Among all the variety of vegetables currently prevailing on our table, one of the places of honor is occupied by such a culture as beet... Until now, its wild forms grow in this area and are a plant with fleshy leaves and a tough, white and bitter root.
Initially, fleshy leaves with petioles were used for food, and only many centuries later, thanks to the efforts of the first farmers, a vegetable appeared with the usual red juicy root vegetable. Breeding work has made it possible to gradually increase the size of the root crop. Merchants and Arab doctors brought this vegetable to India and Afghanistan, from where it returns to Europe in ancient times.
Initially rated mainly medicinal properties of beets... With the help of beets, anemia, intestinal diseases, and lung diseases were treated. Along with this, beets are beginning to be used as food. In Russia, this culture appears in the 11th century in the southern territories, from there it was brought first to Moscow, and later to Veliky Novgorod and Pskov. It was Novgorodians who were the first to learn how to preserve beets in brine, giving Europe a way of storing them for a long time. From the 12th to the 17th century, beets were the most common vegetable in Russia; today they also remain one of the favorite vegetables on our table. This culture in its composition contains pectin substances that suppress the activity of putrefactive bacteria in the body, sugars, proteins, vitamins and mineral salts.
Beets grow on well-fertilized loamy or sandy loam soil. She does not like acidic soils. To obtain a good harvest in the fall, it is necessary to add 3-4 kg of humus, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium chloride and about 80 g of wood ash to the soil per square meter of the garden. Beets are sown in spring when the soil warms up to 8 ... 10 ° C, while wood ash can be added to the planting furrows (up to 30 g per 1 m²).
A very important requirement for cultivation is watering the beets in dry weather to form a succulent root crop. The necessary agricultural measures for it are: weeding and loosening of seedlings, thinning them when the first two true leaves appear at a distance of 3 cm from each other. During the summer season, thinning is carried out at least two more times: the second - when the rows are closed, at a distance of 5–7 cm between plants; and the next - when the first large root crops appear. Harvest the beets before frost, pulling them out of the soil by the tops. Her leaves are cut off, sorted, taking away only whole healthy roots for storage. Usually the crops are stored in cellars at a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 ° С.
Bordeaux 237 - mid-early variety. The period from full germination to technical ripeness is 62-116 days. The rosette of the plant is semi-erect, of medium size. The leaf blade is cordate, elongated, green. The petiole is 20–31 cm long. The root crop is rounded. The pulp is intensely dark red. The root crop is immersed in the soil by 1 / 2–2 / 3. Root weight: 232-513 g. Marketable yield of the variety - 34.6-79.7 t / ha.
Detroit Nero - mid-season variety. Medium erect rosette of leaves. The leaf blade is elongated, oval, dark green. The petiole is red, short. The root crop is round, smooth. The color of the skin and pulp is red. Weight - 176–187 g. May be damaged by miner beet fly. Productivity - 37.4–55.2 t / ha.
Mona - medium late variety. Root crops are leveled, smooth, cylindrical in shape, weighing up to 400 g. They are immersed in the soil by 1/3. The rind is thin. The pulp is tender, juicy, of a uniform dark red color.
Incomparable А-463 - mid-early variety. The period from full germination to technical ripeness is 69–99 days. Root crops are flat and round-flat, weighing 170-390 g. The pulp is juicy, tender, dark red, with a burgundy tint, often with dark rings.
Regala - early ripening variety. The period from full germination to technical ripeness is 105 days. Root crops are round, smooth, with a thin skin, weighing 150-200 g. The pulp is dark red without division into annular zones, sweet. Root vegetables are well stored.
master gardener of the Peterhof State Museum-Reserve,
Palace of Peter I in Strelna
Dear residents of our village!
I am writing to you, knowing that there will certainly be responses, because the people here are responsive and have come up to advice hefty eager. This spring I am going to plant a hectare with fodder beets and potatoes. The measure of the area was given for the multiplicity and simplicity of calculations. Maybe for two hectares I will dare, but if I buy seeds for such an area. It is possible to mulch in the field - an electric lawn mower and a gas generator. There is a lot of fresh manure and humus. The land near the house in the wasteland is disgusting, but close to the outlet (the expense item for the gas generator disappears) and to the manure (it is expensive and tedious to carry it in the field). And the supervision of the landings is also very important in our turbulent, turbulent time. And if they do not steal, they will drive the cattle and turn the kulak on evil.
Input data is available. I will be glad to any options offered by you. In growing beets, I am not strong and it is desirable that you offer your options in full and expanded form. If plowing, then to what depth, if manure, how much per 1m2, if in rows and passages for mulch mowing, then what row step is a multiple of a lawn mower, etc.
Thank you for your answers.
All the best and kindness!
I found an article. But I would like to hear the practitioners, especially on mulch.
Fodder beets were introduced into cultivation in Asia much earlier than sugar beets and served as one of the original forms for them. It is a valuable fodder crop - 1 kg of its roots contains 0.12 fodder units and 9 g of digestible protein.
The plant is biennial. In the first year, it forms a rosette of large whole leaves of a heart-ovoid shape with strongly developed petioles and succulent root crops, the next year the planted root crop develops flowering shoots that give seeds.
Root crops of fodder beets differ from sugar beets in a wide variety of shapes, color of the head, neck and root itself, as well as the degree of their immersion in the soil. Depending on the shape of the root crop and the depth of immersion in the soil, fodder beet varieties can be divided into four groups:
- a conical root crop, characterized by a strongly developed root proper and an underdeveloped neck, due to which 4/5 or more of the length of the roots is located in the soil (Uman semi-sugar, Tripolye semi-sugar, Poltava semi-sugar)
- a root crop of an elongated-oval shape, protruding above the soil surface by 1 / 3-1 / 2 of its length (Winner)
- a cylindrical bag-shaped root crop with a strongly developed neck, due to which 2 / 3-3 / 4 of the root develops on the soil surface (Ekkendor yellow, Timiryazevskaya 56, Poltava white)
- a rounded or spherical root crop, a significant part of which develops above the soil surface and only 1 / 2-2 / 3 (the root itself) - in the soil.
The degree of development of the aboveground part (head, neck) and the depth of immersion of the root in the soil largely determine the drought resistance of the variety and the content of dry matter in the root crop. The more developed the aerial part, the less moisture-loving the variety and the less dry matter is contained in its roots.
Roots can be white, pink, yellow, orange and red in color.
Fodder beets are demanding on soil fertility. It gives high yields in black soil and floodplain areas. On poor sandy, heavy clayey, as well as on damp and boggy soils without prior improvement, it grows poorly. Beets, unlike rutabagas, carrots, potatoes, tolerate slightly solonetsous soils quite well. Heavy clayey, swampy, poor sandy and stony soils are not suitable for it. Most suitable for growing fodder beets are soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction (pH 6.2-7.5).
Practice shows that the best predecessors for it are wheat, rye, peas, corn, fodder beans, vegetables.
To get a high yield of fodder beets with a high dry matter content, when plowing on the fall, it is imperative to add semi-rotted manure and other fertilizers (compost, ash, etc.). Depending on the fertility of the soil, it is recommended to apply organic fertilizers and complete mineral fertilization.
It is very important to thoroughly and timely prepare the soil in order to retain moisture in the seedbed. Only in this case, you can count on getting friendly shoots. It is impossible to sow beets in poorly cut soil.
Fodder beets are early sowing crops. It is sown at a soil temperature of 5-7 degrees C. The row spacing is 45 cm. The normal seeding depth is 3-4 cm, but on light soils it can be increased to 5-6 cm (depending on soil moisture). To obtain friendly shoots with a dry soil surface, the sown area is rolled up.
Seedlings of fodder beets appear in 8-15 days. Germination and swelling of seeds is a very crucial period. During this time, the soil can be compacted and covered with a crust, which prevents delicate sprouts from breaking through. And then the seedlings turn out to be weak, sparse, are affected by the rootworm
Fodder beets are quite demanding on growing conditions and reacts sharply to their changes. The minimum temperature for seed germination is 3-4 degrees Celsius. At a temperature of 15-25 degrees C, beets emerge on the 3-4th day. First, the root and the hypocotyl knee start to grow. Coming to the surface of the soil, two green cotyledons perform the functions of leaves ("fork" phase). In the first days, seedlings are very sensitive to frost (frosts of 3-4 degrees C can destroy plants).
But with the appearance of the first pair of true leaves (6-8 days after germination), the plants can withstand temperatures up to -8 degrees C.
To create the necessary planting density, it is necessary to break through the seedlings in time. This should be done as early as possible. The best time for breakthrough is the beginning of the appearance of the first pair of leaves (no later than the appearance of 3-4 leaves). After a breakthrough, an average of 4-5 plants should remain per 1 m in length.
During the period of growth and development, fodder beets are very responsive to the application of mineral fertilizers. If the main fertilizer has been applied, it is enough to give two additional fertilizing: the first - soon after the breakthrough of the plants, the second - 10-20 days after the first. At the first top dressing, fertilizers should be sealed in the aisles to a depth of 10-12 cm at the second - 15-16 cm.
As the beets ripen, the root mass gradually increases, the leaves acquire a light green color, partially turn yellow and die off. The degree of yellowing and dying off of the tops and the weakening of the weight gain of root crops serve as a practical indicator of the technical ripeness of fodder beet root crops and a signal for harvesting.
It is necessary to have time to remove the fodder beets before a steady cold snap. Severe frosts can damage not only leaves, but also parts of root crops protruding above the soil surface.
The most adapted for the Siberian climate are the varieties: Siberian flat, Podzimnyaya, Krasny ice, Mashenka, Krasny bogatyr, Odnorostkovaya, Incomparable, Bordeaux 327, Cold-resistant, Pablo, Cylinder.
An early variety, ripens in 98-100 days. The shape is flat. Beets are dark and reddish-purple in color. Weight 200-400 grams. The taste is great. The variety is cold-resistant, disease-resistant.
Medium early grade. The shape is round. Weight 200-400 grams. The color of the pulp is burgundy. The variety is cold-resistant, resistant to most diseases.
Red ice grade
Ripens in 100 days. The pulp is bright, with small rings. The weight of root crops is 200–300 grams. 4-5.5 kilograms of beets are harvested from a square meter.
High-yielding variety. The shape is cylindrical. The skin is thin, dark red. Pulp without rings. Weight 200-550 grams. Productivity from a square 8-10 kilograms.
Mid-season and high-yielding variety. Dark red variety without light rings. The shape is cylindrical, smooth. Up to 9 kilograms of fruits are harvested from a meter. Fruit weight 310-600 grams. The fruits are delicious. The plant is not susceptible to disease.
Growing beetroot seedlings can increase the likelihood of a good harvest. The best option for planting is the cassette method. With this planting, 1 plant grows in a separate cell and planting and thinning is not required.
Under favorable conditions, an excellent harvest can be harvested by September - early October.
Quite often, in these regions, sowing is used before winter, when the ground is frozen, the seeds are placed in the beds, and in the spring, when the soil warms up, they quickly begin to grow.
Sweet varieties for central Russia, Moscow region, Siberia: a hybrid of Pablo, Detroit round, Incomparable, Cylinder.
Some of the most widely used and loved by gardeners varieties of the Urals and Siberia are: Red Ice, Bikores, Siberian flat, Mulatka, Krasny Bogatyr, Mondoro F1, Mashenka, Vital cylinder.
Dark varieties of beets are in great demand, suitable for preparing various snacks, juices, first and second courses, salads, and blanks.
All these varieties, with proper agrotechnical work, give an excellent yield of high-quality fruits.
Sugar beet varieties and hybrids differ in many ways. But among them there are absolute leaders, bred as a result of many years of selection. Now you will learn about nine of the best beet varieties based on a combination of traits.
First of all, table beets should be tasty, safe for health and have a long shelf life. Many gardeners believe that the whole set of these qualities can only be found in varieties of foreign selection. Indeed - imported root crops are smooth and beautiful, consistently pleasing with a high yield. But even among the domestic varieties, you can find sweet and spicy varieties. We will tell you about the best of the best representatives of the beetroot world.
One of the most beloved hybrids among Russian gardeners. It is universal in use and unpretentious in care.
Early ripe, 95-105 days after sprouts emerged from the seeds, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. Not long wide eggplants of a classic shade gain weight of the order of 230-300 g. The pulp is white with a greenish tint, without bitterness. 7-8 kg of vegetables are harvested from a square plot measuring 1x1 m. They perfectly withstand long-distance transportation. Stems and peduncles are thornless, making it easy to harvest.
A variety with a carpal type of fruiting. Each cluster forms 4-7 fruits at once. Early ripe, 85-100 days after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 50-70 vegetables are harvested from the bush.
Elongated oval lilac eggplants gain weight about 80-130 g. The skin is thin. The pulp is white, firm, without bitterness.
One of the best varieties for greenhouses in the Moscow region. In the open field, the fruits will be smaller. The bush grows up to 70 cm in height, requires a garter to the support. On the 105th day after the sprouts have appeared from the seeds, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 7 kg of vegetables are harvested from a square plot measuring 1x1 m. Elongated eggplants of a green hue reach 15 cm in length, up to 6 cm in diameter and gain weight about 350 g. The pulp is light green, dense, without bitterness.
With regular watering, more fruits are tied.
Forms ovaries even with temperature changes. The plant is powerful, grows to a height of about 170 cm. Early. On the 105th day after the sprouts have appeared from the seeds, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 5 kg of vegetables are harvested from a square plot measuring 1x1 m.Pear-shaped eggplants of a classic shade reach 13 cm in length, 6 cm in diameter, and gain weight about 250 g. The pulp is beige, medium density, without bitterness.
Mid-season hybrid, unpretentious in care. Not susceptible to cultural diseases. Does not require special care. The plant is compact, grows to a height of about 140 cm. On the 115th day after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 3 kg of vegetables are harvested from the bush. Cylindrical eggplants of a classic shade reach 20 cm in length, 5 cm in diameter, and gain weight about 250 g. The pulp is beige, without bitterness. The hybrid does not tolerate temperature changes.
A mid-season variety, unpretentious in care, not picky about the quality of the soil, quickly forms ovaries. The plant is compact, grows to a height of about 60 cm. On the 115th day after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 8 kg of vegetables are harvested from a square plot measuring 1x1 m. Cylindrical eggplants of a classic shade reach 20 cm in length, 7 cm in diameter, and gain weight about 350 g. The flesh is greenish, without bitterness. Thanks to the absence of thorns, it is convenient to harvest.
Mid-early hybrid, regularly forms ovaries, even at the very top. The plant is sprawling, grows to a height of about 70-80 cm. 4-6 kg of vegetables are harvested from the bush. Oval short eggplants of a classic shade in length reach 12-15 cm, and gain weight about 250-500 g. The flesh is white, dense, without bitterness. Resistant to long-distance transport, well stored. Fruiting in 40 days after planting seedlings in the greenhouse.
High-yielding mid-season hybrid with thorns. The plant grows to a height of about 150 cm. On the 115th day after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. 17.5 kg of vegetables are harvested from a square plot measuring 1x1 m. Pear-shaped eggplants of a classic shade reach 18 cm in length, 8 cm in diameter, and gain weight about 350 g. The pulp is beige, without bitterness.
High-yielding early ripe hybrid of long-term fruiting. On the 105-110 day after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. The plant is powerful. Flat-round eggplants of a classic shade gain weight of the order of 400-500 g. The pulp is white, tasty, without bitterness. The taste is very high.
Early variety. Forms ovaries even in bad weather. The plant grows to a height of about 100 cm. On the 115th day after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes. Pear-shaped eggplants reach 20 cm in length, 7 cm in diameter, and gain weight of about 150 g. 5 kg of vegetables are harvested from a 1x1 m square plot. The pulp is light green, without bitterness.
There are few thorns on the bushes, so you need to carefully collect the fruits.
A mid-season variety, 110-115 days after the seeds have sprouted, you can look for ripe fruits on the bushes.
The plant grows to a height of about 70-100 cm.
Yielding medium-sized (0.7-1.0 m) variety. Elongated glossy eggplants of a classic shade reach 35-40 cm in length, 10 cm in diameter, gain weight about 500-700 g. The pulp is creamy, without seeds and bitterness.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out at the end of February. When 1-2 true leaves are formed, a pick is carried out. The seedlings are transferred to the greenhouse at the end of May. The bushes are planted at intervals of 40 cm from each other, leaving a row spacing of 60 cm. All lateral shoots and leaves are removed before the first fork. By the end of July, 5-6 large ovaries are left, the rest are removed, since in the future the fruits will not have time to ripen.
Caring for table beets consists of:
Beets begin to germinate at a soil temperature of +8 .. + 10 ° С and +5 .. + 7 ° С of the environment. However, seedlings at this temperature appear late and very unevenly. The optimum air temperature is +19 .. + 22 ° С. Seedlings appear on the 5-8th day and by the 10-12th day the culture enters the fork phase. In the next 10 days, there is a powerful development of the aboveground part of the culture (leaf apparatus), and then the development of the root crop begins.
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is performed very carefully, gradually deepening the treated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. The soil is loosened in the aisles, in the furrows of the ridge, on the sides of the ridges after irrigation and rains. Timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the crop with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after the leaves close.
Thinning is carried out when sowing table beets with stems (glomeruli). 3-5 seedlings develop from seedlings. Single-seeded varieties generally do not need to be thinned unless bunch harvesting is envisaged. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after preliminary watering. It is easier to pull the plant out of the moistened soil without damaging the neighboring one. Thinning of beets is carried out twice.
The first time a breakthrough is carried out with the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. The beet is negatively related to the greater sparseness of the beet. When thinning multi-seeded crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, thinning is carried out in the phase of 2-3 leaves. Plugged plants are used as seedlings, planting plants at the edges or in the sides of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase, the beet has already formed a 3-5 cm root crop. In the second thinning, the tallest, most developed plants are removed. They reach bunch ripeness and are used for food. At the same time, the condition of the plants is monitored and diseased and crooked plants are removed along the way. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root crop is 6-8-10 cm.
During the growing season, at least two dressings of medium and late beet varieties are carried out. Early beets, with good autumn fertilization, are usually not fed. For gardeners, especially for beginners, it is difficult to calculate the required amount of fertilizers. The culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first feeding is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can fertilize with nitroammophos - 30 g sq. m or a mixture of mineral fertilizers at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m, respectively, sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to feed the first feeding with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in a ratio of 1 part mullein to 10 parts, and bird droppings to 12 parts of water. 5 g of urea can be added to the solution. The solution is introduced at a distance of 6-10 cm from the beet row in a 3-4 cm furrow. Use a 10 running meter bucket of mortar. Watering is carried out from a watering can close to the soil so as not to burn the leaves. After adding the solution, it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Top dressing with liquid organic matter is carried out only in the initial period of beet development. Later, without having time to process the mineral form into an organic one, plants accumulate nitrates in roots. The first sign of the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in the root crop when overfeeding with nitrogen is the appearance of voids in the root crop.
The second feeding of beets is carried out after 15-20 days or after the second thinning. For feeding, superphosphate and potassium magnesium or potassium chloride are used in a dose of 8-10 g / sq. m (1 teaspoon with top). Mineral fat can be replaced with wood ash, spending 200 g per sq. m of area, followed by embedding in a 5-8 cm layer of soil.
Microfertilizers boron, copper and molybdenum are best applied in the form of foliar liquid dressings by spraying. Aboveground mass. You can buy a ready-made mixture of micronutrient fertilizers or replace it with ash infusion.
In the phase of 4-5 leaves, it is good to sprinkle the beets with boric acid solution. Dissolve 2 g of boric acid in hot water and dilute in 10 liters of water. This technique will protect the beetroot from heart rot. The finished preparation of micronutrient fertilizers is bred according to the recommendation and the plants are treated.
If there are no ready-made microfertilizers, they can be successfully replaced by an infusion of wood ash. Ash infusion can be used for 2 foliar dressings: in the phase of 4-5 leaves and in the phase of active growth of root crops (August). An infusion of 200 g per 10 liters of water must be filtered before spraying.
Approximately 25-30 days before harvesting the beets, it is advisable to spray the plants with a solution of potash fertilizers, which will increase their keeping quality.
Do you want sweeter beets? Do not forget to salt it with ordinary table salt. Dissolve 40 g (2 tablespoons without a top) of non-iodized salt in 10 liters of water and pour over the beets, consuming a bucket of solution per sq. m of land area. To reduce the amount of dressings, combine the salt solution with a solution of trace elements, and spray in June and early August.
Juicy roots with tender pulp are obtained with regular watering, especially in arid regions. The first watering is carried out with mass shoots. Water the culture 3-4 times a month. During the period of intensive development of root crops, watering is increased. The first sign of a delay in watering is the wilting of beet leaves. Beets are very fond of watering over the leaves. The crop does not tolerate rising soil temperatures. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary until the leaves close. Watering is stopped 3-4 weeks before harvesting.
Even if the variety is highly starchy, different factors affect its taste:
Attention! The introduction of fresh manure is not allowed: in this case, the proportion of starch drops by 3-4%. Therefore, it is used only in a rotted form, it is embedded in the soil on the eve of the fall.
You need to choose varieties for several indicators at once. But if the yield is easy to assess, then figuring out which variety of potatoes is the most delicious is more difficult. Therefore, in summer and autumn, it is recommended to conduct tastings of several varieties at once (the more, the better). It is imperative that they are grown in the same region. Then it will be much easier to choose the appropriate option.
I did not recount. The catalog shows the yield in tons per hectare.
In the Central region, the Dutch early-ripening variety Boltardi produces 27.2 - 31.0 tons.
On the territory of all of Russia, depending on the region, the yield of medium early Bordeaux beet varieties is 34.6 - 79.7 tons.
In the North-West, Central, Volgo-Vyatka, North Caucasian, Ural, West Siberian, East Siberian, Far Eastern regions, a mid-season variety Bravo, created in Barnaul at the West Siberian Vegetable Experimental Station (I can not help but brag to our relatives) gives 66,4 — 89,5 tons.
In the North-West region, the mid-season Valentina variety gives 27.7 - 44.4 tons.
In Volgo-Vyatka, a mid-season hybrid from France Vorrio gives 10, 8 - 38, 0 tons.
In the North-West, Central, Volgo-Vyatka regions, the early maturing Gribovskaya flat A 473 gives 30, - 82.5 tons.
On the territory of the entire country, except for the North Caucasus, the mid-season Two-seeded TSKHA gives 39.8 - 52.2 tons.
Italian mid-season Detroit in the Central Region produces 36.2 - 69.2 tons.
Mid-season Detroit Nero produces 37.4 - 55.2 tons there.
In the Central, Central Black Earth, Ural, East Siberian, Far Eastern regions, the early maturing Egyptian flat gives 30.7 - 83.0 tons.
In the North Caucasian region, the half-maturing Kuban borscht 43 yields 36.7 - 79.0 tons.
Dutch mid-season Larka in the Central Region produces 23.4 - 65.4 tons.
The Dutch mid-early Libero also yields 17.8 - 58.0 tons.
Czech mid-early Mona in all regions gives 55.0 - 58.0 tons.
In the Central and Ural regions, the early maturing Incomparable A 463 gives 29.5 - 69.9 tons.
Polish Nohovski in the Central, Central Black Earth regions gives 25, - 45.6 tons.
In the Northern, North-Western, Central, Volgo-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga regions, the late-ripening Odnoroskovaya gives 40.1 tons.
Polka early ripe beets of the Okrugly darkchervony variety in the Central, Central Black Earth regions give 34.4 - 45.2 tons.
Polish mid-season Opolski in the Central region gives 25.7 - 51.8 tons, in the Central Black Earth region gives 30.5 - 53.1 tons.
Dutch mid-early Pablo F1 gives 24.1 tons in the Volga-Vyatka region.
In the North-West, Central, Volgo-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga regions, Podzimnyaya A 474 gives 18.6 - 64.7 tons.
The Dutch mid-season in the North region gives 12.1 - 17.9 tons.
Dutch hybrid Red Cloud in the Volga-Vyatka region gives 45, - 50.6 tons.
In the Lower Volga region, the late-ripening Saladnaya yields 29.0 - 41.4 tons.
Siberian flat 167/367 early maturing gives in the West Siberian and East Siberian regions 28.1 -68.4 tons.
The early ripe Skvirsky gift gives 40 - 70 tons in the Ural region.
The mid-season Khavskaya in the Volgo-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga, West and East Siberian regions gives 49.9 - 81.2 tons.
Belarusian mid-season Cold-resistant 19 produces 33.3 - 41.5 tons throughout the country, except for the Middle Volga and Lower Volga regions.
The Dutch mid-season Cylinder yields 70 - 100 tons throughout the country.
Why are these regions indicated? And in them, these varieties of beets are zoned, allowed for use, that is, cultivation. And those who zoned gave exactly these numbers.
Everyone will estimate their region, their climate, their soils, their level of agricultural background and predict the approximate harvest.
Dear Pitirimova! With good, and most importantly, proper care, any modern variety is capable of producing a good harvest, please pay attention to agricultural technology and cultivation. I am giving you a short but very clear agricultural technique. If you strictly follow the advice, you will be with the harvest.
Every gardener grows table beets. But, here's the trouble: for some it turns out large, for others it is small, for some it is juicy, sweet, for others it is not. Yes, beets, a long-established culture. However, "repetition is the mother of learning." Therefore, let's remember the agricultural technology of this crop, decide whether we are growing it correctly, or do something not quite right and fix it.
Beetroot is a fairly cold-resistant plant, its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 4 ... + 50 heat, and when the temperature rises to + 18 ... + 200, their germination occurs much faster and more amicably. Seedlings can withstand frosts up to -10 ... -20, and in autumn root crops up to -30, but for winter storage it is not desirable for the roots to overgrow and fall under frost. Such root vegetables are poorly stored.
Beets from nutrients, like many root crops, most of all consume nitrogen and potassium. It consumes a lot of moisture to form a juicy root crop. Therefore, it belongs to crops with increased demand for moisture.
Good precursors to beets are cabbage, cucumbers, squash and legumes. I have been preparing a bed for sowing beets since autumn, because we sow it quite early, right after the carrots. Before digging, I add phosphorus and potash fertilizers at the rate of 30-40 g / m2. I apply organic fertilizers, well-decomposed manure or compost only under the previous crop, since applying them directly under the beets can cause branching of the root crop, or even rotting during storage. After fertilizing, I dig the soil as deep as possible - by 25-30 cm.
Sowing dates are early, but, nevertheless, I am waiting for the soil at a depth of 4-5 cm to warm up to + 7 ... + 100. Immediately before sowing, I cut the soil well, I draw shallow furrows along the bed after 20-25 cm and with the edge of the board I level the soil in the furrows: a somewhat compacted and even in depth sowing bed is formed. The compacted bed promotes good contact of the seedling with the soil and accelerates the onset of nutrient intake from the soil. In addition, I spill the furrows from a hose (or a watering can with a strainer removed) with water, as much as the soil can absorb - I create a supply of moisture and only after that I sow the seeds.
Beet seeds are quite small. The seed that we see is not directly seeds, but a whole glomerulus, which contains 2-5 pieces of small seeds, so beets always sprout densely. Seeds of beets, like carrots, are planted to a depth of no more than 2-3 cm. Before sowing, the seeds are soaked and germinated. However, you should not overdo it with germination: you need to sow as soon as a few seeds hatch. If the seedlings are long, they can easily be damaged during the sowing process and lose germination. After sowing, I water the garden well with sprinkling and cover it with a film until the first shoots appear. Covering with a film creates favorable conditions for the rapid emergence of seedlings, firstly, by a slight increase in soil temperature, and secondly, under the film, the soil is wet before the emergence of seedlings. I remove the film when the first shoots appear, otherwise, if it is sunny, warm weather, the seedlings may burn out. But although the seedlings can withstand light frosts, if frosts are expected at night, I cover the bed again with a film at night.
Crop care begins with seedling thinning. I leave 1 plant for 10-12 cm of a row. The earlier the thinning is carried out, the earlier the more favorable conditions are created for the growth of the abandoned plants. Late thinning, when the root system is already well developed, and they are intertwined, leads to a strong breakage of the roots of the abandoned plants. Plants will repair damaged root systems and slow down growth. Therefore, it is better to conduct it in the phase of two well-developed cotyledons. Immediately after thinning, I water the garden, and after 5-6 days, when the roots are somewhat stronger, I carry out the first feeding with mullein diluted in a ratio of 1: 6 or with chicken droppings diluted 1: 15. With this feeding, I add 1 g of boric acid to each bucket of infusion (sold in pharmacies). This prevents a common beet disease - heart rot. The second feeding is carried out before closing the leaves with one of the same solutions, but with the addition of 5-6 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate for every 10 liters of solution. Weeding is necessary on the beet beds. This is especially important at the beginning of growth. During this time, plants develop slowly, and weeds can easily drown them out.
I water regularly so that the soil is always in a moderately moist state. And I stop watering 20-25 days before harvesting. Root vegetables get stronger, store sugar and are better stored.
I harvest the beets after the first slight frost. She tolerates weak frosts painlessly. When harvesting, I pull out the root crops by the tops and lay them out on the garden bed, then I cut the tops off without leaving hemp, at the same time without damaging the root crop itself. Leaving the stumps can lead to their premature germination, and damage to the root crop can lead to rotting during storage. Some make the mistake of shaking off the soil by hitting the roots against each other. This cannot be done, since the thin skin of the root crop is injured - the gates open for the penetration of diseases during storage. Then I sort them by size. I store root vegetables in a cellar or basement at a temperature of +1. +40, that is, they can be stored in the same cellar where potatoes and carrots are stored.
For many years I have been growing an old Bordeaux variety... Root crops of Bordeaux are dark colored, do not have whitish veins and rigid filamentous inclusions.