Chicory: history of use in Russia


The culture of chicory cultivation dates back to ancient times. Already in Ancient Egypt and Rome, chicory leaves were used for food as a medicinal plant.

Chicory in Egypt enjoyed particular attention. The healing properties of common chicory are mentioned in the ancient Egyptian papyrus of Ebers (XVI century BC), and in the works of ancient doctors and scientists (Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Pliny the Elder). Avicenna used chicory to improve digestion and treat joint diseases.

As a medicinal plant, chicory has been used since time immemorial by the inhabitants of Europe, Asia, Africa, India, Indonesia, and the USA. Roasting chicory roots and brewing them like coffee began in the 16th century.

During the time of the Romans, chicory was used as a salad, as a medicinal plant, and both wild and its cultural forms were known.

Chicory has been used to increase appetite, improve digestion, liver and kidney function. Used its astringent, disinfectant and diuretic actions that improve metabolic processes. It was used for skin conditions such as eczema, acne, furunculosis, non-healing ulcers and wounds.

In those days, chicory was used as a medicinal plant.

The emergence of chicory in Russia

In Russia, the cultural cultivation of chicory and its industrial use began in the time of Peter 1. According to one of the versions, Peter 1 met with chicory as a substitute for coffee during his visits to Holland. Peter I sent Porechians, residents of the village of Porechye-Rybnoye, Rostov district, Yaroslavl province, famous vegetable growers, suppliers of vegetables to the tsar's table, to learn gardening in Holland. Then in Porechye-Rybny there was a royal garden, which supplied the royal table with cucumbers and peas.

According to the second legend in Russia, the first data on the cultural cultivation of chicory date back to the end of the 18th century. Rostov local historian I.I.Khranilov noted that initially the processing and cultivation of chicory in Russia was carried out by the German Hackman, who had a plow for chicory in Vyborg. He made ground coffee from it, which he sold in paper tubes in St. Petersburg and other cities. There was little demand for cyclic coffee at that time.

Working for a long time with Hackman, a peasant from Porechye, I.B. Zolotakhin, mastered the basic operations of growing and processing chicory: how to sow, tear, wash and chop, dry and burn, grind and stuff into tubes. The gardener returned to Porechye with the intention of starting this trade at home, "taking with him pounds of heels of seeds."

I. Khranilov emphasized the outstanding role of Zolotakhin, who acted as a propagandist of a new, not yet known craft: “... a monument should have been erected to Zolotakhin in Porechye with an inscription in gold letters“ Eternal memory ”. The deal turned out to be very profitable. This can be judged by how Ilya Zolotakhin at the end of his life donated 40,000 rubles to the temple of Nikita in his native Porechye, to the royal gates of cast silver.

Be that as it may, on the Yaroslavl land, the beginning of the cultivation of chicory as a commercial culture, as well as its processing, was laid in the 18th century by the peasants from. Porechye-Rybnoe, Rostov the Great.

Chicory appeared in the gardens of Porechye-Rybny and began to be grown for subsequent processing and use as a substitute for coffee.

By the 1820s. the cultivation of chicory for commercial purposes took a firm place in Porechye and began to be quickly borrowed in the surrounding villages. In the gardens, they sowed 1 pound of green peas, 1–2 quarters of potatoes, and 1 / 2–1 pounds of chicory per capita. The average yield of green peas was itself-10, potatoes - itself-9 and itself-10, chicory - itself-8017. In most suburban Rostov settlements, chicory, green peas and potatoes were the leading garden crops. In general, in Porech'e only up to 400 pounds of cyclic seeds were sown on an area of ​​up to 10,000 ridges, and up to 10,000 poods grew.

Chicory was sown in early spring, partly with its homegrown seeds, and mostly from abroad - German. It was sown both in whole ridges and on the sides of other ridges, on which onions and other plants were previously planted, not very often. A pound of cyclic seeds were planted from 10 to 15 decadal beds. The harvesting of root crops, including chicory, was carried out following the harvest of onions, from the beginning of September.

Beets and carrots were harvested first, then parsnips, parsley, rutabagas, then chicory, so that the work was finished by September 20, before frost. Excavation of chicory was carried out with a special iron shovel - "koruli", or a cyclic shovel. Dry chicory in the form it went on sale until the middle of winter was obtained from a tithe from large roots of 202 pounds, and from small ones - 90 pounds.

Cyclic coffee preparation method

The method of making cyclic coffee, used in the village. Porechye, was taken, according to the old-timers, from near Riga, where before many from Rostov went to work in the gardens and gardens of the Germans.

In the 1800s-1880s. The main method of processing chicory was barn and rack drying, which gave the product a smoke smell, changing its natural white color to light gray. After washing, the chicory was taken to the yard or to the dryers, where they began to cut it. The chicory was cut with thin knives into longitudinal strips, into 4, 6 and even 8 strips, the largest into more than 20 pieces. Then it was crushed, sharp across, into cubes.

Chopped chicory was dried on tiled stoves, ovens, barns and dryers. The method used in the Rostov Ride consisted of deep roasting of cyclic roots over a fire in iron cylinders. The roasted roots were pulverized in mills. Then the powder was poured into cylindrical caps or tubes, then subjected to prolonged exposure to warm water vapor, from which the material was refracted and subjected to some kind of fermentation.

Another method of making cycor coffee, without burning the roots and not in the form of powder, but in cut pieces, through their light toasting, was invented by the doctor Morenko in Suzdal. From Morenko in 1830 a new method of cultivation and preparation of coffee from the Cichorium intybus plant and peppermint was transferred to the Rostov district.

In 1834, it was produced: chicory - up to 40,000 poods at 6 rubles. The peasants with the preparation of cykor coffee using a drying barn. Porechye, judging by the documents, began to study by the 1820s. The village was home to the oldest chicory processing enterprise in the Rostov district - the factory of the brothers Nikolai Yakovlevich and Vasily Yakovlevich Pykhov.

"The chicory prepared at this plant is the best in terms of quality and conscientiousness of preparation.", - wrote one of the Rostov ethnographers in the 90s. XIX century. There were six medals on the label, in addition, there was a commendation from the Vienna Exhibition44. In 1830-1870. The peasants Lyalins, Pelevin, Ustinov and Shestakov also had cycling establishments. Six cyclic factories in the village. Porechye had a total output of 8000 poods., 7200 rubles. ser. In total, 32 people were employed here. A specific feature of the Rostov district was the use of water and windmills for grinding both bread and chicory.

The history of the "cyclic" industry

Most of the large chicory processing enterprises were concentrated in the settlements of Porechye, Sknyatinovo, Karavaevo and Klimatino, located on the eastern and northeastern shores of Lake Nero. Their total output was over 20,000 poods for an amount of up to 19,000 rubles.

There were significant crops of chicory, in the large village of Porechye, other branches of the handicraft industry were developed, there were a significant number of workers who came to be hired to work; regular bazaar trade for the sale of products. Porechye was the center of a scattered manufactory - the distribution of raw cycor root to peasants of other villages was carried out to turn it into a semi-finished product and a finished product. Water and windmills were widely used to grind chicory.

Prices for chicory during the first half of the 19th century. were subject to strong fluctuations and as the volume of its production increased by peasants with. Porechye and other villages declined.

If at the beginning of the XIX century. black chicory was sold in Rostov for 2 rubles. 50 kopecks for a pood, white chicory - 7 rubles, pipe chicory - 4 rubles, Russian coffee - 9 rubles, then in 1851 black chicory was sold for 40 kopecks, white chicory - 3 rubles. 80 kopecks, pipe chicory - 1 rub. 40 kopecks, Russian coffee - 2 rubles. for a pood. That is, prices for different varieties of chicory have decreased 2-3 times over 50 years.

Summing up the annual total product of this industry for the entire Rostov district, I. Khranilov called the production volume of all varieties of chicory at 800,000 poods, and the total amount of its sales, based on an average price of 1 ruble. 25 kopecks per pood - 100,000 rubles. ser.

Rostov gardeners took part in regional, all-Russian and international exhibitions. For example, a peasant with. Ugodichi A. Myagkov received a silver medal of the 2nd degree for the production of cyclone coffee in 1845 at the Velikoselskaya exhibition 56. In August 1858, at the exhibition of art, manufactory, factory and other works of the Yaroslavl province from the peasants of the village. In addition to herbs and vegetables, white chicory was presented on the river.

At the Moscow exhibition in 1864, from the lists of exhibitors of the Yaroslavl province, who received prizes and awards awarded by the Moscow Imperial Society of Agriculture, a peasant from. Porech'e A. Ya. Ustinov was awarded a commendation for the cyclic coffee.

The importance of the appearance and distribution of chicory in the Rostov land is extremely great. Chicory occupied large areas not only in vegetable gardens, but also in the plowed fields of a large part of the lakeside rural settlements. Chicory was no longer a final product, as, for example, Rostov onion, but a raw material for the developing food industry, a typical market crop, whose crops grew and decreased depending on demand. In its production and marketing, there was a sharp competition.

In 1884 the merchant A.P. Selivanov opened a steam cycling plant in Rostov on Podozerskaya street. Its products came out under the sign of the firm "Trading house of A. Selivanov's sons". In 1896 chicory was produced for 250,718 rubles. At the factory, for 285 days, 74 adult men and 34 teenagers worked in one shift, who were given salaries in the amount of 11485 rubles. The equipment consisted of two boilers with a heating surface of 622 sq. feet, one engine - a steam engine with a capacity of 31 liters. force 61.

At the beginning of the XX century. this enterprise was equipped with the latest equipment, nine roasting drums produced about 900 poods of products per day. In 1909, 165 workers worked here 62. A. Vakhrameev, the grandfather of the current primate of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Filaret, founded the firm “Partnership of the Rostov cycling production” I. Vakhromeev and Co. ". In addition, FF Strizhnikov's factory operated in Rostov, and D. Ustinov's factory in Petrovsk.

Since the 50s of the 18th century, chicory, as a purely industrial local culture, began to occupy one of the first places in the budget of the Rostov peasantry, giving it an income higher than from other cultures. In a number of villages in the Rostov district, the area under chicory was brought to 50% of all arable land.

In 1866, 640 tons of chicory were sold from the city of Rostov and the Rostov district, and in 1893 this amount rises to 5360 tons. It served as an export item. From here the dried product of chicory root crops went to the ports of Riga, Revel, Libau, and then abroad - to Germany, England, Sweden (L.N. Kryukov, 1919).

In 1893, 5360 tons of cyclic products were produced in the Rostov district, and in 1895 - already 6542 tons. Part of these products were exported abroad. In 1910, chicory was cultivated in 211 villages. Four large factories operated in Rostov and Petrovsk, with 23 roasting machines, with 440 workers, with fixed capital - up to 400,000 rubles, with working capital - up to 500,000 rubles, which produced up to 7406 tons of finished products per 1,655 RUB 500 and received a net profit of more than 150,000 rubles.

In 1911, 7,934 tons of cyclic products were produced for 1,597,400 rubles, and in 1912 - 7,882 tons, for 1,383,300 rubles. In the Rostov district, 56.75% of all cyclic products produced in Russia were produced.

In 1911, 20 Russian cycling factories processed 7,934 tons of chicory root crops for 1,597,400 gold rubles, and the share of the Yaroslavl province accounted for 57.0% of the total production, 4 provinces of Poland - 34.2%, the Baltic states - 8.1% , the share of all other regions is only 0.7% (B.A. Panshin, 1935). The area under chicory in 1911 in the Rostov district of the Yaroslavl province was 4,264 hectares. At this time, root chicory was grown only for the needs of coffee-cycle production.

During the Soviet period, the Selivanovs' factory was nationalized. In 1924, the equipment of the liquidated Pykhov cycling plant was transported here from Porechye. During the NEP years, peasants in 10 volosts of Rostov lakeside villages continued to operate cycling dryers, many of which later became collective farm.

A decisive shift in the attitude towards chicory took place in our country after in 1911 Professor F.I. Shustov and in 1931 by engineer D.A. Poyarkov found that chicory can be not only a valuable coffee substitute, but also an excellent raw material for processing into alcohol. Data on the study of root chicory as a technical culture (Rostovtsev, 1924; Kvasnikov, 1938; Uspensky, 1944, and others) show that it is a valuable raw material not only for the coffee-cycling industry, but also for the alcohol industry.

By a special government decree in 1931, a special cyclic trust was organized and in 1932 - a scientific research institute of chicory with a network of experimental stations, and the culture of chicory was extended to a number of new regions, incl. Moscow and many western regions, the Central Black Earth Region, the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian SSR, the BSSR, Western Siberia and the Gorky Territory. As a result of these measures, by 1938 the area under chicory in the USSR reached 81,700 hectares.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Rostov coffee-cycling factory produced food concentrates, confectionery and rusks for the front.

However, the necessary preparatory work for the transfer of the alcohol industry to new raw materials was not carried out. This, in the context of the rapid growth of acreage, led to the accumulation of large quantities of chicory root crops at distilleries and the impossibility of its timely and correct processing. This circumstance, as well as the greater labor intensity of the methods of growing chicory in comparison with potatoes, contributed to a sharp reduction in its sown areas in the regions of the alcohol industry.

This circumstance did not affect the sown areas of chicory culture in the Yaroslavl and Ivanovo regions, where it was cultivated only for the needs of the coffee-cycling and confectionery industry. The demand for chicory for these purposes was constantly growing. By the decision of the executive committee of the Yaroslavl region of January 21, 1971, No. 408 "On measures to increase the production and sale of chicory roots to the state", measures were envisaged to increase the acreage under the chicory crop.

As a result of their implementation, the sown area of ​​chicory in the Rostov region was increased by 1985 to 1,507 hectares, and the maximum gross harvest in 1984 was 11,715 tons. The areas occupied by chicory in the structure of sown areas increased from 5.5% in 1979 to 7.5% in 1985

In the 1960s-1980s. The cycling factory was one of the most developed enterprises in Rostov, equipped with high-performance equipment. She was part of the Kofetsikorprodukt production association. More than 10,000 tons of various coffee drinks of fourteen names were produced annually, nine of which contain chicory. Ground and pasty chicory, coffee with chicory were also produced here.In the 1970s. on the shelves appeared the first cans with a thick paste-like mass of dark brown "Chicory instant". It was quickly appreciated and not easy to buy.

In the 90s, due to the extremely difficult situation of agricultural enterprises and their lack of funds to pay for weeding and harvesting of root crops, which are carried out by hand everywhere, to buy machines with which it would be possible to perform these works mechanically, as well as to purchase a high-quality sowing material, mineral fertilizers, pesticides and fuels and lubricants, there was a gradual decrease in the acreage of chicory from 997 hectares in 1990 to 240 hectares in 1999, and the gross harvest decreased from 4055 tons to 589 tons, respectively. At the same time, the profitability of chicory production remained quite high and ranged from 39.8% in 1990 to 89.0% in 1993.

In 2001-2003, due to numerous reorganizations, redistribution of property and re-profiling of processing enterprises, the acceptance of root crops was not carried out at them, and chicory was not cultivated. In recent years, the production of a pasty and dry packaged product from chicory root crops has been established.

The demand for root vegetables has increased dramatically. However, the lack of labor resources, the lack of special equipment and herbicides in the cultivation of chicory, the poorly resolved issue of the selection of varieties and seed production make this crop unattractive for large agricultural producers.

An increasing share in the gross harvest of root crops is beginning to be occupied by private peasant and private farms. However, the amount of local raw materials does not cover even a fifth of the needs of processing enterprises, which are forced to purchase dried chicory in France, India, and Ukraine.

In 2015-2017, chicory was practically not grown on the territory of the Russian Federation. Scientific research carried out in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has proven the benefits of chicory and its processed products. The most valuable biochemical composition of chicory root, the prebiotic properties of chicory, the presence of inulin in the root and leaves of chicory in large quantities (up to 65% of dry matter) make it possible to use chicory for the production of functional foods with a high health-improving effect.

Traditional bakery, confectionery, dairy products, animal feed, endowed with prebiotic qualities with the help of chicory, will help to improve the health of the country's population and create a new branch of food production with added healing qualities. These are innovative products of the 21st Century.

For gardeners, root chicory is a promising root crop that is easy to grow in a garden plot. It is only necessary to purchase seeds of cultivated varieties to obtain a sufficiently large root, white "carrots" up to 20-30 cm long. Having dug up the root before the first frost, having washed it, cut it into strips, the pieces can be easily dried by placing them on a battery in a heated room.

And then the dried chicory can be used all winter long, making decoctions to prevent colds and treat sore throats. And you can fry a little dried pieces of the root and use the grind as a coffee substitute. It is not necessary to deeply fry, because of the high temperature, inulin breaks down into fructose (hydrolyzes) and loses its healing properties.

Read the rest of the article: Chicory: composition and medicinal properties →

Baevsky Vladimir Viktorovich,
Director of Sovremennik LLC
e-mail: [email protected]


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On alkaline soils, phosphorus is in a form that is inaccessible to plants, which negatively affects the development of the root system and the further growth of plants.

Nitric and phosphoric acids are traditionally used to acidify water and clean droppers. However, acids are classified as hazardous substances, which complicates their transportation, storage and use.
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In the realities of modern society, same-sex relationships are no longer something shocking and surprising. The wave of disapproval and persecution towards homosexual orientation is already gradually replaced by a more calm attitude and acceptance of such a phenomenon as a given. Moreover, some countries have even legalized same-sex marriage at the state level.


Stages of development

Before the 1917 revolution, Russia ranked first in the world in terms of the number of horses. There were approximately 45 million head of animals in the country. At this time, horses were used as a draft force, as a means of transportation, as the main source of hides, milk and meat.

After the Great Patriotic War, the situation changed radically. The role of horse breeding has been significantly reduced. There were several reasons for this:

  • The death of a large number of heads during the war (about 10 million heads).
  • Disbandment of the country's cavalry after the war and its replacement with motorized tractors.
  • The development of a technical process that entailed the replacement of animals with mechanized machines, tractors and machines.
  • In agriculture, the rate was changed on horses for cows and pigs as sources of meat and milk. This is due to the fact that these animals are more productive in breeding.

All of the above reasons provoked a decrease in the level of development of horse breeding in Russia. The number of livestock, in comparison with pre-revolutionary times, has decreased by more than 50%. Despite this, in the 50s, the country was among the ten leading countries in horse breeding.

Nowadays, horses are bred mainly in areas where the indigenous population continued to lead a nomadic lifestyle (Altai, Buryatia, the Volga region, Western Siberia, the Urals, Kalmykia).

The process of redistribution of the number of horses is actively underway: the number of livestock in rural regions has significantly decreased, at the same time it has increased in private enterprises and private stud farms.

The development of horse breeding in Russia has undergone many changes and redistributions. Despite this, the beauty and grace of these amazing animals won, which, as a result, led to a gradual increase in the number of horses in our country.


Chicory: history of use in Russia - garden and vegetable garden

BOTANICAL GARDEN GRIGORY DEMIDOV

L. BANKOVSKY, PhD in Geography, Associate Professor at Solikamsk State Pedagogical Institute.

Solikamsk is one of the oldest cities in our country. In history, it is famous primarily as an outpost for the development of the expanses of the Urals and Siberia by the Russian people, their untold riches. But Solikamsk is also famous for others. Not much more than 275 years ago, on the outskirts of the city, in the village of Krasnoye, young Grigory Demidov founded a scientific botanical garden with exotic plants. This is in the natural area of ​​the taiga!

AND THESE ISSUES CALLED "RANGE RANGE"

In the summer of 1731, two notable events took place in Solikamsk - the marriage of Grigory Demidov to Nastasya Surovtseva and the young planting of a large garden in his estate. No one would be surprised if the son of the breeder and the daughter of the salt industrialist laid the foundation for a blast furnace or a trade, otherwise the whole spring, summer, autumn and winter, besides this garden and boxes and barrels of plants, the young couple did not want to know anything. The locals were especially amazed that huts were erected for overseas plants, unprecedentedly wide windows were cut through them, and part of the roof was covered with glass. And they call these huts a wonderful word - "rangeries".

A year later, Grigory's indignant father, Akinfiy Nikitich, came to Solikamsk from Nizhny Tagil and took his son to the Suksunsky plant, which is not far from Perm, to forcibly teach him to industrial business. But for all the abrupt measures of his father, Gregory had one answer: "And Tsar Peter ?!"

What can I say, the sovereign also forged iron, and tugged at spoiled teeth. But especially for plants, the king had a great, not hidden from anyone, and the people around the sovereign knew that laughing at this royal passion, and even more so somehow condemning it, was pointless and sometimes even dangerous.

And the peculiar duel between the Demidovs' son and father ended with the fact that Grigory still returned to his botanical garden. And not only he never regretted it, but very soon he strengthened his innocence in every possible way. History itself went to meet him.

In 1735, the news came to Solikamsk from the capital that the Academy of Sciences was creating an academic botanical garden on Vasilievsky Island in St. Petersburg. The energetic German botanist and naturalist I. Amman, who was invited to the Russian service, was entrusted to manage it. Establishing a connection with Amman turned out to be a short-lived affair for Demidov, and soon, in exchange for the Solikamsk seeds, seeds of various, very rare plants that were planted in the greenhouses of the garden came to the Urals.

In 1739, the Solikamsk Botanical Garden acquired a curator in the person of a young associate of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, naturalist scientist Georg Steller. To the great luck of Demidov, Steller, waiting for his river-going expeditionary cargo (G. Steller was sent by the Academy of Sciences to participate in the Second Kamchatka expedition of V. Bering, see "Science and Life" No. 11, 2002, No. 7, 2003. ), spent almost three months in Solikamsk. During this time, the scientist put the entire botanical garden in proper scientific order, identified the plants, seeds, helped to find a system for a large herbarium, started special accounting books with a brief description of each plant, plates on the beds, in the alleys and greenhouses of the garden. Steller liked the Demidov collection of endemics, that is, plants growing only in a limited area, in this case, in the Urals. Steller told Demidov in detail about the creation and activities of the Academic Botanical Garden in St. books "The System of Nature", "Lapland Flora" and many others, where the author tries to radically transform the whole botanical science. Steller himself kept in touch with the reformer of botany and promised Linnaeus to deliver the herbarium from the Urals and Siberia.

Demidov readily agreed to help Steller, and soon after his departure, he collected and sent Linnaeus to Sweden, to Uppsala, a large parcel with dried Ural plants, seeds and rhizomes.Delighted with the systematization of plants carried out by Steller in the botanical garden, Demidov immediately began correspondence and exchange of botanical collections with such famous Russian botanists and travelers as the chief physician of the Astrakhan corps I. Lerche and doctor of medicine from the University of Leipzig T. Gerber, founder and first director of the Pharmaceutical Garden in Moscow (see "Science and Life" No. 7, 2006).

In 1743, traveling scientists Johann Gmelin and Stepan Krasheninnikov, returning to St. Petersburg, stopped by on their way to Demidov, shared with him rich botanical collections of seeds of Siberian and Kamchatka plants and were delighted with the changes that had taken place in the garden.

In 1746 G. Steller again lived in Solikamsk for several months, but by a Senate decree he was ordered to return to Siberia. On the way to Irkutsk, he fell ill and died in Tyumen, having managed to instruct Grigory Demidov to manage his Siberian collections.

Demidov preserved Steller's invaluable collections, donated samples of herbarium to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and sent duplicates to Sweden - to Linnaeus. The head of the world's botanists himself persistently sought through Gmelin a connection with Demidov: Linnaeus at that time was working on the major work "Types of Plants", which included all the plants of the Urals and Siberia known to him. For the reformer of botany, it was important to obtain as much detailed information as possible about the plant world of Russia - information collected bit by bit by Demidov, Gmelin, Krasheninnikov, Steller and many other botanists. In correspondence with them, Linnaeus discussed not only the most acute problems of plant taxonomy, but also such complex theoretical issues of botany as plant geography, the problem of mixing, crossing plants, the formation of varieties, hybrids.

The long-term correspondence between Demidov and Linnaeus, the exchange of parcels with plants and seeds were unusually fruitful both for Demidov and for Russian botany in general. In the new nomenclature of the flora of the globe, Linnaeus included about three hundred species of plants growing in Russia. This greatly facilitated and promoted further botanical research in the Urals. Along with the noticeable development of botany itself, its growing role in the country's economy, Linnaeus's assistance in training not only specialists who arrived in Russia from abroad, but also Russian botanists was of invaluable importance. At the invitation of Linnaeus in 1760, Grigory Demidov sent his three sons to study in Uppsala. But the early death of their father prevented them from completing their botanical education (in the future they still became highly educated and well-known people in Russia).

After the death of Grigory Demidov in 1761, the garden passed into the possession of his son Alexander. Under him, part of the collection of the most valuable plants was transported to Moscow by Grigory Demidov's elder brother, Prokofy, who in 1756 created a botanical garden rich in rare plants on his estate Neskuchnoye. This place is well known today: Neskuchny Garden is a landmark of the capital.

In 1772, Solikamsk Garden, together with the village of Krasnoye, was bought by a local breeder A.F. Turchaninov, the owner of a large botanical garden in the city center, who, however, did not set scientific goals.

Shortly before the change of the owner of the garden, the Russian scientist and traveler I.I. Lepekhin, the future director of the academic garden in St. Petersburg, passing in 1771 through Solikamsk to the Northern Scientific Expedition, described in detail the botanical garden of Grigory Demidov in the village of Krasnoye, where his estate was also located. This description is given in the book "Daily Notes of Travel to Various Provinces of the Russian State". Lepekhin counted 422 species in the garden (according to other sources - 525 species) of plants, and not only trees and shrubs of the Urals and Siberia, but also many thermophilic plants from tropical and subtropical zones of the planet, such as coffee, cacti, aloe, agave, amaryllis , cannes, hyacinths, pineapples, oleander, laurel, myrtle, lemon, banana. The great floristic richness of the garden, formed according to geographical and systematic principles, was also noted by the famous naturalist and traveler N.P. Rychkov in his book "The Journal, or Daily Notes of Captain Rychkov's Journey to Different Provinces of the Russian State in 1769 and 1770": "In it you can find a collection of a large part of the herbs growing in Africa, America, Siberia and the most Kamchatka limits. The garden is divided into many greenhouses and flower beds, each of which especially contains plants from other countries. "

In 1810, after the division of the entire Turchaninov estate between relatives and heirs, the garden ceased to exist.

AND AGAIN ABOUT GRIGORY DEMIDOV'S GARDEN

About ten years ago, the Moscow botanist and museum expert V.V. Ksenofontova donated unique materials related to the history of Grigory Demidov's Solikamsk Botanical Garden as a gift to the Solikamsk Museum of Local Lore. The donated relics include large-format photographs of the restored herbarium sheets, designed in the middle of the 18th century - more than 250 years ago. Dried plants growing in the Solikamsk Botanical Garden are attached to the herbarium sheets (it was established that the surviving pieces of herbarium paper were made in the 1730-1734s) with the help of thin paper strips - mallow, flax, aloe, clover, geranium, pelargonium, saxifrage, spurge, veronica, tenacious, rank, psoralei and others.

This rare herbarium had to endure a real catastrophe - the fire of Moscow and its university in 1812. Miraculously, only crumbs of the herbarium, which originally numbered thousands of sheets, "survived". The rare herbarium pages contain not only autographs of the botanists Demidovs, but also those of their colleagues who had to restore the remains of the burnt collection. Part of the Demidov herbarium fell to one of the prominent Moscow botanists, a member of the Moscow Society of Nature Experts LF Goldbach - the creator of a special "General Systematic Collection" of plants that were in the funds of Moscow University. LF Goldbakh and the successors of his work greatly respected the Solikamsk botanists and on the new labels to the historical herbarium leaves, after the indications of the phenomenal Solikamsk Botanical Garden, they also put exclamation marks.

Herbarium collections of the Demidovs are now invaluable for science - they are among the very first in our country and, perhaps, the only ones that have survived from that distant time ...

It is, of course, hard to believe that delicate, fragile plants could survive in the element of fire in 1812. But in the mid-60s of the last century, the staff of the Moscow State University herbarium carried out a graphological examination of the handwriting on the labels of the Demidov herbarium. It was possible to establish precisely that the inscriptions on the labels were made by G. A. Demidov himself and his 15-year-old son Pavel who helped him.

How did the herbarium, compiled in Solikamsk, end up in the funds of the current biological faculty of Moscow State University? After the death of Grigory, his brother Prokofiy brought the most essential botanical treasures to his home in Moscow, and then his descendants donated the herbarium to Moscow University.

Several years ago, in the center of Tula, in the homeland of the Demidovs, a memorial dedicated to their memory was solemnly opened. The memorial includes the Demidovs museum, a monument, a necropolis, a spacious memorial square. On the wall of the restored church there is a large cast-iron plaque with the inscription:

"The ashes of the builder of the temple, the outstanding Russian entrepreneur, the organizer of the metallurgical industry Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov (1678-1745) and his son, the creator of the first botanical garden in Russia, Grigory Akinfievich Demidov (1715-1761)".

Disputes are still ongoing, which national botanical garden should give priority to the firstborn? Some experts believe that the Moscow and St. Petersburg Botanical Gardens arose much earlier, in 1706 and 1714, respectively. But in these years, not the gardens themselves were created, but only army pharmaceutical gardens, intended for the treatment of military personnel and the population, for the training of doctors and pharmacy workers. Despite the wide variety of collections, they primarily pursued the narrow goals of breeding medicinal or ornamental plants. Solikamsk Demidov Garden was originally created as an exemplary botanical garden and was nothing else.

Only two and a half decades separate us from the three hundredth anniversary of the Solikamsk Botanical Garden - the first scientific institution in the Urals, the source of the Russian scientific ecological worldview. Due to the unique position of Solikamsk on the Siberian tract in the initial period of the discovery and development of the Asian part of Russia, the botanical garden of Grigory Demidov contributed to the concentration of scientific thought on the study and rational use of the plant resources of Russia.

In the Upper Kama region, most of the species of cultivated plants (including ornamental ones) are introduced, that is, "natives" of other geographic regions acclimatized in local conditions. In the 16th-17th centuries, the Urals, the Urals and the Trans-Urals were intensively populated by Russian peasants, mainly from Pomorie. They cultivated and improved the cereals, vegetables and industrial plants brought with them, which became the basis of agricultural production. The mining industry that emerged in the Urals in the 18th century relied in its rapid growth on highly developed agriculture and grain farming in territories with ancient forest-steppe soils in the basins of the Vyatka, Cheptsa, Obva, Sylva, Nitsa and more southern regions of the Urals. The creation of a botanical garden of Russian significance in Solikamsk in 1731 is one of the greatest achievements in the field of natural science.

Solikamsk Botanical Garden made a significant contribution to world botany. It was the first in the world botanical practice, a successful large-scale experiment on the introduction of plants from all geographic zones of the Earth in the sharply continental climate of the northeast of the European continent.

Two decades ago, the conference "History of the Botanical Gardens of the USSR" was held in Solikamsk. It was attended by botanists, museologists, historians, representatives of research institutes, teachers, ethnographers from Solikamsk, Perm, Yekaterinburg, St. Petersburg, Tver, Kiev, Kazan, Krasnodar, Vitebsk, Saratov and other cities. By an overwhelming majority of votes, the conference participants decided to restore the Demidov Memorial Garden of the 18th century in Solikamsk.

For the 270th anniversary of the botanical garden of Grigory Demidov, an exposition was created at the Solikamsk Museum of Nature, telling about the Demidov family, about the history of the creation of the botanical garden, about the problems of the current work on its restoration. Here for the first time were exhibited unique historical and botanical materials that have come down to our time from the 18th century. Shortly before that, a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held, which was specially devoted to the problem of reconstructing the Demidov Garden and the Scientific and Testing Botanical Center in Solikamsk.

It is gratifying that a new botanical garden is already emerging on the Solikamsk land - a nursery-arboretum, founded by an enthusiast of botany, an experienced gardener and florist Anatoly Mikhailovich Kalinin. It is spread out on the left bank of the Usolka river. There are more than 1000 plant species in the garden, including many exotic ones. Yellow-leaved birch, blue spruce, Canadian spruce, Karelian spruce, Chinese juniper, thuja, spirea have never grown in this area. I would like to hope that in the near future a multifunctional botanical garden with a rare history will become a landmark of Solikamsk.

The editors would like to thank the International Demidov Foundation for providing illustrative materials.

BOTANICAL GARDENS. FROM THE ORIGINS TO THE XVIII CENTURY

Botanical gardens in Russia began with the old monastery gardens and pharmaceutical gardens.

The monks were hardly the first gardeners, but their role in the promotion of many varieties of fruit and ornamental plants is undeniable. It is known that the monks helped in the organization of apple and cherry orchards of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, founded under Yaroslav the Wise (XI century). In addition to fruit plants, their gardens had ornamental shrubs, vines, flowers, thickets of walnut and "yellow jasmine".

Gardeners lived not only in Kiev, but also in other cities - Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversky, Galich, Putivl. Since the 12th century, gardens at monasteries and princely courts in the north-east of Russia have become known - in Vladimir, Suzdal, Murom. The gardens of the ancient monasteries were rebuilt several times and, of course, have not survived to our time in their original form. Nevertheless, their high level can be judged by such monasteries as Trinity-Sergiev, Solovetsky, Valaam, Ipatievsky, Pskovo-Pechersky, Borisoglebsky.

One of the main attractions of Moscow in the 17th century was the Izmailovo estate of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, where new methods of field cultivation were tested, experiments were carried out with overseas garden and fruit crops. Complex irrigation systems, numerous fish ponds, planters, water mills were created here for the first time. By order of the tsar, a round Apothecary garden, Prosyansky garden, Amusement chambers with an "Italian" garden were set up in the estate. Several expeditions were sent by Alexei Mikhailovich for seeds and seedlings of rare plants, such as cotton and mulberry. On the Izmailovsky Island of the Serebryanka River, an extensive grape garden was laid, from which the Silver-grape ponds, which have survived to this day, were named.

In the XVI-XVII centuries, pharmaceutical gardens, also called vegetable gardens, appeared. In the middle of the 17th century, there were four pharmaceutical gardens in Moscow: on the banks of the Neglinnaya River, between the Borovitsky and Troitsky Towers in the German Sloboda, at the Myasnitsky Gate and in Kitai-Gorod behind the eastern Kremlin wall. In addition to the cultivation of medicinal plants, some of them were engaged in the cultivation of fruits and vegetables. So, according to the inventory of the 17th century, apple trees, pears, cherries, plums, red currants, gooseberries, barberries, raspberries grew in the pharmaceutical garden on Neglinnaya.

In 1706, by decree of Peter I, in Moscow, in the area of ​​drained swamps behind the Sukharev Tower, a pharmaceutical garden was laid for the purpose of growing "useful, curious and alien plants" (from Latin "plant" - "plant"). In fact, it was a kind of research center, where classes in botany were held and the medicinal properties of hundreds of plants were studied.

In 1805, the pharmaceutical garden was acquired by Moscow University and turned into a botanical garden. The oldest regular garden in Russia has survived to this day in its original place (see "Science and Life" No. 7, 2006).

In 1714, Peter I ordered the establishment of a pharmaceutical garden in St. Petersburg on the banks of the Karpovka River - for the cultivation of "medicines" and other useful plants, as well as rare and interesting "overseas" plants. In 1735, the pharmaceutical garden was renamed the St. Petersburg Medical Garden, where not only purely medicinal plants were grown, but also decorative ones.

Summer of 1731 - the date of the foundation by Grigorim Demidov of the Botanical Garden in the village of Krasnoye near Solikamsk.

Around this time, the foundation of a botanical garden at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences belongs. The first project to create a botanical garden in St. Petersburg appeared in 1725. The next year, efforts began to allocate space for him. In 1732, the Academy rented the so-called Bonov house with a large plot, located on the 2nd line of Vasilievsky Island, where a "botanical garden" (garden) was founded several years later. Botanist I.Amman. 10 years later, in 1736-1737, a catalog of the plants of this garden was compiled, and in February 1741 was submitted to the office. As you can see. the creation of the scientific botanical garden in Solikamsk is actually going on simultaneously with the birth of the academic garden, moreover, it is somewhat ahead of it.

In the middle of the 18th century (about 1756), the largest private botanical garden in Russia was created in his estate near Moscow Neskuchnoe industrialist and philanthropist Prokofiy Akinfievich Demidov. The garden was located in a very beautiful place on the Moskva River next to a three-storey magnificent house (this building is now the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences). P. Demidov's garden was once described by academician P. S. Pallas. In the catalog of plants of the Demidov garden, compiled by him in 1781, there are 2224 plant species. Most likely, the list included only those plants that were previously identified and had labels. "This garden," wrote Pallas, "not only has no similar one in all of Russia, but it can be compared with many glorious botanical gardens in other states, both by the rarity and by the multitude of plants contained in it." Five years later, in the catalog of plants compiled by Prokofy Demidov himself, 4363 plant species were listed, and in addition to the catalog there were 3634 species, a total of 8000 plant species. On the territory of the estate, mainly in greenhouses, yews, cedars, laurels, palms, boxwoods, geraniums, roses, aloe (15 species), ficuses (8 species), pineapples (5 species), citrus fruits, watermelons, grapes, and various flowers grew.


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