The main concern in January is to intelligently plan all the work that will be required on the site in the coming summer season.
Draw a plan of the site, mark the landing sites on it. Now distribute the plantings in the greenhouse and indicate their dates. And you will immediately see that before planting tomato and pepper seedlings, you can use the free area of greenhouses for early planting of cold-resistant and fast-growing crops: radish, lettuce, spinach.
Now distribute what you want to sow and plant in the beds. Look at last year's plan and see what predecessors grew on these beds. Be sure to consider what crops you can plant after them.
First, determine what exactly and how much you need, and only then go shopping. Very often, gardeners, driven by curiosity or seductive advertising, buy a lot of things that they do not need at all, so it would be a good idea to decide in advance what exactly you really need. The advertised fertilizers should not be applied to all crops at once. Check their effect on 2-3 plants and only then start using them throughout the entire area. Advertising is advertising, but it is better to first check it yourself, otherwise you may end up without a crop. The same applies to plant protection products from pests and diseases.
Personally, I prefer to use the long-term AVA fertilizer because I have tested it, it doesn’t require much and is easy to transport to the site, and it should be applied for perennial crops once every 2-3 years, so the amount of work is greatly reduced. If we correctly calculate the cost of purchasing it and the required amount of other fertilizers, then the prices turn out to be comparable.
For emergency assistance in unfavorable weather (prolonged cold snap, when the roots do not work), I always stock up on ambulance for plants - Uniflor-growth and Uniflor-bud fertilizers. Uniflor-micro, which is necessary for all perennials at the time of the formation of their ovaries, I do not need, since the necessary microelements are in AVA.
Since I always plant a lot of cauliflower, I stock up on calcium nitrate, one kilogram of it is enough for the summer. And I definitely buy chlorine-free potash fertilizer. It is also enough 1 kg per season. I will definitely stock up on Fitosporin and Gumi. These are excellent organo-mineral fertilizers. Fitosporin is also a universal plant protector against pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases, and Gumi enhances the viability of plants in unfavorable weather (drought, frost, sudden temperature changes, prolonged cold snap). In addition, Gumi supports the activity of soil microorganisms, protects our lands from toxic substances. It also promotes root formation, growth and development of the aerial portion. It is useful to soak the seeds in the Gumi solution, to hold the cuttings and seedlings before planting. With these preparations, I usually water the soil in the beds, in greenhouses and under the plantings of perennials in the spring, summer and autumn.
There is a good organic fertilizer "Barrel and four buckets", if available, you do not need to ferment weeds or buy manure.
Since I do not use pesticides on my site, to protect plants from diseases and pests, I always, just in case, have Fitoverm or Iskra-bio to protect against pests, as well as Zircon, Epin-extra, Silk, which help to increase the self-protection of plants from diseases and all kinds of stressful situations, increasing their immunity. It is very useful to sprinkle all plants at the moment of unfolding the leaves with a mixture of Zircon, Epin-extra and Tsitovit preparations - each with 2 drops per 1 liter of water. This spraying should definitely be done on those plants that you had sick in the previous summer, and for the rest it is an excellent prevention. Zircon helps plants to overcome fungal and bacterial diseases, Epin-extra enhances the resistance of plants to spring frosts, Cytovit is a good foliar feeding with macro- and microelements, which is quite useful after a winter without the sun. I use Silk during the season to support weakened plants.
I also really love the homeopathic preparation "Healthy Garden". They should spray the entire garden monthly as it prevents pests from attacking the plants. If you do not have enough energy or time for such a global spraying, then you can simply water the plantings with a solution of the "Healthy Garden" preparation. The effect will still be, only slower. But watering alone is not enough, since the duration of the action of this drug does not exceed three weeks.
If you are fermenting weeds (and this is a very good thing), then you can first dilute the whole packet with grains of "Healthy Garden" in a small bottle of water until completely dissolved, and then pour into a barrel with weeds and stir. But it is impossible to add Gumi or Fitosporin to the weed barrel for the whole season at once. They should be dissolved in a small amount of water (twice as much water as preparations) and kept in the shade of such a concentrated solution. As needed, it should be taken in a tablespoon per 10 liters of water and water the soil and plants.
So you have a choice, decide for yourself what and how much you should buy for the upcoming season.
The New Year was celebrated, there are still many long winter evenings ahead, but the days are already arriving, and what does this mean? That's right, it's time to review the seed bags and think over the sowing of flower and vegetable seeds for seedlings!
Many summer residents have their hands itching with might and main, and they want to quickly open the summer season and bring the time of flowering and harvest as close as possible. But here you have to hurry slowly, you just need to sit down and think carefully before sending the seeds into the ground.
What do we want when starting early sowing?
Then it is necessary to select those crops that are expedient to sow now.
See what our experts advise:
But now is the time to discuss the topic: share your experience, the secrets of healthy seedlings, doubts and arguments! Please tell us which of the January sowing of the past years was the most successful, and what crops will you be sure to sow in January? And what only multiplied the headache, and what kind of culture you are now in January "never and for no money!" Share today's news, what you have already sown or are about to sow for seedlings, the seeds of which crops you stratify and process, and which containers are best for sowing.
Even if you have already written about this in your journal or in the comments, write here too. We will collect all the seven-day January experience and can later analyze what went wrong and what was done at the wrong time or wrong. It will come in handy!
Doing summer cottage affairs together is always calmer for the soul, more interesting, and more fun, isn't it ?!
In January, those annuals and perennials are sown for seedlings, in which the period from emergence to flowering is more than 130 days. Only sowing so early will allow you to enjoy full flowering already in the year of planting.
Verbena is photophilous and decorative, blooms from June until frost, will be an excellent decoration for any flower garden, mixborder or house planting. Its seeds sprout poorly, and therefore need treatment with a growth stimulant (Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Epin Extra, Zircon). It is worth sowing in a loose mixture of black soil, peat and sand (3: 1: 0.5) or a ready-made substrate for flower seedlings. Verbena seeds often get wet, so water them only after they have a dry crust on the soil. After picking, do not forget to take two weeks to gradually harden the seedlings.
Gaillardia, although it is a perennial, is more often grown by gardeners as an annual. It blooms from mid-summer until the first frost and has many bright, interesting colors. You need to sow it in 4-5 seeds in one pot, the soil is suitable for both purchased and self-prepared.
Carnation blooms only six months after sowing, so you need to sow it no later than early February. You will have to tinker with tiny seeds: make grooves 3 mm deep in the sowing substrate, spread the seeds in them at a distance of 2 cm from each other and fill them with disinfected river sand. Water the crops and place in a bag to retain moisture, then place them on a window, protected from direct sunlight with newspaper or cardboard. When shoots appear, remove the shading and start lighting up the carnation, and after a few more days remove the bag.
Gelenium is a drought-resistant, non-capricious perennial crop that blooms more and more luxuriantly from year to year. You need to plant it in lighted places, and the seedlings like additional lighting and grow more actively with additional lighting. Any flower substrate is suitable for germinating helenium, and you only need to water the crops as the soil dries.
Sowing a delphinium is significantly different from sowing other flowers. Its seeds need stratification, so the seeds sown in pots are taken outside and buried in the snow. In the spring, seedlings appear in pots, which dive and are immediately planted in a permanent place. If you preferred a variety that will bloom in the same year, know that it will last 2-3 years, and then the plant will have to be sown again.
This elegant perennial, which blooms from May to September, will take a lot of work, but its bright flowers will thank you for your efforts. Sowing seeds is carried out superficially, without embedding them in the soil, but only covering them with film or glass, and left in a well-lit place. Calceolaria is not planted in open ground, it is used as a container culture, choosing sunny places protected from drafts. After picking, the plants should be fed with complex mineral fertilizer every 2 weeks - this will lead to lush and long flowering.
A charming and unpretentious bell blooms for a long time and on any soil, which is why summer residents love it. Sowing a bell for seedlings does not require special skills: a store substrate and any containers are suitable for it. Seeds are sown in moist soil, sprinkled with earth on top and sent to the lightest window with the possibility of additional lighting. The cut seedlings must be carefully tempered and pampered with complex mineral fertilizers every 2-3 weeks.
The seeds are laid out on a substrate and covered with foil or glass, remembering to regularly check the moisture content of the soil. Lobelia loves light, but it must be shaded from direct sunlight. The first mineral fertilizer is applied 2 weeks after the pick. Properly grown and cut lobelia will bloom from late June until frost. To make the bushes more lush, do not forget to pinch the faded branches.
Snapdragons are sown without embedding in the ground, and germinated, shading from direct sunlight. Rooted cut plants can be fed after 10 days and the hardening process can begin. When planting seedlings in open ground, you need to take into account the variety of snapdragons in order to choose the right distance between the bushes. On average, this is 20-30 cm, but there may be exceptions.
The unusual "blue poppy" blooms in June-July, but begins to prepare for this in January, slowly sprouting and slowly developing. It is necessary to sow it in loose fertile soil, and dive the seedlings as soon as they appear in order to minimize the injury to the roots. Meconopsis loves moisture, so do not forget to water it, and if you do not refuse the flower in regular feeding, then it can bloom again in the second year.
Euphorbia is characterized by poor germination, which, however, can be improved by forced stratification of seeds. After sowing milkweed in pots, send it outside and dig it into the snow, then friendly shoots await you in April. As soon as the plant begins to discard leaves, plant it in its permanent places. You won't have to worry about choosing a place, because euphorbia grows equally well on all types of soils and with different degrees of illumination.
Pelargonium, unlike many of its counterparts, loves not only lighted, but also warm places, so it is worth germinating it in the warmest room that you have in your house. She also gratefully reacts to regular feeding. But you can achieve lush flowering only by pinching the shoots, which should not be forgotten from the very landing in the open ground.
Eustoma is a flower for the most patient gardeners. Not everyone can wait for her shoots, because she is royally unhurried. If you are not afraid to take risks and believe in your own strength, then sow eustoma in a flower substrate without deepening, water and cover with glass or film. The crops will have to be supplemented, because eustoma needs at least 10, and preferably 12 hours of light a day. In addition, seedlings should be sprayed with Fitosporin solution every 10 days. It is recommended to plant flowers in the ground with a lump of earth, trying not to damage the roots.
A whole front of work awaits summer residents in March. For convenience, we will divide the work for gardeners, gardeners and florists. Garden work includes pruning trees and shrubs, treating wounds and hollows, treating the garden from overwintered pests, spraying and whitewashing, combating sunburn, cleaning the garden, working in the vineyard, preparing greenhouses, and of course planting seedlings.
Spring gardening start by looking at trees and shrubs. March is the best time for sanitary pruning. It is necessary to prepare knives, pruners, ladders and garden pitch. When the temperature no longer drops below 5 degrees, you can start pruning trees. A branch cut can say a lot about the degree of freezing of a tree - the darker the cut of wood, the more the tree is frozen.
You can cut a few twigs and place them in a container of water. The blossoming buds need to be cut lengthwise and look not at the texture of the buds inside. Light green fabric means that the tree has survived the winter successfully.
Slices after pruning must be covered with a thin layer of garden varnish. It is not recommended to leave the stumps.
Wounds received by a tree in winter from broken branches or for other reasons must be treated (remove the broken off branches and cover with garden varnish). The same applies to the formed hollows. For various reasons, hollows can cause tree disease if left untreated. Therefore, it is necessary:
Treatment of tree bark wounds - a mandatory procedure in the gardener's list of spring jobs. It is better to start treatment when metabolic processes have not yet been activated and sap flow has not begun. In order to minimize the penetration of putrefactive microflora into the plant, the wounds or cut after pruning must be covered with garden varnish or varnish-based paint (it can even be in its pure form). Vegetable oil is the safest for the tree. It does not penetrate deeply inside, but forms a reliable film that protects the tree from moisture loss.
Paints, which include kerosene or gasoline, penetrate into the wood texture by 3-5 cm. It is noticed that such wounds heal much longer, and even a hollow may appear.
The next item of spring work is the fight against pests overwintering on the bark of trees. To do this, the garden in March must be sprayed with a high concentration of urea water. For the garden, this procedure is harmless in March. But such a saturated urea solution can cause serious damage to pests. You can use the nitrafen solution according to the instructions. Spraying with nitrafen in early spring, before the buds begin to swell, protects plants well from overwintering pests.
Lichens on tree trunks can be destroyed as follows: using special scrapers and brushes, scrape them off the tree trunk, being careful not to damage the wood. And then treat it with a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate. This must be done before the start of sap flow, otherwise you can simply burn the awakened bark.
Sunburn is a common problem in a spring garden. During this period, the still lying snow reflects the sun's rays, and the dark bark of the trees heats up. This increases the evaporation of moisture, and night frosts can damage the top layer of the bark. The bark cracks and dies off. It has been noticed that trees whitewashed in autumn suffer less from sunburn in spring. Therefore, as soon as the first warm day comes out, the trees need to be whitewashed. For whitewashing, “milk of lime” or water-based paint is suitable.
Bushes need to be freed from compressed snow so that it does not freeze during thaws and does not break branches. This is done using a regular stake.
Also, in March they produce pruning currant and gooseberry bushesif it wasn't done in the fall. Cutting of old branches in black currants is carried out from the fifth year, in red, white currants and gooseberries - from 6-8 years of age. This annual rejuvenation of the bushes allows for higher yields.
In addition, blackcurrant bushes should also be checked for thick, swollen buds (kidney mites). If found, they must be robbed and burned. If any of the branches is densely populated with such buds, it must also be mercilessly cut and burned.
A hot bath is considered an effective measure for pest control on currants and gooseberries. To do this, water, about 80-90 degrees, you need to water the bushes even before bud break.
Raspberry bushes, tied or bent to the ground, release and remove dry shoots.
As soon as the snow has completely melted, the honeysuckle bushes are examined and dry branches are cut, as well as thinned bushes are thinned out. This must be done before the start of the growing season. In honeysuckle, these processes begin earlier than other plants. The average statistical period for the country is no later than the 1st decade of April.
All cut branches from trees and shrubs must be burned.
Strawberry planting also needs extra care. In order to hold back the snow, the strawberry bed can be covered with any light material, which is removed only with the final departure of frost. This is especially true for early non-winter-hardy varieties.
March is the time to stamp fruit trees with trapping belts. This is a good prophylaxis against apple blossom beetle and weevil beetles. Fishing belts are removed only after the trees have completely faded.
Also, in March, cuttings are harvested for grafting fruit trees.
With the onset of spring, it is time to restore external order in the garden. For example, prepare grooves for water to drain when snow melts, clean paths, renovate old birdhouses and hang new ones. Prepare for the arrival of birds to your site. It is better to do this even before the snow melts. Do not forget to feed these feathered helpers, they will be very useful to you for pest control.
In March, you need to start preparing greenhouses and hotbeds for the season. If repairs are required, repair them, and be sure to disinfect everything, for example, with a 10% solution of caustic soda.
If there is a lot of snow in the garden, for faster melting, ash is scattered in strips. This is done so that the soil is well saturated with moisture. Also, ash, peat chips or sawdust soaked in creolin are sprinkled on the ground around tree trunks. Such peculiar protective circles scare off mice, which can cause great harm to young trees or shrubs.
The main work in March for gardeners are carried out on the windowsill. The future harvest directly depends on the quality of the grown seedlings. Therefore, in March, they continue to look after the already sown seedlings, and also sow new seeds for seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and eggplants. If seedlings are delayed, you can speed up their emergence by increasing the temperature of the soil. The optimum temperature is 28-32 degrees.
When the first loop of shoots appears, containers with seedlings are transferred to the brightest place and the temperature regime is monitored. During the week, the daytime temperature should not exceed 16-18 degrees, and the nighttime 12-14. This is done in order to stop the growth of the hypocotal knee and pulling seedlings at an early stage. Such temperature conditions can be achieved, for example, by opening the window, but in such a way that the cold air does not immediately fall on young plants. Cold drafts are especially dangerous for eggplants.
After a week, the temperature can be increased by 4-6 degrees. Important! Do not overdo it with such hardening. A drop in temperature below 8 degrees leads to late blight disease in tomatoes.
They begin to feed the seedlings already with the appearance of the first cotyledon leaves. Top dressing can be combined with watering, that is, watering young seedlings with a weak fertilizer solution. You can use Uniflor-growth or Uniflor-bud, or any other fertilizer suitable for seedlings. Remember that excessive watering can cause acidification of the soil and, as a result, death of roots. This is the most common mistake novice gardeners make.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to create an ideal microclimate for every garden crop on one windowsill. Therefore, experienced gardeners have developed a general rule for growing high-quality seedlings. This is good lighting, competent watering (not overflowing), and not overdrying the soil. Also, nighttime temperatures should be lower than daytime temperatures.
The more seedlings are planned to receive, the closer the pots and boxes on the windowsill will be. And at this time, the seedlings need especially good lighting, otherwise the fruiting period is seriously postponed. Fluorescent lamps and phytolamps, which do not burn delicate plants, and even save energy, perfectly cope with this task. Additional lighting is sufficient only during the day.
All ceramic and wooden boxes that were used last year must be washed with soap, and even doused with boiling water. As for the soil, for seedlings, you can use both purchased ready-made and prepared with your own hands from a mixture of leaf, turf, humus earth, sand and peat.
In early March, you can sow celery seedlings. The ripening period of root celery is 200 days. Therefore, it is better to plant seedlings, otherwise, with the spring whims of nature, your celery simply will not have time to ripen. Celery seeds, both root and petiole, are considered capricious. It is advisable to soak them before planting.
It is better to sow in small cups with moist soil. Since the seeds are small, it is better to plant on snow. To do this, put snow in each glass, and 2-3 seeds on top. Firstly, it will be clear, and secondly, when the snow melts, the seeds will be slightly pulled into the soil. Then, the cups should be covered with glass or foil and placed on the windowsill close to the glass. After sprouting, the film can be removed. If several shoots sprout in the glass, you will need to leave the strongest plant. The rest should not be pulled out of the ground, but carefully cut with nail scissors.
Seeds of early varieties of white and red cabbage, kohlrabi and broccoli are sown for seedlings in March. The sowing time is calculated as follows: from sowing to emergence, approximately 10 days pass, from germination to the time of planting in the ground about 50 days. Based on these calculations, you can choose the required time for sowing for your conditions.
Works in March for florists lot. It is necessary to sow seedlings, carry out the prevention of the "black leg", conduct an audit of bulbous and tuberous crops, and, if the weather permits, start pruning ornamental shrubs. In mid-March, petunias, asters, zinnias, marigolds, snapdragons, lavatera, annual phlox, etc. are sown on seedlings. After sowing, the soil is slightly compacted with a spoon and the container is placed in a warm place. You can help the seeds to sprout by watering them with a solution of "Zircon" (4 drops per 1 glass of water).
There are other ways to stimulate seedlings for germination, for example, vitamins of group B. You can read more here. It is impossible to water the seedlings of small seeds from above. To do this, you can use a syringe, the needle of which must be carefully inserted into the soil.
At the end of March, it's time to check out the plantings of hydrangeas and roses that have been sheltered since autumn. The shelter should be periodically raised and ventilated in this way.
Since frosts are still possible, snow over perennials does not need to be removed. A complex mineral fertilizer can be scattered over the snow. In this way, you can begin to feed both perennials and bulbs.
Spring gardening must include pruning grapes. Those gardeners who grow or plan to grow this garden culture in their own country should pay worthy attention to this issue. Pruning grapes is an essential part of caring for this plant. Grapes are not only amazingly tasty and healthy. With its help, the most incredible decorative compositions are created in the garden. In order for the grapes to please with a plentiful and regular harvest, they must be properly cared for. And pruning plays a critical role here.
Giving the correct shape to the grape bush is aimed exclusively at increasing fruiting. As a result of pruning, natural ventilation and the amount of sunshine are improved. In addition, regulating the amount of young vines helps to get the maximum yield on fruitful shoots.
Early pruning of grapes is carried out in March. As soon as the temperature approaches +5 degrees, you can begin to form a bush. This is a serious and complex process, and is available only to experienced summer residents. In case of improper pruning, grapes can become sick or even die. We will consider the topic "How to properly prune grapes" in other publications.
As for other necessary work in the vineyard in March, gardeners are advised to inspect the trellises, identify faults, determine a well-lit place for future planting of grapes, and prepare supports.
By comparing the time of the planned work with the lunar planting calendar, you can choose the days that are most favorable for working in the garden, vegetable garden and flower garden.
Waxing Crescent... Sowing seeds of peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, cabbage, pumpkin, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce for seedlings is recommended.
Full moon... Unfavorable time for gardening and gardening.
Waning moon. A good time for spring pruning of trees and bushes in the garden. Also, you can plant cuttings, dividing flowers and stratification of seeds and pits of trees.
New moon... Unfavorable time for gardening and gardening.