During the entire flowering period, potatoes consume mineral fertilizers very actively. The roots of the plant are weak, and the tubers grow large and numerous, which is why it regularly lacks micro and macrocomponents. In autumn, after harvesting, the land becomes depleted, and if it is not fed, then next year there will be nothing to harvest. Consider how to properly fertilize a crop outdoors.
Excellent harvests of potatoes will be after you have purchased the site and began to cultivate it. Virginia has many nutrients that potatoes need to grow.
Over the years the land is getting poorer... Potatoes need fertilization at the stage of preparing the land for planting, and throughout the entire cultivation time.
This must be done directly into the nest when disembarking. A shovel of sand can be added to the prepared nest along with the feeding, then the tubers will be clean and the parasite wireworm will not harm them.
Into the nest at the same time as the sand thrown in a volume with a liter container of manure or compost... If the soil is rich in minerals, then you can add 1⁄2 liter can of organic matter. Then pour a handful of ash into the hole, mix everything thoroughly and potatoes can be planted.
If the additives are mineral, then they must be added to the hole strictly according to the instructions on the package. They can also be mixed with sand and then planted with tubers.
Spring is a hot season for potatoes, so gardeners need to first add mineral fertilizers to the ground. To do this, add 2 kilos of potassium sulfate per one hundred square meters and doubled super phosphorus: about a kilo per hundred square meters.
These supplements are great enrich the land and greatly increase the yield... In the fall, you need to take care of feeding the earth. For this purpose, vetch is sown in winter. It is an excellent herbal supplement that collects nitrogen and other micro-components in its stems.
Other siderates are also known. These are: mustard, oats, lupine, wheat. These plants help the growth of tuberous microbes, they release nitrogen.
The method of application is not complicated. Before planting potatoes, sow siderates when plowing the land.
The drug is made from a mineral material with a large amount of phosphorus, which is treated with other compounds: nitric acid, ammonium sulfate, potassium chloride.
As a result, they receive additional nutrition, consisting of:
Its composition depends on how it was made.
there is three types of fertilizer:
For potatoes, phosphate rock is most suitable. On very sandy and soddy-podzolic lands, it is possible to use the sulfuric acid type. Fertilizer should be free of chlorine, which reduces plant growth.
After the potatoes have faded, you cannot use top dressing, since the nitrogen force will go into the tops, and the fruits will be small. When germinating potatoes, both useful and antimicrobial qualities of nitrophoska are used.
Potatoes that have been set aside for germination after six days, they are treated with a fertilizer solution... This is done only once.
Many plants love complex feeding - they provide potatoes with all the useful and necessary substances.
Mineral are chemical compounds from salts used by gardeners for feeding.
Separate fertilization improves certain qualities potatoes at all stages of growth. A combination of some species is more effective for the overall growth of potatoes.
There are several types of such supplements today. They have two or more essential components and trace elements. Let's consider the most effective of them and the order of processing.
Highly productive, nitrogen-phosphorus - in peas. It is used on different types of land for main and separate use, for feeding potatoes during growth.
Not a simple, three-component substance, consisting of: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is used on different types of land, for a variety of crops.
Concentrate, highly effective top dressing, consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Manufactured in granules. It is used on lands depleted in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Highly productive, compound fertilizercomposed of sulfur.
Wood ash is the remains of plants after a fire. They contain 74 chemical components that are necessary for the growth of potatoes. Due to its heterogeneous composition, it serves as an organic substitute for non-natural mineral fertilizing with which tubers are fertilized.
To obtain an excellent harvest, it is necessary to correctly apply this additive, and not just pour in "the more, the better."
The chemical composition depends on from what ash is obtained:
Ash must not be thrown into the ground together with nitrogen preparations. The lime, which is in the ash, reacts with ammonium, ammonia is obtained, which subsequently evaporates. Therefore, the effectiveness of nitrogen supplementation is reduced to zero.
For potatoes, it is best to use these low chlorine fertilizers. Potash is:
Its advantage is the presence of wood ash. It contains potassium without chlorine, which is very has a good effect on the collection and properties of potatoes.
In addition to potassium, they contain phosphorus, calcium and trace elements necessary for potatoes. On average, the consumption standard is 150 kilograms per hectare.
For sandy soils, the standard is increased, and on clay soils, the doses are reduced.
They are used in the form of ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate.
You need to be careful with them: they required most during growth, if you increase the dose, then all the benefits will go to the stems, and the fruits will be poor.
Nitrogen increases plant growth and vegetation. If the saturation is high, then the roots can get burned, and harmful substances can accumulate in the fruits.
Of all the types of these dressings, only urea is put into the ground in autumn and spring. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are used only in the spring, before they plan to plant the tubers.
Additives do not bring deep into the ground, and sprinkle them on the surface. It is forbidden to mix ammonium sulfate with dolomite flour, and urea with superphosphate.
Phosphorus based products increase root growth, color and fruiting of potatoes. It is very important to apply them at the very beginning of plant development. Phosphorus increases the frost resistance of the plant, and has a good effect on the storage properties of tubers.
Phosphorus is needed in moderate amounts, but excess or deficiency does not have a detrimental effect on potatoes.
When choosing a top dressing, you need to remember that there is phosphorus in the ash, humus and good nitrogenous manure.
In order for manure to work well for collecting potatoes, it must be added to the soil in a rotten form. The manure must be distributed over the areas and dug up. Manure is applied at the rate of 400 kg per area.
There is another method of adding it when planting potatoes. Manure is added at 300 g per well. For even distribution use a measuring container... After adding manure to the hole, it is covered with soil, and potatoes are placed on top.
An excellent result of foliar fertilization of potatoes gives superphosphate. It is brought in after the flowering of potatoes, as it contains hydrolysis.
The introduction of chemical components into foliage can lead to the binding of photosynthesis. This can result in root disease and poor harvest. To prevent this from happening, you need to withstand the feeding time.
It is a chemical containing 45% nitrogen, ensures the growth of potatoes... Feeding potatoes with this product does not harm fruits and foliage.
During the development of potatoes, urea is used at the rate of 5-10 grams per 1m2. During the color period, the composition is made: 60 grams of urea, mixed with 10 liters of H2O. 3 liters of solution is used per one hundred square meters.
They are prepared by diluting mineral supplements and nutrients with water. For this they take mullein, bird droppings, slurry of manure and others.
They are used before flowering, when the growth of the plant has reached 15 centimeters.
For the manufacture of liquid fertilizers, H2O is diluted:
Mineral supplements - according to the instructions.
The wells are filled with liquid dressings, or watering between rows... Top dressing is performed twice.
Humus is added in the spring either directly to the hole or to the furrow when planting. This is the cheapest option. It increases soil fertility, helps to increase the yield.
Humus is a great addition to potatoes. It is best to cook it yourself, then it turns out clean.
This requires take 9/10 waste and 1/10 soil... Fold into a prepared container, move carefully. After one or two months, you can use it.
In rural areas, there are no problems with organic matter. In any village there are cattle, poultry, which provide excellent organic fertilizers.
If there is a lot of manure, then it is simply distributed over the fields and dug up. Do not overuse organic matter.
There are also such organics as:
Do not use undiluted chicken manure. To use it, you need to prepare a solution in a ratio of 1 to 15.
Chicken droppings in terms of nutrient composition several times superior to cow and horse manure... It contains calcium, trace elements and other biologically active substances - therefore, it can replace other types of manure.
The solution must be watered at the root of the bushes.
Top dressing of potatoes can be root or foliar. When root fertilizers can be put under the root, and when foliar fertilizers are sprayed.
Extra feeding potatoes are carried out:
The types of fertilizers and how they affect are indicated in this table.
|Trace elements||Why is it important||What the disadvantage is fraught with|
|Nitrogen||Promotes rapid growth||Ripening too early, which affects a small crop|
|Phosphorus||Increases the mass of starch and protects against fungal diseases||Tubers may be rust colored|
|Potassium||Strengthens immunity to various diseases, affects the safety of tubers||Reduced yield, not stored for a long time|
The amount of potato harvest will depend on the full range of conditions and factors:
Many gardeners are interested in the question of how to properly fertilize potatoes. Here are some methods:
Professionals advise using the second method, as it is more effective. Chicken manure, manure, ash and minerals are used as fertilizers.
It must be remembered that you should not overdo it with supplements, you need to maintain a balance and always calculate the dose correctly.
Preparing the soil in the fall is the key to a good potato harvest next year. The soil is being prepared before the onset of frost.
Today gardeners use two methods of soil preparation in the fall:
The site is dug on a shovel bayonet, while all weeds are removed and the necessary fertilizers are applied. It is better if manure is taken as a top dressing. They make it out of the calculation 7 kilograms of manure per m2... Potassium sulfate and superphosphate can be added.
The soil is dug up and planted on the site with green manure plants, which are mowed in spring and covered with ten centimeter layers of earth. This enriches the soil very well.
If the plant is not fed at a certain time, then there is no need to get upset. You can always use cow dung for this. It is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and the tops are treated.
Better feeding to carry out at the first hilling of tubers... After that, within three weeks, the plant will grow by a third, it needs to be huddled and fed again. Also, during hilling, you can feed the tubers with mineral supplements containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.
How to fertilize during the period of formation and ripening of tubers
Carrying out foliar feeding, the plant is saturated with microelements, as a result, the potatoes will be large and tasty.
Top dressing is done two times:
To carry out top dressing, it is enough to buy mineral dressings in the store and breed them in accordance with the instructions.
After the first shoots have appeared, the potatoes can and must be fertilized. At this time, the plant needs nitrogen, which will increase and strengthen its growth.
The main requirement for top dressing is compliance with the dosage. If you overfeed the plant with nitrogen, then all the power will go to the tops, and the tubers will not get anything.
Also, if the dosage is exceeded, leaves potatoes may get burned, which will not have a very favorable effect on the harvest.
There are two methods of adding top dressing to the soil: spreading and local.
At the first dose, take a dose and scatter it on the ground by hand, evenly. Foliar dressing of potatoes is also done with the same technique. After that, the earth is dug up and watered.
Local application is divided into two types: in a row and in a hole... It consists in mixing fertilizers with a small amount of soil and forming centers saturated with fertilizers.
By time: there is regular feeding during planting or fertilization during plant growth. The most effective is the addition of additives at the same time as organic.
Share three techniques fertilizers soil:
The direct-flow method involves loading fertilizers into a spreading vehicle, transporting them and spreading them evenly on the field.This technology is distinguished by minimal work on loading and unloading, as well as minimal use of equipment.
The overloading method assumes section of machine and technological functions... Fertilizers are loaded into one machine, transported to the field, and unloaded into another vehicle for dispersion across the field.
The transshipment method is used to distribute organic fertilizers on the field. Organics are piled at the edges of the field, and then transported across the field using special equipment.
The norm is considered for the active substance - for the% of the nutrient content for one component.
Not all gardeners can calculate the rate using difficult and inconvenient formulas. Therefore, already calculated norms are often used.
Organic matter is brought in into the soil mainly buckets... One 10 liter bucket holds about 5-9 kilograms of humus, compost or peat.
Mineral fertilizers are measured in jars or glasses. One glass contains the following amount of fertilizers:
Different regions have different soil composition. Fertilizers can correct any soil imperfections, which, with the correct dosage and subject to planting technology, will help to grow a decent crop.
During the period of tuber formation and growth, potatoes greatly impoverish the soil, therefore, for them, the soil must be fertilized every year. The best time to fertilize potatoes is the planting period. But for a good harvest, this is not enough, the tubers need to be fed periodically during growth.
Features of feeding potatoes during planting
Potato fertilizer classification
Mineral fertilizers for potatoes
Calculation of the amount of fertilizers
potatoes love organic fertilizers. Manure can be applied directly under the crop, which can increase the potato yield by 2 times, but at the same time the risk of potato scab disease increases. Manure under potatoes can be applied in two ways: by scattering it over the entire plot or by embedding it in grooves or holes (on the same day). You can use peat-manure composts (3: 1). On average, 5-10 kg of organic matter is introduced per 1 m².
Instead of manure, siderates (green fertilizers) can be used, which will enrich the garden with organic matter, which is equivalent to applying 200 kg of manure per one hundred square meters.
Of the mineral fertilizers used for potatoes, ammonium nitrate (before planting 1 kg per hundred square meters) or urea (1 kg per hundred square meters before planting), double superphosphate (1 kg per hundred square meters in spring or autumn), potassium sulfate (2 kg per hundred square meters in spring or autumn) , ash (5 kg per hundred square meters). Of the complex mineral fertilizers for potatoes, nitrophoska (5 kg per hundred square meters) or nitroammofoska (3 kg per hundred square meters) are applied for spring digging. Light sandy soils need magnesium, which is added in the form of magic sulfate (at the rate of 80 g) or dolomite flour - 20 g per 1 m².
At a height of potato shoots of 10-12 cm, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen fertilizers, potash fertilizers are fed at the first hilling. Liquid top dressing is prepared from 30 g of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, 60 g of phosphoric fertilizers, dissolving them in 10 liters of water. The solution is poured over the soil around the potato bushes. If there is a lag in growth, you can feed it with infusions of mullein or bird droppings. Liquid consumption 1-2 liters per bush. Late potato varieties are fed twice a season.
When feeding, avoid getting the solution on the green parts of the potato bush.
You need to feed potatoes with ash at the rate of 20 g per bush.
Good results are obtained by foliar dressing with macro and microelements. For 10 liters of water 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 200 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt and 2 g of copper sulfate (solution for spraying one hundred parts). The solution is insisted for 4 hours, stirring occasionally, sprayed with potato plants in the morning or evening in dry weather.
At the end of flowering, foliar feeding of potatoes with phosphorus fertilizers is effective, which accelerate the outflow of nutrients to the tuber (1 cc superphosphate per 10 l of water). Tubers form on it before the flowering of potatoes, after flowering new tubers will no longer appear, but those that have formed will increase in weight.
With excessive doses of nitrogen and calcium, scab appears on the potatoes. It is better to add nitrogen simultaneously with potassium, and limit the use of ash.
Inexperienced gardeners believe that potatoes will not grow without mineral fertilizers and generously sprinkle the beds with "chemistry". This is not entirely true. The greatest benefits are brought by organic fertilizers - humus, compost. It is they who replenish the loss of nutrients in the soil, increase productivity, and improve the taste characteristics of potatoes.
Mineral fertilizers should be applied taking into account the type of soil:
As for acidic forest soils, organic matter has no equal. Manure and humus increase fertility, contribute to the accumulation of humus. The main thing is not to overdo it - with an excess of manure, the plant will go to the tops, while the tubers will be small.
It is safer to apply manure before planting so as not to burn the roots and tops. In rare cases, an exception can be made, for example, if no fertilizers were applied during the autumn or spring digging.
Manure is the most dangerous organic fertilizer for a crop, use it carefully, follow the rules.
Peat humus, obtained after overheating the litter of livestock, is well suited. Rabbit droppings are in second place.
The average consumption rate of humus is 10 kg / m 2. However, you can save money if you put fertilizer in the holes - you need 150-200 g per bush.
The disadvantage of this method in labor costs is that the landing time is doubled. The risk of developing scab is also increased.
When the tops of the potatoes reach a height of 8 cm, you can feed the plant with manure. For this, mullein is used, diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10 and reinforced with 20 g of superphosphate. Humus can be diluted 1: 8.
It has been established that with a nitrogen content of 12 g / m 2, the potato yield will be at least 3 kg per square meter. But with an increase in the amount of substance, the yield begins to decline. Therefore, nitrogenous fertilizers must be used carefully and do not violate the recommended dosage.
Norms of nitrogen content in soil, taking into account the period of potato ripening:
The type of nitrogen fertilization depends on the type of soil. For vegetable gardens with an alkaline reaction of the earth, ammonium sulfate is used, for areas with an acidic reaction - ammonium nitrate. Urea is rarely used: agronomists prefer calcium ammonium nitrate, as the substance most useful for soils.
Nitrogen fertilizers are scattered over the bed and mixed with the ground with a rake. They start planting immediately - a delay of even a day leads to a decrease in fertilizer efficiency and economic losses.
|Name||Content of substances%||Dose g / m 2|
|Calcium ammonium nitrate||25||56|
It is advisable to use nitrogen fertilizers if manure was not applied. Otherwise, there will be an overdose, slowed growth of tubers and a decrease in yield.
Every 100 g of potassium is added to the potato crop 2 kg. However, one cannot joke with potash fertilizers - they contain chlorine, which increases the ripening time and the susceptibility of the crop to viral diseases.
Potassium nitrate, which contains about 2.5% chlorine, can be used to add to the wells during planting. As for phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, it is better to apply them in the fall. In the spring, potassium supplements are scattered over the soil four weeks before potatoes are planted.
|Dosage of potash fertilizers|
|Name||Basic substance content (%)||Dosage (g / m 2)|
Wood ash is of particular value - it does not contain chlorine compounds, but there are phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements necessary for the full development of potatoes.
The norm is 300 g / m 2. When wood ash is introduced into the holes, the dosage is reduced to 150-100 g / m 2 of the bed.
Depending on which particular fertilizer will be given preference, the amount of its application to the soil is also determined. If it is natural compost, it should be applied on average one to two buckets per square meter.
If more is added, then the plant will not suffer from this, but it will need to be watered periodically to allow all the beneficial components to be absorbed into the soil. If mineral fertilizers are used, then they must also be applied in strict accordance with the recommendations indicated on the package.
These rules are important, because with insufficient watering and the introduction of a large amount of nitrates, potatoes can burn out or, conversely, absorb all negative substances from the soil and lose their attractiveness in the form of a high-quality and environmentally friendly product.
Dry granules and complex solutions can be used not only for planting, but also for sprinkling the area before weeding or before watering. The main thing is not to overdo it.
Nitrogen-based fertilizers are considered to be the most effective remedy for potatoes. A large amount of it is found in manure and ash. It is important to note that early potato varieties need these elements more than late ones. This is due to the fact that in early potato varieties, the growing season is short and the plants do not have time to accumulate the required amount of elements from the soil, and therefore nitrogen will become a good assistant for them during growth. Mineral dressing has a quick effect and gives the bushes all the useful elements they need. At the same time, it is important to introduce them in a certain amount into the soil.
During planting, we recommend using the following types of dressings:
In order to correctly determine the norm of the active substance in a particular nutrient compost, you must first calculate the norm yourself using some formulas. And you can also use the calculations and norms given by experts.
For example, organic matter is introduced into the soil in buckets. The weight of one bucket is approximately 5-9 kg. Minerals are added in glasses or jars to water.
One glass contains the following amount of fertilizers:
All these fertilizers can be combined in different variations, but the dose must be observed.
So what kind of fertilizer is suitable for use during planting? Experienced gardeners prefer rotted manure and compost, wood ash and bone meal, as well as mineral nutrients such as urea, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and complex preparations.
Since the roots of potatoes grow only in the upper surface layer of the earth, then in the spring it is customary to apply any kind of fertilizer simply to the holes or rows in certain doses. In this case, a small amount of the drug is used, and it has a direct effect on the culture.
If feeding is carried out on the surface of the soil, then the first formed tubers, which are closer to the surface, will turn green.
In the soil with an average level of fertility, no more than 3 kg of manure and an equal amount of nitrogen-containing preparations, as well as 2.5 kg of potassium and 4 kg of phosphorus agents, are applied.
For soil with low fertility, take 100 kg of humus with the addition of 1 kg of ammonium nitrate and 3 kg of superphosphate.
Figure 5. Scheme of fertilizing potatoes when planting
For example, if you prefer natural organic matter, then for each prepared hole you will need about 700 g of dry humus (compost) and a handful of wood ash.
Having chosen mineral fertilizers, add 1 tbsp. a spoonful of nitrophoska and 0.5 cups of bone meal. Purchased products should be dosed according to the instructions. Figure 5 shows a diagram of the introduction of such substances when planting potatoes.
Complex fertilizers contain two or three essential nutrients, some are also supplemented with microelements. This is both a plus and a minus, because, despite the fact that there is no need to purchase several different packages and mix the required amount from each, the percentage of different elements may not correspond to the needs of potatoes. It is known that nitrogen is introduced in the spring, and potassium and phosphorus - in the fall. Because of this, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers have been developed and are being implemented today, which are presented in the table below: