper sulfate, molybdenum ammonium, zinc sulfate).

The pelleting process itself is simple. The seeds are moistened with an adhesive solution (starch paste, strained liquid mullein) and, together with the mixture, are placed in a glass jar, which is then vigorously shaken. Reception is desirable to repeat two or three times.

Germination and vernalization. For seedlings to appear 4-7 days earlier, gardeners soak, germinate or partially vernalize the seeds of a number of crops.

Experts-scientists and vegetable growers-practitioners jointly developed a set of recommendations for carrying out these activities.

This painstaking work is performed at a temperature of +20. +25 0 С. Seeds are poured onto a dense layer of gauze, which is placed in a vessel with water so that it slightly covers them. Duration of soaking seed carrots, tomatoes, beets, parsley - two days of cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage, lettuce, radish - up to twelve peas, beans - up to six hours. Before sowing, seeds of black onion are moistened for six to eight hours in warm water (+ 40 ° C). Cucumbers can also be soaked in 50-degree water for two hours. Before sowing, the seeds are dried in the shade to a loose state.

For germination, the seed is spread on a thick layer of gauze. When up to 5% of the seeds germinate (hatch), they are sown. At 18 - 20-degree temperature, such a moment occurs in cabbage, radish, turnip seeds in one and a half to two days, onions and beets - two to four, carrots - four to five, parsley - five to seven days.

Seeds whose plants are resistant to stalking (carrots, parsley, onions for turnips, celery), after soaking and the beginning of germination (no more than 5% of seeds), are subjected to partial vernalization: they are scattered in a wooden container or on a cloth with a layer of up to three to five centimeters and, stirring occasionally, stand for a certain time. Optimal terms of partial vernalization: for carrots, onions - fifteen to twenty days before sowing parsley and celery - twenty days.

During the vernalization period, the temperature is maintained from -1 ° C to + 1 ° C. With it, stimulants are formed in the seeds, which have an effect on vitality. seed , activate the growth and development of plants, contribute to an increase in productivity.

If seeds germinate prematurely, they are mixed more often and cooled more.

Some vegetable growers bury seeds that have hatched in the snow for two weeks.

Nigella onions cannot be vernalized to get seed sets, as this can lead to shooting after planting the seed in open ground next year.

All wet, germinated, vernalized seeds are sown only in moist soil. Otherwise, all the painstaking work you have done will go to waste.


Parsley

People appreciated the extraordinary aroma and taste of parsley many centuries ago, and since then it has been widely used in various national cuisines. Its leaves and roots are used as a spicy seasoning for sauces and soups, for preparing salads and side dishes, as well as for canning.

Parsley leaves are rich in vitamins C, PP and B group, provitamins A and K, and contain a lot of potassium. Parsley not only improves the taste of dishes, but also enriches them with biologically active substances.

Description
Parsley is a biennial plant. Not afraid of cold and unpretentious. In the first year after sowing, it forms a rosette of fragrant leaves, and left in the ground in the second year, it blooms and gives small seeds. You can grow parsley both for herbs and for the root. In root varieties of parsley, a conical or spindle-shaped root crop of yellow-white color is formed. Root parsley greens are usually not used for cutting, so that the plant has the strength to form a good-sized root crop.

Leaf parsley comes in smooth-leaved and curly varieties. Its leaves are so decorative that often leaf parsley is planted not in the beds, but in flower beds in compositions with other aromatic and medicinal herbs.

Parsley varieties
root vegetable: Yielding, Alba, Eagle, Lyubasha, Piquant, Final, as well as Bordovician and Sugar
leafy with smooth leaves: Common leafy, Breeze, Bogatyr
curly leaf: Astra, Mazina P3, Triplex.
Agrotechnics
There is always a place for parsley in the garden. The plant is unpretentious and almost not demanding on the soil. However, in well-lit areas with loose, fertile soil, parsley can produce a particularly good harvest.

Sowing and growing
The best precursors for parsley are courgettes, cucumbers, potatoes, and cabbage. It should not be planted after other celery - carrots, celery, cilantro, cumin, etc., but it can be perfectly grown at the same time. Parsley grows well in mixed plantings with radishes, peppers, peas, tomatoes and cucumbers. On the plot where parsley grew, it can be sown again only after four years.

The place for the future planting of parsley is prepared in the fall, the soil is deeply dug up and compost is applied. In the spring, the soil is loosened and fertilized with complex mineral fertilizers.

Parsley seeds are sown directly into the ground from mid-April. Dry seeds germinate hard, therefore, before sowing, they must be soaked in water for half an hour, and then dried until flowable. For sowing, grooves are made in the beds with a depth of 1–1.5 cm, spilled with water. After the moisture is absorbed, seeds are sown into the grooves and covered with earth. The earth is leveled and slightly compacted.

Seeds usually germinate in 15–20 days. To accelerate seed germination, the bed can be covered with a film. As soon as shoots appear, the film is immediately removed, since young shoots need good lighting.Parsley shoots are not afraid of frosts down to -9 degrees.

The leafy varieties of parsley can be sown during the summer until the end of July.

Before winter, parsley is sown with dry seeds (without soaking) on ​​ridges to a depth of about 1 cm. The beds are mulched with humus or peat.

Top dressing
Leaf parsley is fed 1–2 times a season with nitrogen fertilizer (50–60 g of saltpeter for every 10 sq. M). Parsley root is fed at the beginning of the growing season with a complex fertilizer, and in August they give phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the rate of 70 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium salt per 10 sq. m. Nitrogen fertilizers are no longer used in order to prevent the waste of root crops.

Harvest
Leaf parsley is harvested as needed throughout the growing season until the end of August. Root crops are harvested before the onset of a stable cold snap.

Storage
Root parsley is stored in the refrigerator or cellar like carrots. Some of the plants can be left in the ground to get early greens next spring. Parsley winters well outdoors and freezes only in very cold, snowless winters.

Pests and diseases
For parsley as a whole, the same diseases and pests are characteristic as for other umbrella plants, but it is rarely affected by pests and diseases.

The leaves and stems of parsley can be affected by downy mildew, rust, white spot, leaf cercosporosis, onion and garlic stem nematode, melon aphid. Root parsley can be sick with white rot. Both the leaves and the roots of parsley can be affected by the carrot beetle.

Application in traditional medicine
For a long time, parsley has been used in folk medicine to restore strength, heal wounds and strengthen the gums.

Parsley normalizes metabolic processes in the body, enhances intestinal motility and stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes, therefore it is widely used to treat digestive diseases and loss of appetite.

Parsley is used as a diuretic for dropsy and edema in heart disease.

Parsley broth is used in cosmetology to remove freckles. In addition, boils, bruises, insect bites are treated with a decoction.

It is not recommended to consume parsley during pregnancy, and it should be remembered that parsley juice irritates the kidneys.

Growing parsley in the winter at home
To enjoy green vitamins all year round, parsley can be grown on a windowsill in winter.

To do this, in the fall, you need to dig 2-3 parsley roots from the garden bed and plant them in flower boxes. At home, parsley grows well in nutritious soil with regular watering. Within 5-6 weeks from the moment of planting, parsley forms a lush rosette of fragrant leaves.

At the end of winter, you can sow parsley at home with seeds. It is best to choose varieties of curly parsley for these purposes, since it grows quickly and gives the most lush greens. Seeds are soaked before sowing. The seed box is placed on a well-lit windowsill. After sprouting, the sprouts need to be thinned and grown until full foliage appears.


Features of parsnip

The height of a rough, furrowed, erect stem can vary from 0.3 to 2 meters, it has a faceted sharp-ribbed shape, and there is pubescence on its surface. The upper part of the stem is branched. The composition of unpaired leaf plates includes from 2 to 7 pairs of more or less pubescent leaves of a large-toed oval or lobed shape, in the upper part they are sessile, and in the lower part they have short petioles. Ripening of the root crop is observed in the first year of growth. It is thick, fragrant white, has a sweetish taste, the root can be cone-shaped (like a carrot) or rounded (like a turnip). The color of the fruit in the context of dirty yellow. The composition of complex umbrellas includes from 5 to 15 rays, which in turn consist of bisexual, regular small flowers with a yellow corolla. The flowering of parsnips is observed in the second year of growth. The shape of the fruit is round-oval, this flattened droop is painted in a dirty yellow shade. Common parsnip is considered the closest relative of the following garden crops: carrots, parsley, fennel, dill, celery, coriander and lovage.


Top dressing

With the formation of real leaves, together with watering, the seedlings are fed with peat oxidate once. It is a natural nitrogen fertilizer containing humates.

Parsnip

As soon as the seedlings have grown up and it is already possible to work with them, the parsnips are thinned out. A 15-centimeter distance is maintained between the shoots.

At the same time, the parsley is thinned out. Torn seedlings are used for food (salads, soups, broths, and so on). No agrotechnical techniques are performed with these two crops prior to digging.


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