Going to a store or nursery for seedlings, gardeners often do not know what a good planting material should look like. To prevent this from happening, you need to know planting stock standards.
Seedlings of pome and stone fruit crops, depending on the quality, are divided into two commercial varieties: first and second. Seedlings of both varieties should be leafless, not dried, not have mechanical or other damage that interferes with normal survival. The varietal purity of the planting material is 100 percent. The presence of quarantine pests and diseases is not allowed.
The standards also provide for the number of main roots:
The length of the root system in a plant of the first grade is at least 30 cm, in the second - at least 25 cm. The presence of a central conductor in the seedling is mandatory. Pay particular attention to the grafting site: for a seedling on a seed stock, it should be done at a height of 10 cm, for a seedling on a clonal stock, at a height of at least 20 cm.
For seedlings of both varieties, it is allowed:
Saplings are not allowed:
Standard seedlings can be unbranched (no crown, that is, no side shoots) and branched. The main parameters that determine the quality of the seedling are the height and diameter of the trunk and trunk.
The table below shows the standards for seedlings grafted on a vigorous rootstock. The height of one-year-olds of apple and pear, grafted on a medium-sized rootstock, is 10 cm less, and the height of the stem in crowned one-year-olds and two-year-olds is the same as in the case of grafting on a vigorous hearth.
Standards have not been developed for two-year-olds of plum and cherry-plum. Standard cherry seedlings should be branched.
|Sapling or stem height, cm||I||120||40-60||40-60||120||40-60||40-60|
|Barrel diameter, cm||I||1||1||1,8||1,2||1,2||1,7|
|Length of main branches, cm||I||-||10||20||-||10||20|
|Sapling or stem height, cm||I||140||40-50||140||40-60||40-50||40-60|
|Barrel diameter, cm||I||1,3||1,3||1,3||1,4||1,2||1,8|
|Length of main branches, cm||I||-||20||-||20||20||30|
B. Makashov, agronomist
The beginning of October is the ideal time to plant seedlings of fruit trees and berry bushes. But it is better to prepare the pits in advance - a week or two, or at least a few days.
For each culture, the pits must be of a certain size: for example, for an apple and pear - about a meter in diameter and 50-60 cm deep.For stone fruits, sea buckthorn, mountain ash or irgi - 60-80 cm and 40-50 cm for shrubs, the width and depth can be equal to 40-50 cm.
On heavy clay soils, the pits should be wider, but shallower than on loamy and sandy soils. In areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, trees and shrubs are planted on mounds made of earth and peat.
When digging a planting hole, the upper (fertile) layer of soil is set aside. The amount of fertilizer applied for each crop is different (see table), the main thing is to remember that all fertilizers and fertile soil (from the upper layer) must be thoroughly mixed, and only soil is added to the roots of the seedling directly during planting!
On acidic soils, dolomite flour or lime must be added to the planting hole: for example, about 1 kg of dolomite flour is required under an apple tree or pear, about 250 g for a plum or cherry, and about 100 g for berry bushes. soil with a pH of 6.7, for plums - 6.6-7.1, and for cherries - about 7.0. On sandy soils, non-acidic peat or humus should be added to the pit, but on clay soils - also sand, preferably river sand (about 5 kg).
FACT: it is better to prepare planting pits for spring planting with waspsyeni.
Irina GURIEVA, mp. scientific. sotr. All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. I. V. Michurina
We should also say about the age of the purchased plant. Usually, fruit tree seedlings are sold at the age of one to three years (this age is counted from the moment of grafting, that is, the term "two years" means that the plant was grafted two years ago). The three-year-old, of course, looks both larger and more powerful, it seems that such an adult plant will enter the fruiting period much faster, but this is not so. Do not chase the size of the seedling. The larger the plant, the larger its root system, and therefore, it has suffered more during digging. It will be much more difficult for such a seedling to take root in a new place, and it may enter the fruiting period later than, for example, a two-year-old seedling planted simultaneously with it.
One-year-old and two-year-old in this sense are more optimal for planting on a personal plot.
Also pay attention to last year's growth of the seedling: if its length exceeds 1 m (for a pear) or 60 cm (for an apple tree), then such a seedling should not be taken, since in the middle lane shoots of this length could not grow in a two-year-old, or even more so a one-year old.
Before buying, you need to make a clear list of what exactly needs to be purchased for the future garden. To accurately calculate the optimal number of seedlings, you should use a previously prepared schematic plan of the backyard territory.
If the calculations of this plan provide, relatively speaking, a place for only one tree - you should not acquire two or three. In this case, the best solution would be to buy one healthy strong seedling grafted with two varieties.
It is imperative to take into account the conditions where the trees will grow in the future. Consider the presence of blown, sunny and dark areas on the site, because for each of them it will be possible to select the appropriate culture.
So, along the perimeter of the garden or even the entire site, you can plant ornamental shrubs that are not afraid of wind and drafts, but at the same time, they need sunlight and carefully cultivated soil.
Fruit trees, shrubs and other crops that are vulnerable to frost are best placed in sunny corners of the backyard area, reliably protected from wind and drafts.
For example, barberry and black chokeberry are allowed to be planted in shady places, gooseberries - in semi-shady ones, since an overabundance of sun in early spring can stimulate the premature awakening of the bush, as a result of which young gooseberry shoots will fall off. But experts advise planting grapes in sunny areas, reliably protected from the wind.
White and red currants prefer dry and well-lit areas, while raspberries, gooseberries and black currants prefer moist areas. Apple trees also love moderately humid areas where light gets in - although they are also tolerant of shade.
There are certain rules that will help you not to be mistaken when choosing trees for your future garden.
1. It is better to choose one- or two-year-old seedlings. These trees are not as painful for transplanting as compared to their older counterparts. Do not buy into the appearance of a three- or four-year-old tree. Yes, it is higher, stronger, etc. However, it will be much more difficult for him to take root. When digging up, part of the roots (and such a seedling already has a lot of them) is likely to be damaged, therefore this process is a strong stress for the plant. As a result, the one-year-old seedling will begin to grow faster, it will catch up and even overtake a more mature tree in development.
2. Pay attention to the appearance of the tree. According to the standards, annual unbranched (those that do not have side branches) seedlings of pome crops (apple, pear) should be about a meter high and have a trunk diameter of about 1 cm. Slightly higher - up to 1.5 m - are supposed to be stone fruits. The length of the root system at this height is approximately 30 cm.
The larger the seedling, the more powerful its root system should be. The disproportionately small number of roots indicates that many roots were chopped off in a sufficiently mature tree during digging. In this case, it is better to refuse to buy, because the roots are the main thing that you should pay attention to when purchasing seedlings.
It should be remembered that the root is the basis of any seedling. It is at him that you need to look first. In addition to all of the above, the roots should not be dry and lethargic. In a healthy tree, they are light on both the outside and on the cut. No stains, build-ups, etc. on the root system should not be.
3. Seedlings can be sold with open and closed root systems. It is preferable to buy a tree with closed roots. These seedlings are sold in containers and usually cost more. However, this tree will undergo transplanting less painfully, because the roots will not be injured.
Some overly cunning sellers try to pass off a seedling recently placed in a container for a tree that has been growing there for a long time. In order not to fall for their tricks, carefully examine the ground in the container. If it is dense, knocked down, with some signs of moss, this means that the seedling has been here for a long time. To be sure, pull lightly on the trunk - the tree planted on the eve of the sale will easily be pulled out of the container.
4. In seedlings with an open root system, the roots should not be exposed to the air, because they are very quickly weathered and dry. The chances of getting accustomed to such trees are negligible. The roots should be wrapped in wet burlap, placed after digging in a clay mash or in a damp plastic bag.
According to the standards, a seedling with a closed root system may have some leaves on the trunk. Trees with bare roots should not have leaves at all. Through them, the evaporation of liquid occurs, the tree loses moisture faster - the survival rate is sharply reduced.
5. Fruit trees in nurseries must be grafted. When buying, look for the trunk of the tree and look for signs of grafting. If budding (grafting with a kidney) was carried out, then above the root collar you will find some curvature of the trunk. If grafted in another way, a scar should remain on the trunk. The absence of such "marks" indicates that the seedling is not grafted. Most likely, in front of you is a root shoot, which, if it gives a crop, is completely different from what the seller promised.
We grow an orchard without mistakes
Who doesn't love to feast on fresh apples or pears just picked from a tree? And how can the smell of raspberries bought in the market or in a store compare with the one that sings on the branches of its own bushes? What about wine from your own vineyard? Fruit trees and shrubs are what makes our life outside the city, in the literal sense of the word, more tasty and healthy. And growing them for a gardener is a fascinating process. Indeed, unlike garden crops, an orchard lives next to a person for decades. Unwillingly, the owner begins to treat his trees and bushes like children. And taking care of them brings a lot of pleasure to the gardener. The materials of this subheading will tell you how to create an orchard with your own hands.
When is it better to plant seedlings of fruit crops? What varieties of apple trees to choose for the middle lane? What exotic fruits can be cultivated in a temperate continental climate? Can you grow fruit trees from seeds? The number of questions that a novice gardener has is immense. After all, there are so many fruit crops, and the advice for caring for them is so varied! In our section, we tried, as accurately as possible, to tell about the peculiarities of growing different species and varieties of fruit trees and shrubs. You will also find information on how to choose the right fruit crops for your garden. We hope that Botanichka's practical advice will help you create a full-fledged fruit garden that will delight your family for many, many years. And if you are already a happy owner of such wealth, you will surely find something useful for yourself in our materials. And let your garden grow even more delicious!
Hello dear readers!
Choosing the right seedlings is not an easy task. Even specialists in this field sometimes have difficulty choosing a huge number of varieties and species. Therefore, you should buy them only in reliable places or from trusted sellers.
It is good if the seller offers his product, that is, seedlings grown on his own. In this case, he can tell about all the nuances of growing his brainchild. If the seedlings were grown in a nursery, then some specialists plant them, and others sell them.
The market most often sells seedlings that were brought from warm regions. Saplings without side branches can reach a length of two meters. Sellers, as a rule, do not admit that their goods are imported. They can hide behind the name of a well-known, well-proven nursery. In order not to be deceived, you can ask the seller for the phone number and address of the nursery. If the seller does not want to give you information, then refuse to purchase. Gardeners tenderly care for their plants, expect fruiting from year to year, so I somehow don't want to be disappointed, realizing that they were deceived.
You need to determine the quality of seedlings yourself. High-quality shoots are stored in the nursery at a certain temperature in storage until the very implementation. The bark should be smooth. If the leaves of the seedling being sold have blossomed, then this will tell you that he spent a lot of food on forcing the leaves. The seedling may die, and if it does not die, it will take a long time to take root. The seedlings should be grafted, but there should be no strapping at the grafting site - it is removed in advance. If the harness is not removed, then the seedling has not been completed.
Plum and cherry seedlings can be self-rooted - not grafted. Please note that they can give strong growth to the root system. Saplings of the same age in different crops differ in size. The root system must be commensurate with the aerial part. Be sure to inspect the roots, even if the seedling is sold packaged.
The conclusion is as follows. To choose the right seedlings, you need to be very careful, take your time when buying, do not hesitate to ask the seller about the origin of the plants anymore, ask to remove the packaging from the roots. The more information you get at the point of purchase, the less you will later have to be upset and blame yourself for inattention and haste.