For a century, despite such a short period of distribution in our country, the raisin grape variety has already managed to win the love and popularity of many summer residents. It is this variety that is used to make the highest quality raisins. Next, let's talk about its description and consider the main characteristics
Century was bred in the USA, California by a group of American breeders in 1980. This is the result of crossing the varieties Gold and Q25-6. Experiments on breeding the variety continued for 14 years. This species came to Russia only in 2010 and immediately became extremely popular.
It belongs to early ripening varieties, the berries ripen for 120 days. The berries do not contain seeds. Each brush weighs from 700 to 2000 grams. Experienced growers recommend timely harvesting so that the bunches do not crumble. The shape of the berries is oval-oblong, the color when ripe is golden yellow.
The mass of each berry is from 5 to 10 grams. The fruit has a nutmeg flavor and a light hint of tea rose. The flavor can vary depending on the soil on which the variety grows. The skin is thin, has no taste, so the fruit can be eaten with the skin.
The flesh of the fruit is dense, juicy, sweet taste. The variety is frost-resistant. Freely tolerates temperatures down to -25 degrees. The fruiting period is from mid-September to the onset of cold weather. Ripe brushes are advised to be left on the bush before the onset of frost; with the onset of frost, the berry picks up the maximum amount of sugar.
The advantages are:
The disadvantages include:
Despite the fact that the variety is frost-resistant, the most favorable place for growth is the southern part of the site. It is good if the bushes are planted next to the house or near the fence. The buildings will protect you from harsh winds and provide additional heat.
When planting grapes near the house, it is necessary that the distance from the vine to the foundation of the house is at least 1.5 meters!
The site should be well lit by sunlight from all sides. The soil for planting must be prepared in advance so that it has time to settle well and be saturated with moisture and nutrients. The soil should allow moisture and air to pass well. You can plant grapes in autumn and spring.
The choice of seedlings must be taken seriously, since it depends on what the vine will be and, accordingly, its yield. Seedlings can be classified as:
Elite seedlings have four or more evenly spaced roots, at least 2 mm thick and 25 cm long. The base must be at least 5 mm thick.
Seedlings of the first grade must have four or more roots. The difference from elite ones is that at least 2 roots should have a root thickness of 2 mm. The distance of the roots from each other should also be uniform.
2nd grade must have at least two developed roots.
Substandard seedling has a weak immature growth. It is better not to plant such seedlings.
If planting is planned in the spring, then the soil for planting is prepared in the fall.... The planting depth of seedlings depends on the type of soil. In light soil, it is necessary to dig a hole with a diameter of 40 cm and a depth of 60 cm. In heavier soil, the area of the hole will be 70X80 cm, a depth of 70 cm. The presence of nearby groundwater will favorably affect the planting. However, the area for the vineyard should not be flooded with melt water. The soil should be sufficiently moist, loose, without weeds.
Before planting, the roots of seedlings must be treated with a growth stimulant. Purchased cuttings are soaked in this solution for a day, then disinfected with a manganese solution, and then the roots are trimmed.
At the bottom of the hole, you need to make a drainage layer with the addition of complex fertilizer. The seedling is planted in a hole and covered with soil, carefully tamped. In the absence of a soil suitable for grapes, fill the hole with soil with the addition of humus. The distance between the seedlings should be at least 3 meters, as the vine grows rapidly. There should be at least 2 meters between rows for single-lane planting and 3 meters for two-lane planting.
To get less vigorous bushes, cuttings must be grafted onto undersized varieties.
Autumn planting is best done from the last days of October to mid-November. It is necessary to plant grapes in well-moistened soil.
After planting grapes, special attention must be paid to the condition of the soil. The soil should always be loose and free of weeds. On the tubercles, loosening must be carried out carefully so as not to damage the young shoots. As the seedlings grow, the height of the tubercle is gradually reduced. In August, the seedlings are opened to the place of adhesion of the grafted shoots.
At the end of June, it is necessary to perform the procedure for removing roots growing on the surface. This is done so that the bush develops roots in depth, since roots growing close to the surface reduce frost resistance and endurance during drought. Pruning is necessary on a cloudy day. To do this, rake the ground around the seedling and make a hole 25 cm deep. To remove the roots, use a pruner. After pruning, the hole is filled up, leaving only the green mass of the bush on the surface.
The second pruning is done in August. After pruning, a hole 15 cm deep is left around the seedling.
For grapes grown from cuttings, watering is very important for rooting. Water the seedling immediately after planting. The second watering is carried out in two weeks. The third watering must be done 35 days after planting. Depending on the dryness of the soil, water consumption for each bush is one or two buckets. For watering, it is best to use water heated in the sun. Watering in the evening.
Top dressing of grapes is carried out in the summer, combining them with watering. Fermented mullein can be used for feeding. For fermentation, mullein is diluted with water in a 1: 2 ratio and left at a temperature of +22 degrees for two weeks. Then the finished slurry is diluted with water 1: 4. To this solution you must add:
Do not overfeed the seedlings with fertilizers, as in this case there will be poor development of the root system.
To prevent damage to the shoots, they are tied to stakes in an upright position. With abundant growth of stepsons, pinching must be performed. This procedure will speed up the formation of bushes.
For the prevention of diseases, young seedlings are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
In early October, the land in the vineyard is dug up, and at the end of October, when the foliage falls, the seedlings are covered for the winter. To do this, a groove is dug, a vine is laid in it along the length and covered with earth.
In spring, seedlings of young grapes are opened later than an adult vine, since young shoots are more susceptible to frost. In subsequent years of growth, the care of the vine is as follows:
This grape is practically not susceptible to disease. However, it suffers from attacks by the phylloxera pest. This pest damages the root system, the whiskers of the plant and foliage. And in this case, the loss of the bushes is not complete. In a place affected by phylloxera, it is possible to plant grape bushes no earlier than after 5 years.
For prophylaxis purposes, a cardboard tube 15 cm in diameter is put on the roots of the seedling when planting. The tube is covered with sand and the seedling is added with earth. The tube is then carefully removed.
If care was taken correctly throughout the season, and the vine was properly prepared for wintering, then in the next season you can count on a good harvest.
Originator: Davis Station, California, USA
Description and main characteristics: Centenel Seedlis is a high-quality raisin of American selection, which has now become widespread among amateur winegrowers. Ripens at the end of August. Bunches are conical, of moderate density or medium-dense, with an average weight of 400-500g. On mature bushes, the average mass of a bunch easily reaches a kilogram or more. Berries are oval, white, with an average weight of 6g. The skin is thin, it is not felt when eating, the pulp is dense, crispy. The second class of seedlessness, rudiments are not felt when eating. The taste is harmonious, very pleasant, sometimes a light nutmeg is felt. Berry size can be further increased by applying shoot ringing or treatment with growth regulators. Mechanized processing of bushes with gibberellin is not recommended, as it reduces the fertility of the buds next year, but processing of bunches, without affecting the rest of the organs of the bush, is permissible. It is carried out two weeks after flowering with a solution of GA3 25ppm or GA3 20ppm + CPPU 5ppm, the mass of the berry increases by 30-40%, but manual thinning of the bunches may be required. Long pruning of fruit vines for 10-12 eyes is recommended, since the fruitfulness of the lower buds is low.
Ripening of the vine is average, the cuttings root well. Disease resistance is low, a full range of protective measures is required. Low winter hardiness, grown in a covering culture. The bushes are very vigorous, medium and low-growing rootstocks are recommended for grafting, on which the fruitfulness of the buds slightly increases.
In terms of the sum of its characteristics, Kishmish Century has become one of the most popular white raisins among amateurs, and although the crop of the variety is not capable of long-term storage and transportation, these qualities are most often not required, since elegant clusters with a very large and tasty seedless berry are quickly sold out. The highest commercial qualities. Berries are not prone to cracking. The relatively low fruitfulness of the buds is partly compensated by the very large size of the bunches; with the correct selection of trellis and shaping, the bushes are quite fruitful. A horizontal growth control system is ideal for the variety, but good results are obtained on vertical trellises with free hanging shoots. In this case, the bunches are shaded by their own shoots of the bush, do not suffer from burns, the berries are not covered with brown tan spots.
Photo of grape variety Kishmish Stoltetie (Centennial seedless)
Century grape was bred in 1980 in the state of California, by crossing the varieties Emperor and Pirovano-75.
Grapes Century refers to early ripening varieties, the first harvest of the vine gives 3 years after planting. The plant forms a powerful bush with dark olive, five-leafed, large leaves. In the year of ripening, the bunches appear on the dark brown vine 130 days after the foliage opens.
To obtain a bountiful harvest, the grapes of the Century do not need pollinators, since the flowers are bisexual, with excellent self-pollination. After pollination, large clusters appear on the vine, weighing up to 1200 g. They are cone-shaped in shape, have an average density, due to which the crop is well transported over long distances.
A bunch of grapes is formed by round-ovoid, emerald berries weighing up to 8 g. The dense, crispy pulp is surrounded by a thin skin. The berry has a delicate nutmeg aroma and a sweet, not sugary taste, despite the fact that the sugar content is 15%. Grape Century refers to seedless varieties, so it is versatile in use. It is consumed fresh, compotes are prepared. When grown on an industrial scale, high-class raisins are prepared from the grapes for Century.
The crop can be enjoyed immediately after ripening or left on the vine for a while. The dense shell does not crack, and the berry, after full ripening, does not crumble and can last until the first frost, while acquiring an amber color.
Despite the fact that the Century is a southern variety, the grapes can withstand frosts up to -23 ° C without shelter.
The grape variety "Kishmish Century" is a rather warm and sun-loving species, which indicates the need to choose sunny and bright places for planting it. Experts recommend digging the rows in the south-north direction and keeping a distance of at least 3 meters between them. This is due to the ability of the vines to grow widely not only in the crown area, but also in the root system.
The depressions should correspond to the dimensions 80x80 cm and have a depth of no more than 1 m. The bottom should be covered with a layer of drainage. For these purposes, fine gravel or pebbles will do.
Watering one hole requires at least 10 liters of water. If the soil is clayey, add sand.
Cuttings should be planted in autumn or spring. Many growers advise keeping the roots in rooting stimulants before planting, such as:
According to gardeners, this significantly increases the chances of growing a healthy vine.
There is an opinion that the grafted Kishmish has a number of advantages over the rooted one:
Grapes for a century are not resistant to the development of fungal diseases, therefore, it will not be possible to manage with fungicidal solutions. The plant is most often affected by phylloxera. The fight against this disease involves the uprooting of the entire vineyard and burning. To avoid this, it is required to plant the plants on a phylloxera-resistant stock.
Getting a delicious grape harvest A century is not as difficult as one might think from reading its description. If you follow all the recommendations for planting and caring for the plant, the result will not be long in coming.
The grape variety is worthy of the attention of any grower. Radiant Kishmish is a rather capricious and fastidious variety: it does not like the cold, requires careful and painstaking pruning, and needs complex care. Many more gardeners are repelled by the fact that in order to get a decent harvest, the vine needs to be treated with chemicals at least 5-6 times per season.
But after all, no one knows how much and with what they sprayed the purchased grapes. Therefore, it is definitely worth trying and planting Kishmish in your garden - the result will surely please, because the taste of the grapes is really excellent.
An early variety of raisins. His bunches are massive, often exceeding the weight of 1.5 kg, which is very good for raisin grapes.
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