Cherry has long won the hearts of gardeners and fans of it. There are many varieties of it in various colors: yellow, white, dark red and black.
Until a few decades ago, cherries (not cherries) were considered directly southern culture. But as a result of the important activities of breeders, it has spread to the far north.
Now it is possible to see it in areas of the middle zone of our country. The most important thing is to choose the right varieties and learn how to properly care for them. Breeders have developed a large number of sweet cherry varieties that are adapted to the harsh conditions of winter frosts. Thus, for the gardens of the Central District, it is recommended to plant the following varieties: Adelina, Veda, Revna, Rechitsa, Ovstuzhenka and Leningradskaya black.
Let's start with a description. Leningradskaya black is recognized as the first winter-hardy variety. This variety was bred in the Pavlovsk experimental station of the VIR of the city of St. Petersburg.
Berries of Leningrad black are large, maroon in color, the average weight is five grams. The fruit is heart-shaped. Their taste is sweet, but slightly bitter.
With sufficient care and a favorable growth environment, the first crop is harvested in the third year from the moment of planting.
In some cases, fruits are harvested only in the fifth year of life. The crops are characterized by abundance and long shelf life on the tree.
To get a good harvest from a sweet cherry, it should be planted in a sunny area.
Pests that pose a danger to cherries:
Cherry Leningradskaya black prefers moderate watering. During the ovary period and in extreme heat, it is watered in the early morning and in the evening after sunset.
If this is not possible, then watering is possible only in the morning hours, but it should be abundant. In order for the cherries to survive the winter safely, the branches should be cut off at the end of autumn. At the beginning of spring, the trunk and lower branches need to be whitened, thanks to which the tree can be saved from insects.
The sweet cherry variety Ovstuzhenka was developed at the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine by combining the varieties Compact Venyaminova and Leningradskaya Black. The authorship belongs to M.V. Kanshina.
Cherries have early maturity below average. A high yield can be observed after 4–5 years of tree development, but a forty-year-old plant is capable of bearing fruit.
The berries of this variety are rounded, weighing from 4.2 g. Their color is dark red, they are tasty and juicy, and their tonic properties turn them into healing ones. But since the fruits of the Ovstuzhenka ripen in the gardens first, they attract birds and pests of the garden. The moth penetrates the fruit and eats the pulp, and the shriveled berry becomes unpleasant to the taste. To protect against birds, a net is placed on the crown of the tree during the fruiting period.
When collecting the fruit, the stalk is not torn off, since useful substances disappear with the released juice. Of the 25 vitamins necessary for the human body, sweet cherries contain 10.
Recommendations for growing Ovstuzhenka:
The Veda cherry variety was created at the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine.
The fruits of this variety are medium-sized, one-dimensional, broad-heart-shaped, with an approximate weight of 5.1 g. The fruit stem is medium, without effort it separates from the branch. The color of the berries is dark red. The skin of sweet cherries is tender. Their flesh is dark red in color, tender and juicy. The yield of the Veda variety reaches 77 c / ha.
This cherry loves fertile light and medium loamy soils with a neutral reaction of the environment. She prefers moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water.
The Veda variety has good resistance to environmental conditions and various diseases, such as coccomycosis. The Veda also endures the winter cold without complications.
The Adelina variety was created at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. It was obtained by combining varieties: Slava Zhukova and Valery Chkalov.
The ripening period for Adeline begins in the middle of summer, the fruiting period occurs in the fourth year after planting.
The weight of cherries reaches 5.5–6.0 g. They are heart-shaped, dark red in color. The pulp is dark red, of moderate density. The fruits are easily detached from the stalk.
This variety is characterized by increased winter hardiness and has an average resistance to diseases such as coccomycosis and moniliosis.
Adeline's landing begins by choosing a site that should be closed from the northerly winds. The best solution will be gentle, southern or southwestern slopes, as well as places located on the southern side of buildings. It is recommended to make a small hill, raising the ground level by 0.5 m.
Young trees are planted in early spring before the buds swell, but preparation for planting occurs in autumn.
The Rechitsa variety was selected for its marker properties from the seedlings of the Bryansk pink cherry. It was bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupina M.V. Kanshina.
The average weight of the fruits is 4.9 g, the largest weight reaches 5.8 g. Sweet cherries are round in shape, with an average funnel. The color of the berries is almost black, while the pulp and juice are dark red. Their peduncle is long and not very thick. The pulp has a juicy and sweet taste.
Berries appear on the tree for 5 years. The average yield is 82 c / ha, the highest - 146 c / ha. Winter hardiness of cherries and flower buds is high. The Rechitsa variety is resistant to fungal infections.
Revna is the closest relative of the Bryanskaya Rozovaya variety, from the seedlings of which a variety, remarkable in its characteristics, was created.
Sweet cherries are medium in size. Their average weight is 4.7 g, and the largest is 7.7 g. The shape of the fruit is broadly round, with a wide funnel and a rounded top. Their skin is quite dense. The berries are dark red in color, which makes them almost black during removable and consumer ripeness.
In order for Revna to take root properly, it is planted in the spring. Planting is carried out after a few days have passed since the thawing of the soil.
When planting, they use the southern slopes, on which the cold air does not have the opportunity to stagnate. For the proper development of cherries, it is necessary that a large amount of sunlight falls on the plant. In this regard, the southern side of the garden, not shaded by buildings and other trees, will be the most successful option for planting.
Cherry Revna is not susceptible to fungal diseases. However, if other trees grow on the site and the year is not very suitable for growing various crops, each tree may be subject to disease. Then the plant should be treated with universal stone fruit products. Spraying is carried out before flowering, and, if necessary, after the tree has faded.
If any pests were noticed on the trunk, leaves or berries, then an individual method of dealing with them should be chosen so as not to treat the stone tree with universal poisonous agents.
The Vasilisa variety was bred in the Donetsk branch of the Institute of Horticulture of the UAAS by L.I. Taranenko as a result of the combination of the Donetsk coal and Donetsk beauty varieties.
The trees are fast-growing, they bring a large amount of harvest. Vasilisa berries are quite large, with dense pulp, weighing 12.5 g, red in color, round, pleasant to the taste. The ripening period for sweet cherries is average.
Vasilisa is planted on loamy soils with a high moisture content. It is not necessary to place the tree on gravelly soils, as they are arid and completely unsuitable for growing cherries. It is recommended to plant young trees in the autumn. Before the frost begins, the cherry roots will be able to take root.
Sweet cherries of any of the above varieties are an excellent choice for any garden. But it must be remembered that large berries and healthy trees are not only the positive qualities of a certain variety, but also the result of the painstaking work of a real gardener.
Leningrad black - mid-ripening sweet cherry of the selection of the Pavlovsk experimental station VIR (St. Petersburg). One of the first winter-hardy varieties. Recommended for home cultivation in the south of the Non-Black Earth Region and the north of the Central Black Earth Zone.
Small trees (up to 3 - 4 meters high). The crown is of medium density, wide, spreading, medium-leafy.
Fruits are medium in size (weight - 3 - 3.5 grams), round and wide-heart-shaped, with a dark cherry skin, when fully ripe, the skin becomes almost black. The pulp is soft, fibrous, dark red, the taste is tender, juicy, very sweet (almost sugary), slightly spicy, the sourness is barely perceptible. Overall, the taste is typically cherry. The stone is medium in size, semi-detached from the pulp. Tasting score - 4 - 4.2 points.
The use of the variety is universal: fresh, frozen, compotes, juices, preserves, wines, tinctures.
Cherry Leningrad black early-fruiting: fruiting begins from the 3rd - 4th year. The ripening period is average: in the conditions of the south of the Chernozem region, the fruits ripen at the beginning of the 3rd decade of June, in the conditions of more northern regions a little later, around the second decade of July (usually from the 15th to the 20th). The process of maturation itself is non-simultaneous, stretched over time. At the same time, ripe fruits do not crumble for a long time and can hang on the branches until the beginning of September, without changing their taste. The berries come off easily from the petioles.
The yield is quite high: up to 30 - 40 kg of fruits per tree.
The variety is extremely winter-hardy and frost-hardy. The incidence of diseases and pests is low.
This cherry is self-fertile. Many common varieties are suitable as pollinators: Iput, Revna, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Chermashnaya, Ovstuzhenka, Bryanochka, Red dense, Michurinka, Veda, Zorka, Leningrad yellow / pink / red as well as any varieties of yellow / pink cherries.
Among the main advantages of the Leningrad black cherry are: increased winter hardiness, early maturity, non-shedding, a combination of the small size of trees (ease of harvesting) with their very high yield.
Among the shortcomings, self-infertility is distinguished.
Leningrad black is a medium-sized tree (adult height - 3-4 m) with a wide, spreading, medium thickened crown. The bark covering the trunk and shoots is smooth, without cracks, dark brown in color.
The leaf plates are large, elongated-oval, rich emerald. The central veins are thin, but well pronounced, the edges are serrate.
During flowering, which falls in early or mid-May, medium-sized white flowers appear on the trees, collected in inflorescences of 3-7 pcs.
This is one of the most frost-resistant sweet cherry varieties.... It can withstand air temperature drops down to -30 ° C and is not afraid of recurrent spring frosts.
The variety is characterized by an average degree of drought tolerance.... Lack of moisture during flowering and ripening of fruits leads to dropping of ovaries and loss of yield.
Stagnant water and high soil moisture - the cause of the watery pulp, cracking and rotting of berries on trees even before they are fully ripe.
The variety has immunity to pests and diseases, but under unfavorable conditions and insufficient care, it can be affected by cherry flies, leaf rollers, tube worms, aphids, sawflies, birds, as well as moniliosis, chlorosis, coccomycosis.
Given the southern origin of the culture, one should not rely solely on the results of the selection of the Leningrad black. Compliance with several mandatory cultivation conditions will prevent cherries from freezing even in a particularly cold year.
It is recommended to purchase one-year-old seedlings, and it is better to choose those that are grafted onto frost-resistant cerapadus - a hybrid of ordinary cherry and bird cherry. Older seedlings need more time to root and adapt.
The best place for a landing pit is on the slightly steep southern slope. It is good if the tree is protected by a building from the north winds. On the south side, on the contrary, there should be an unobstructed stream of the sun.
The soil is chosen well-drained and moderately fertile. Excess food does not allow cherries to stop autumn growth in time and meet frosts "fully armed".
Leningrad black feels good in cool regions
Fertilizers for cherries are used carefully, especially nitrogen fertilizers, which are applied last time in May, before flowering. Further feeding is limited to superphosphate. Water it according to the weather, making sure that the plant does not experience a shortage of water in May-June, when flower buds of the next year are laid.
In the pre-winter, you should take care of the insulation of the trunk. It is covered with spruce branches and covered with agrofibre. In the future, they take care that the wind does not blow snow from under the cherries.
Advice. Good snow retention devices can be woven from willow twigs yourself. The vine is cut in March, when it is as flexible as possible, and wide braids about a meter high are made of it, which are then placed around the trunks.
Cherry seedlings Leningradskaya black are planted on soil enriched with minerals, abundantly flooded with sunlight, because this is a true summer variety. The berries are very sweet, even sugary. The most interesting thing is that the fruits can hang on the tree until the end of September, given that they ripen at the end of July. The advantage of sweet cherry saplings of the Leningradskaya Black variety is their tolerance to temperature extremes. Has a high tolerance to diseases of plants, pollinators. The tree should be watered abundantly, but otherwise this plant is not whimsical.
In the online store Royal Garden you can buy saplings of the Leningradskaya black cherry variety and other fruit trees in Moscow, see photos and descriptions for the Leningradskaya black cherry.
One of the disadvantages of this cherry variety is its self-fertility. Therefore, it is imperative to plant other varieties of this stone fruit culture with a similar flowering period next to the Leningrad black cherry.
The best pollinating trees for the Leningrad cherry are:
Pruning the variety won't be a hassle. Due to the small strength of growth, it is not necessary to restrain the size of the plant.In the first years, it is important to correctly form the crown, and in the future it remains only to carry out the sanitary removal of dry, weak and improperly growing shoots.
Fertilize cherries after entering into fruiting. You should be careful with nitrogen compounds: if you overstimulate vegetative growth with them, then unripe shoots can freeze in winter.
For setting and filling the plant, it is important to provide a sufficient amount of potassium. This essential element is contained in the well-known wood ash, which is scattered in the trunk circle at any time of the year. In the fall, it is customary to add superphosphate for digging. Lime mortar, which is used to whitewash the bole and tree branches, saves the bark from damage by the sun's rays.