Fraxinella


Ash (Dictamnus), or the burning bush, or wild star anise, or dictamnus, is a perennial flowering plant from the Rutaceae family. Wild species of ash trees deserve special attention of gardeners due to their high resistance to adverse conditions.

Yasenets are widespread in mid-latitudes, where a temperate climate prevails. We are talking about Western European countries, Russia and the Caucasus. The flower has a powerful root system. In the natural environment, perennial grows in calcareous rocky terrain, mainly in partial shade, which is thrown by nearby shrubs.

A bushy frame is characteristic of an unburned bush. The plant develops rapidly and fills the free space around, turning into impassable thickets. The vitality and spectacular appearance of wild star anise attract many gardeners. Therefore, the culture can often be seen in summer cottages.

Ash tree description

Yasenets belongs to the perennial group. Its height reaches up to 1 meter in the wild. The plant got its name due to the specific dark green color of the leaves. The leaf blades are very similar to ash foliage. The popular nickname "burning bush" is also easily explained. The fact is that if you throw ash branches into the fire, the plant actively burns, but never burns to ashes. The secret of the flower's unusual properties is hidden in the essential oils that are contained in the fruit. As soon as you bring a match close to the shoots, the plant immediately ignites. In addition to the “burning bush”, one can often hear “wild star anise” addressed to the culture, since the flowers and fruits look in the shape of an asterisk, which resemble the seed capsules of the present star anise.

If the weather is favorable, the ash tree blooms in early summer. The phase lasts until mid-July, then the seeds ripen. The color of the inflorescences is varied. There are bushes with pink, white and burgundy asterisks-flowers. When opened, they exude a pleasant citrus scent that attracts insects from all over the garden. In place of the pollinated buds, fruits are formed.

For a long time, white ash has occupied the first line among popular landscape gardeners. The modern principle of decorating the territory of the garden implies a kind of combination of several types of ash into a common flower arrangement. For these purposes, the Caucasian ash, the bushy ash, the hollow-columnar ash, and the narrow-leaved ash are chosen.

Growing an ash tree

Wild forms grow without problems on stony substrates. The plant takes root even on lifeless rocky slopes, hide in a crevice or grab a stone. Ash tree cultivars are allowed to be planted in ordinary, poorly fertile soil. A perennial is propagated in standard ways, namely, using seeds, cuttings or division.

Growing from seeds

The seeds collected from the fruits are immediately sown into the soil. Long-term storage of seed material has a bad effect on germination. However, when it is not possible to do operational sowing, it is allowed to postpone the event until next spring or autumn. Only in this case, the seedlings will germinate no earlier than a year later. The flower has a well-developed self-seeding function. If the owners do not want to see thickets of wild star anise on the site, it is necessary to pluck the fruits until the walls open.

For the first few years, the burning bush is grown by the seedling method. The choice of the location of the culture is treated with great care. It is better to prepare a quiet corner for the flower bed, hidden from prying eyes and protected from the wind. The soil is dug up and seeds are poured over the ridge.

Overwintered seedlings thin out with the arrival of spring heat. A distance of at least 20 cm is left between the young, strengthened plants. At the same time, extra bushes are planted, which thicken the planting. After 3 years, the matured bushes are planted in another area, where the flower can grow on a permanent basis. In order to have time to collect seeds, they take into account the climatic features of the region where it is planned to grow the crop. If you miss the moment of ripening, self-seeding of the perennial will occur.

Reproduction by dividing the bush

Wild star anise reproduces through the division of the bush. The optimal time for the event is the period when all vital processes are activated in the flower, namely, spring or summer. To carry out the division, it is recommended to dig the rhizome in cool weather, when the sun is hiding behind clouds.

Wells are pre-prepared. Only one requirement is imposed on them - a distance of at least 50 cm must remain between the bushes. Otherwise, thickened plantings will interfere with each other. Finish the transplant with abundant watering. Until the separated plants fully adapt, they are regularly hydrated. When the root system gets stronger, and the shoots begin to lengthen intensively, the amount of moisture is reduced. Excessive wetting of the substrate threatens the roots with rot infection.

Rhizome division is considered the most common breeding method. Gardeners practically do not encounter problems with flower development. The bushes bloom at a speed and during the first two months of summer they decorate the garden with colorful inflorescences. However, if you do not adhere to the rules of care, the delenki risk getting sick or dying.

Sometimes gardeners frame the flowerbed of wild star anise with stones. During the day, the sun's rays heat the surface of the stones, and at night the heat returns to flowers. Experienced breeders advise choosing a western or southern direction in the garden as a site for cultivation. The flower bed should be well lit by the sun. Slight shading of the ridge is allowed.

Propagation using cuttings

Another alternative way to propagate the ash tree is cuttings. However, the effectiveness of this method leaves much to be desired. Only the cutting that is cut at a certain angle is rooted. In the process of rooting, water is systematically poured into a container with segments. To stimulate the appearance of roots, the cut is moistened with a special tool. Cuttings are harvested in the spring, when the growing season comes. Cuttings are cut 10-15 cm long. Rooting is carried out in mini-greenhouses. Or use a glass jar for these purposes.

Precautions

When contacting with parts of the plant, it is imperative to take care of protective equipment so that drops of juice do not fall on hands and eyes. Inhaling the aroma of inflorescences is quite dangerous for humans. After transplanting or trimming the bushes, the palms and face are immediately washed with water. The sap of ash leaves and shoots leaves redness and burns on the skin, therefore the culture is considered poisonous. Plantings with flowers are placed in a place protected from children and pets. Some gardeners note that after interacting with the leaves or flowers of the described perennial, the temperature rises, weakness and dizziness appear.

Growing an ash tree is not difficult if you follow the advice of gardeners and choose the right time for the procedure. Ultimately, the transplanted bush will decorate the garden with spreading flowering shoots for a long time.

Ash tree care in the open field

Despite the visual appeal, you should be very careful in handling the ash tree. Inexperienced growers often do not even know what potential threat the culture is. The influence of toxic substances contained in the tissues of the plant is felt more strongly during the hours of the sun. Therefore, in hot summer weather, you should not touch the leaves with your bare hands. If burns cannot be avoided, the reddened skin area is washed with water. The wound heals after a few days.

Ash is not pretentious in care. During the first year after sowing, wild star anise, like all decorative perennials, needs regular watering, feeding and good lighting. Full growth of bushes can be achieved if you take care of the composition of the soil and the convenient location of the flower bed in advance.

Lighting

Under natural conditions, the burning bush climbs onto sunny heights (rocks, mountain ranges) or hides on the outskirts of the forest. Shrubs easily adapt to live in shaded corners, for example, among thickets of woody vegetation. If possible, it is advisable to choose a bright place for the cultivation of an ash tree on the site, then the perennial will bloom profusely.

The soil

The ash grows stably in a loose substrate that is permeable to moisture. Since in the wild, the plant prefers poor soil, the presence of a large number of nutrients in the soil only inhibits the growth of the root system. The flowerbed is systematically loosened to get rid of weeds that create a moisture deficit and shade young crops. Mulching the soil helps to fight weeds. Peat or straw is used as mulch.

Watering mode

The ash tree does not tolerate excess water in the root zone. Therefore, it is important not to overdo it with hydration. In conditions of prolonged drought, watering is organized more often than usual. Young crops especially need water. The seeds need moisture to activate rooting. Adult specimens do not react as sharply to interruptions in watering. The culture is considered drought tolerant. The rhizome stores the required amount of moisture and helps the bushes to survive the dry period.

Fertilization

Top dressing is applied twice during the season, while the inflorescences are kept on the shoots. Florists recommend the use of universal fertilizers that provide the seedlings with a balanced nutrition. An ash can do without additional fertilizers. In poor sandy soil, the root system feels no less comfortable. However, lush flowering in such conditions is not to be expected.

Growing dictamnus in a personal plot is a fairly simple task. The culture does not need shelter for the winter. The bushes are calm about the cold. Diseases and pests are not terrible for the ash tree. Immunity to diseases is due to the presence of toxic toxins in plant materials. Weeding is rarely done. If you take the time to mulch, you don't have to worry about loosening later. Most weeds, like insects, bypass the plant due to the toxic properties of the vegetative parts. The flower is bred mainly for decorative purposes.

Ash in landscape design

Before starting to grow an ash tree, they select the most favorable place in the garden. The main characteristics of the plant are taken into account, namely, the inflorescences have a pronounced aroma, the leaves and branches are poisonous. It is recommended to set up a flower bed away from benches, walkways, recreation areas where children and pets like to run. This aromatic shrub is more advisable to knead in the depths of the garden, where it will look even more attractive.

Gardeners plant ash trees to accomplish the following tasks:

  • diversify the flower arrangement;
  • transform flat flower beds;
  • with a competent combination of late and early varieties, relay flowering can be achieved;
  • revive an inconspicuous corner in the garden;
  • add colors to the landscape park;
  • arrange an alpine slide, rockeries;
  • decorate the plot in country style and add a touch of "romance".

This decorative flower looks appropriate next to juniper, krasodnev, kachim, geyher and iris. Also, wild star anise is suitable for single planting.

Bushes are rarely transplanted. In the same place, the culture is able to grow for ten years. Cut stalks retain their freshness for about 4 days.

Useful properties of ash

Perennial garden flowers Ash or Burning Bush

Healing properties are inherent in the roots of the ash tree. Harvesting of roots is done in early spring or with the onset of the first cold weather in the fall. The rhizome is removed from the soil, shaken off the adhering earth and washed under water. Then they are laid out in the sun to evaporate the moisture. The dried rhizome is cut into strips with a secateurs, which are poured onto paper or a baking sheet. Before handling the plant, put on gloves and cover the bare skin. Raw materials are sent to dry in the oven, or left to dry in a dark place. For storage of finished raw materials, paper bags are used. They are marked so as not to forget about the poisonousness of the flower.

The foliage and shoots of the ash tree have medicinal properties. The tissues contain many essential oils and other beneficial elements. Ground organs are harvested in summer. Dry in the same way as the roots.

On the basis of the plant components of the burning bush, various ointments, infusions and decoctions are made.

Ointment recipe

The dried roots are crushed, petroleum jelly is added in a ratio of 1:20. The mixture is kept for 24 hours, after which it is stored in the refrigerator.

Infusion recipe

At 1 st. vodka take 1 tsp. dry powder from the roots. The components are thoroughly mixed and poured into a bottle. They insist on the drug for a couple of weeks in a closed cabinet. Drink 40 drops 30 minutes before meals, having previously filtered.

Preparations from dictamnus are used only in consultation with a doctor. They effectively help in the treatment of diseases associated with the genitourinary system, gastritis, sciatica, eczema, mastopathy, cervical erosion. The hoods are used as sedatives. The plant is widely known among representatives of non-traditional methods of treatment.


Ash - Burning Bush

author Marina Fedotova, author's photo

Ash, or dictamnus (Dictamnus) is a very interesting ornamental plant of the Rutaceae family. Unusually popular name of the plant - Burning bush.

I found the burning Kupina in the wilderness of the Belgorod region. In the middle of summer, in a shady meadow, I found this plant with pretty flowers in racemose inflorescences and feathery leaves that look like ash foliage. The locals paid no attention to it, but it attracted me.

Then I did not yet know what this beautiful plant with a peculiar smell was called, but I decided to plant it in my garden. I dug it up (the bush had rather long branched roots), brought it to the Moscow region and planted it.

The plant easily survived the transplant and took root, but the next year my flower did not bloom. And a year later, in June, I already admired its numerous graceful flowers.
These rather large pink flowers of an unusual shape are very beautiful, with a mesh burgundy pattern on the petals and with long stamens. Look at the photo - it's really beautiful!

In one of the issues of the "Flower Gardens" magazine I came across a small article where I recognized my flower and its name from a photograph.

Burning bush is a very unpretentious and winter-hardy plant that grows well in the sun and in the shade, on fertile non-acidic soils. But in the nature of the Moscow region, it is not common.

In the first year of the flowering of the plant, I separated a shoot with a root from the ash bush and presented it to my friend. Her ash tree also began, and soon bloomed.
Apparently, the summer near Moscow is short for the ripening of ash-tree seeds, so I propagate it only vegetatively - by dividing the bush.

A curious moment: why is the ash tree called the UNFURRENCE Bush. This plant actively secretes essential oils, and on a very hot sunny day, they can spontaneously ignite (at least as it was written in the article). But I did not observe this - either the summer near Moscow is not hot enough, or we missed this moment (after all, we go to the dacha only on weekends). Or maybe it's just a legend.
But the smell near a blooming ash tree is really quite sharp, spicy. When touched, the essential oil can burn sensitive skin.

Ash is very decorative, it forms a slender bush with many spectacular inflorescences and looks great in the garden.

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How to recognize poisonous plants in your summer cottage

Each gardener should be responsible for the choice of ornamental plants for growing at their summer cottage. Before planting your favorite flowers or shrubs that will decorate the territory of a country house, bringing considerable aesthetic pleasure, you should find out if they will harm your health. First of all, you need to pay attention to the presence of poisonous species, which are often used in landscaping, this is especially important if children are playing nearby. Poisonous plants, as a rule, have an interesting shape of leaves and flowers, attract with their original color, causing the desire to acquire an unusual specimen for their flower beds. The list of poisonous plants is large, but every novice gardener should know the most common and common species.

Yew berry (Taxus baccata, Taxus cuspidata) - an evergreen tree of the Pine family, also has a shrub form. It is popular in landscape design, in park landscaping as a hedge, and lends itself well to curly haircuts. Yew was often used to create labyrinths in parks in Europe.

The plant is easily recognized by its bright red "berries" (less often yellow), they are edible, taste rather sweet, but the large seed contains poison inside. The leaves, bark and wood of the yew berry, just like the seeds of the fruit, contain alkaloids. These organic substances, containing nitrogen, can cause enormous harm to human health, they are also dangerous to most animals. Toxins entering the body irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa, causing diarrhea and vomiting. In addition, the poison negatively affects the heart, can lead to respiratory arrest.

Cases of poisoning of domestic animals were recorded: cows, horses, pigs, sheep and chickens. A lethal single dose of eating yew branches has been established: for horses it is 150-400 g, for cows about 500 g, for sheep about 150-200 g, for goats - 500 g, and for pigs only 75-100 g. observed after eating seeds. At the same time, in small doses, yew, like many of the plants listed below, can be used as a medicine. Tinctures and decoctions from yew needles or bark are popularly known as disinfectants. In pharmacology, raw yew berry is used as a basis for the creation of anticancer drugs.

Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) -

an annual ornamental plant capable of growing up to 2 m in height. Originally from Africa, this palm-shaped shrub is a perennial tree in hot climates that can reach a height of ten meters. This spurge is usually planted on lawns, sometimes in small groups along the walls. Large carved leaves are either green or bluish-red, depending on the variety. The leaf blades can reach 30 cm. The flowers are a long racemose inflorescence of green or red color, and the ripe fruits are spherical capsules with thorns that stand out quite effectively against the background of leaves and grass. Thus, castor oil plants can decorate even the most meager front garden. Just do not rush to conclusions, as this exotic plant contains poison, namely the phytotoxin ricin and the alkaloid ricinin, which are found in all parts of the plant.

Once in the human stomach, these substances cause enteritis, bloating, colic, vomiting, upset stools, thereby disrupting the balance of the body's water-electrolyte balance. Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract may begin. If the cause is not found in time, then death occurs in a week. Even if a person can be saved, significant harm will be done to health, the body will not fully recover. Only six seeds cause fatal poisoning in children, 20 seeds in adults. Ricin is six times more poisonous than the well-known potassium cyanide, and the plant itself is one of the most toxic in the world. However, castor bean seeds serve as raw materials for castor oil, which is widely used in medicine.

May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis) -

a perennial herb known for its incredible delicate aroma. Lily of the valley has long been used in perfumery; many legends are known about this flower among the most diverse peoples of the world. The flowers are small white bells (up to 20 per stem), the leaves are smooth and wide.

At first glance, this is a lovely spring plant, but, as always, beauty is deceiving, because harmful substances are found in all parts of the lily of the valley. Children are most interested in red-orange berries, which contain the greatest amount of toxins. A mild degree of poisoning is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Intense headache and stomach pain are typical. In more serious cases of poisoning, there is a violation of the pulse, heart rhythm, and the nervous system is affected. Intoxication is often accompanied by convulsions, loss of consciousness, and even visual disturbances. Nevertheless, the lily of the valley also contains many useful elements, on the basis of which wound healing, sedative, and heart medicines are made.

Digitalis (Digitalis) -

a very attractive-looking flower, belongs to the plantain family, is included in the list of poisonous plants due to the content of glycosides. In small doses, these compounds are an invaluable component of heart medications, but overdose entails great danger. Inflorescences in the form of a tall spike with bells are incredibly beautiful and have a wide variety of colors. In height the foxglove reaches 1.5 m. People call this perennial "thimble", there are also annual and biennial varieties. There are about 35 species in total.

Children are attracted by the fruits of this enchanting plant, similar to boxes with small seeds. As for the symptoms of digitalis poisoning, they are very similar to lily of the valley poisoning. It is difficult to resist and not have this beauty in your garden, the main thing is to know about the negative properties and not violate safety measures.

Aconite (Aconitum) is a perennial plant with large spreading leaves, belongs to the Buttercup family. The racemose inflorescence is collected from flowers of predominantly blue color, outwardly resembling a helmet in shape, which is why aconite is popularly called "skullcap".

The plant is dangerous, as it contains one of the most powerful plant poisons - the alkaloid aconitine, which is present in all parts of the plant. Aconitine is easily absorbed by the mucous membranes of the mouth and intestines, is able to penetrate the skin (even the smell of aconite is poisonous). The action of the toxin manifests itself literally in a few minutes, numbness occurs at the point of penetration of the poison, which spreads throughout the body, subsequently there is a complete loss of sensitivity, chills appear, active sweating, and stool disorder are observed. At significant concentrations, death occurs. In India, arrowheads were smeared with aconite, even from minor damage the wounded died.

American lakonos (Phytolacca americana) is a cultivated plant, but there are also feral shrub species growing on the roadsides. It is mainly planted in artificial flower beds and conservatories. All parts of the flower are toxic, especially the roots and unripe fruits. Most often there are poisoning with berries that you want to try, because they look so appetizing. Cultivated varieties of lakonos contain slightly less harmful substances than wild ones.

If the poisoning is not severe, then you can feel a burning sensation in the mouth, increased salivation, spasmodic pain in the stomach. When a more severe case occurs, convulsions appear, heart rate is disturbed, and death from respiratory failure is possible. But, like many other poisonous plants, lakonos also has medicinal properties, it contains vitamins, minerals and tannins. Preparations based on this plant are used for colds, constipation, blood diseases and others. The use of such drugs is permissible only in small doses and under the supervision of a physician.

Datura ordinary (Datura stramonium) is an annual plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. Datura is often grown as a decoration for flower beds. Datura has beautiful carved leaves, a large root system and rather large funnel-shaped flowers of white or purple color. All parts of it are poisonous, but the plant has a pungent unpleasant odor, so children usually do not approach it. However, sometimes they are attracted by ripe fruits of an unusual shape, with thorns and small seeds. Datura alkaloids cause disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system: disorientation, hallucinations, convulsions.

Many other ornamental plants are also toxic, but there are few cases of poisoning by them. This applies in particular to the bulbs of snowdrop, crocus, narcissus and hyacinth. This means that it is necessary to store the planting material away from children. The fruits of euonymus (Euonymus), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), snowberry (Symphoricarpos), and wild (maiden) grapes (Parthenocissus) are also poisonous. Plants such as Helleborus, Dicentra, Trollius, Anemone, Rhododendron, Aquilegia, Iris and others can also cause poisoning.

Wild species of all kinds of plants, whose seeds are carried by the wind or birds, can also grow near your site. It is better to make sure that there are no poisonous plants among them. It is also worth finding out which are the most dangerous: cicuta (Cicuta), belladonna (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus), hellebore (Veratrum), spotted hemlock or wild parsley (Conium maculatum).

From time to time, poisonous seeds, along with weeds, accidentally fall into the seeds of cultivated plants, are packed in packs and sent for sale. This is quite rare, but it does happen. Therefore, you always need to monitor the growth process of seedlings, to clarify whether they should be so? Be attentive, observe safety measures and enjoy the diversity and beauty of nature.


One of the interesting features of the ash tree is that the plant secretes essential oils in large quantities, and this is most pronounced during the period of seed ripening. At this time, in calm sunny weather, evaporating oils (phytoncides) can flare up from a spark or a lit match - a fleeting flame will arise. The plant itself will not be affected. That is why the popular name "Burning bush" was assigned to the ash tree. In our relatively cool and humid climate, such a phenomenon can be observed extremely rarely.

My bush grows in the most unfavorable conditions for it, surrounded by ferns, host and lilies. Humidity and acidic soil will drive it away, but its survival rate is like that of a weed. If you want to see all the beauty of this flower, plant in the driest place.

As soon as the ash tree blooms, wait for bumblebees and butterflies to visit. They just fall into euphoria from the nectar of these flowers! And I, by the way, too, there are clearly oriental notes in the fragrance. But let me remind you that it is impossible to approach the plant because of the ethers, especially in hot weather. You can get it chemical burn of the second degree!

The spring ash will bloom and remind me of an orchid in bloom. That is why this dangerous plant lives in my tropical flower. And if you look closely at the first photo, I have two bush-trees. Effectively planted in the second row with ferns.

This is how it begins the bloom of the UNFLAMMABLE BOTTLE:

During the day, the flowers are of a pale pink shade with effective veins, by the evening the color becomes more saturated. A bush in a flower is visible from afar, precisely because of its early flowering. Which lasts about a month, without visible wilting of flowers.

To have it or not to have it is of course everyone's choice. Recommended for lovers of a beautiful, but without small children and guests with long noses) Otherwise, a gorgeous plant, perfectly wintering and not whimsical. This species grows in the Far East.


... BUT ONLY IN THE SOUTH

But all these - both wonderful and unpleasant - qualities of the burning bush work only in hot climates. And here, in the Moscow region, Yasenets behaves much more peacefully. I personally checked it with courage: I brought lighted matches, touched it with my hand on a hot sunny day - no flame, no burns. So, of all the wonders of the burning bush, we got only its magical beauty and enviable unpretentiousness. Although it is possible that in an extremely hot summer, the plant can show its "incendiary" properties in our country. Therefore, this legendary "hot-tempered" flower should be handled accordingly: respectfully and carefully, not forgetting about its interesting and unusual possibilities.

TIP: give this plant a place so as not to touch it for a long time: you can say about it "planted and forgotten"


Classification [edit | edit code]

The evolution of classification systems [edit | edit code]

Haeckel (1894)
Three kingdoms
Whittaker (1969)
Five kingdoms
Woese (1977)
Six kingdoms
Woese (1990)
Three domains
Cavalier-Smith (1998)
Two domains and seven kingdoms
Animals Animals Animals Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Animals
Plants Mushrooms Mushrooms Mushrooms
Plants Plants Plants
Protista Protista Chromists
Protista The simplest
Monera Archaea Archaea Prokaryotes Archaea
Eubacteria Eubacteria Eubacteria

Kupena and mysticism

Kupena is often called “the seal of Solomon", or "Solomon seal "... There are two legends associated with this plant and the biblical king Solomon. In one of them, the king, who lived for a very long time, marked the kupena with his seal, so that it would be easier to find a medicinal plant that prolongs life for people. In the second legend, the tsar ordered to put the same pattern on his seal, which he saw on the round scars on the rhizomes of the kupena.

From a dried piece of rhizome "with a seal" is made amuletstrengthening family ties.

The peasants cut off those pieces that looked like a cross from the root and wore them as amuletfrom the evil eye, damage and anger of heavenly forces (lightning, hail, etc.).

Until now, healers speak on the "seal of Solomon" hernia.

A shoot of a kupena with an even number of leaves was called “loupe". In the old days, he was insisted on spring water, and then washed his face with it so that the damaged skin came off. They also found a shoot with an odd number of leaves, or “foam". They washed their face with such an infusion to reduce freckles and other age spots.

Burning bush... Our beauty Kupena has nothing to do (except for a similar pronunciation) with dictamnus, or ash tree (Dictamnus). This southern perennial plant of the Rutovye family is well known in the Crimea and the Caucasus. During flowering, a characteristic pharmacy smell appears. The fruit smells like freshly ground cinnamon. The insidiousness of this flowering plant lies in the fact that a burn on the skin is felt only after a few hours, when watery blisters appear. After them, a wound remains. She heals for a long time. The ash is shrouded in ethereal vapors, so the flame burns them without damaging the plant itself. It seems that the fire scorches him, but cannot ignite.


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