Like most perennial spring flowering plants, it is customary to plant peonies in late summer or early autumn, because then the seedlings will have time to take root well before the onset of cold weather. In some situations, observing a few simple rules, it is possible to do this in the spring.
Spring planting of peonies is not always successful, it is associated with certain risks.... The flower may not take root and die, so it is extremely important to carry out all activities on time. Planting should be done as early as possible so that the plants have more time to root. As soon as the snow cover melts and the soil thaws, peonies need to be planted. If you are late, then with a steady warming, shoots begin to grow, taking away vital juices, and preventing the root system from developing. Since the small suction roots have not yet had time to form, there will be insufficient nutrition. Growing young stems will draw out all the juices from the rhizome, while the weakened plant may die.
For planting peonies, an open, well-lit area with the sun will be most suitable.... The culture is able to endure only light shading without compromising the quality of flowering. In the shade, the flowering will be weak, and the flowers themselves will be small. The flower bed must be protected from sudden gusts of wind so that the stems with heavy buds do not fall to the ground. But the air masses should not stagnate, as this will lead to the development of various diseases.
An open, well-lit place is selected for peonies.
You should not plant peonies under large spreading trees that take almost all moisture and nutrients from the soil. Placing peony bushes too close to the walls of buildings or fences can lead to overheating of the plants, which will also suffer from a lack of moisture. Excessive moisture is extremely harmful to this flower crop, as it can cause rotting of the root system. Low-lying places where water stagnates are completely unsuitable for it. Groundwater should be located no higher than 0.8–1 m.
Peonies develop best and bloom luxuriously in fertile, breathable, moisture-absorbing and loose soils with an acidity level close to neutral (pH 6-6.5)... The garden bed should be prepared in advance (in the fall or at least 2-3 weeks) so that the earth has time to settle and compact a little. The earth is dug to a depth of about 50–70 cm, carefully choosing the rhizomes of perennial grasses. Heavy soils are facilitated by the introduction of sand or peat (bucket 1 m2). Too light sandstones are diluted with clay (5-6 kg per 1 m2) for better moisture retention.
Peonies do not tolerate acidic soil, therefore, if necessary, fluff lime or dolomite flour (0.3-0.5 kg per 1 m2) is added for deoxidation.
The technology of spring planting of peonies consists of the following stages:
It is better to dig the planting hole in advance.
More than half of the planting hole is filled with specially prepared soil mixture
The pions of peonies are placed in the center of the hole.
The pit is filled to the top with soil, gently crushed, forming a hole for watering
If you plant a peony too close to the soil level, then it may freeze during the winter. A deep-planted plant develops slowly and blooms very poorly.
It is imperative to position the peony correctly when planting.
Once, in connection with construction work, an adult peony bush had to be transplanted to another place. There was a shadow there in the morning, and the sun appeared only in the afternoon. The plant ached for a long time and did not bloom, in the end it still withered and died. In the old place, small roots remained, from which a lush flowering bush again formed a few years later.
Freshly planted peonies will require the most careful care, which will consist of the following activities:
Peonies are rarely watered, but abundantly
For the first 2-3 years, young peonies do not need additional feeding; for their full development, the fertilizers introduced into the planting pit are quite enough... If this was not done, then immediately after planting they are fertilized (per bush):
2-3 weeks after the first feeding, use nitroammofoska (35-40 g per bush). The last time peonies are fertilized at the end of summer, using superphosphate (20-30 g) or potassium monophosphate (45-50 g), potassium sulfate (15-20 g).
For feeding peonies, you can use specialized fertilizers.
Experienced flower growers recommend picking off the buds formed in the first season after planting on the peonies. Otherwise, the plant will spend energy on flowering, and not on the formation of a strong root system.
It is believed that peonies planted in springtime do not take root well and bloom worse in the future. However, strict adherence to the terms and rules of agricultural technology will allow you to avoid unpleasant consequences, and even enjoy luxurious flowering already next season.
Peonies can also be planted in the spring, without waiting for autumn. However, it should be remembered: the germination of flowers and the likelihood of rooting are lower than those planted in autumn.
Before planting peonies in the spring, it is better to familiarize yourself with the rules for choosing planting material, soil, and place. Competent care of the plant after planting is also important.
Even a novice gardener can grow peonies without much difficulty. This plant does not need a transplant for more than two decades.
Important! If you choose the right place for the growth of peonies, perennial shrubs will bloom violently.
The herbaceous peonies that are grown now, breeders have bred in a wide variety of shapes and shades.
There are over 5000 varieties of peonies. Typically, plants grow in height from 30 cm to one and a half meters. Different varieties and species may have a different flower in diameter. In herbaceous peonies, the petals can be white, pale pink, bright pink, burgundy red.
The peony bush itself looks attractive, even without flowers. He will decorate any flower bed. The leaves of the plant are deep green in color. They are on long stalks. The shrub is lush, spreading, looks great both as a separate plant, and as part of the compositional idea of the landscape.
A simple of the classifications of these plants is considered by the type of flowers. It makes it possible to determine the key distinguishing features of all plants called herbaceous peonies - is there velvety, or not. According to the main classification, three groups are distinguished into which herbaceous peonies are divided:
Group # 1. It includes non-double representatives. This category is considered the simplest. She combined varieties that have a simple perianth in one or two rows. It has five petals. Creates a flawless cup.
Group # 2. In semi-double varieties of peonies, the arrangement of the petals is in 3 - 7 rows, and there is a disc in the middle. In these varieties, it is worth noting 3 subgroups:
Group # 3. It includes terry peonies. Representatives of this group are plants with lush, densely double flowers. This group can be conditionally divided into 4 subgroups:
the first includes hemispherical densely doubled varieties of peonies, which have flowers similar to the hemisphere "on a saucer". These plants have small and narrow petals inside. There is an outer circle, consists of large petals at the edges
flowers in the form of a ball or "bombs" have a horizontal row of outer large petals. They form, with the help of petals inside, an elastic ball
dense pink peonies. The flowers are compact, small in size. A uniform shape is obtained thanks to the inner and outer petals. The stamens are transformed into staminodes. The petals are arranged like a rose
in semi-pink-shaped densely double peonies, the structure is like that of a rose. Only in the center are small stamens, like a bunch
a feature of peonies, which are considered "crown" - an externally created ball of large petals, in the center are narrow petals and staminodes. The crown-shaped ring is raised, inside there are wide petals.
You can also find a simpler variation of the classification of existing garden forms of peonies. The main feature is taken into account here. It's about the structure of the flower. This variation implies the presence of five groups:
Peonies are also classified according to the height of the shrub. There are 4 groups here:
A special group of plants is tree peonies. They are most often grown by residents of eastern states - Japanese and Chinese.
In the last 3-5 years in Russia, it has become popular to cultivate this species when grown in open soil.
Treelike varieties do not have branches that die off, but herbaceous species do. The tree peony shrub grows up to 2 meters in height.
There are 3 groups of decorative tree peonies:
The growth rate of treelike peonies is lower than that of herbaceous ones. This is why planting material is more expensive.
Today, breeders have bred many different varieties of tree peonies, which bloom beautifully and are resistant to the harsh winters of Russia.
Attention! To make bloom pleasing with beauty and aroma, gardeners use a trick. They plant varieties belonging to different time groups.
To plant a flower in the spring season, it is necessary to choose the right planting material. The place and soil for planting a peony should also be chosen optimally. You need to plant a bush following the instructions. Observing all the rules, you can achieve proper rooting, active growth and lush flowering.
When choosing seedlings, first of all, they carefully examine the roots of the plant. The presence of buds - at least two, and preferably three, increases the likelihood of germination and rooting. To increase the chance of crop development in spring in the soil, light roots should stick out from the ground around the seedling.
A correctly chosen planting site, like the soil, is one of the main conditions for the good growth of any crop.
Therefore, you should follow some rules:
In spring, planting peony bushes in open soil is similar to autumn.
It has a sequence of actions:
The best time to plant peonies is from mid-August to late September. However, if necessary, you can plant them in October. When growing these flowers, the main thing is to choose the right place and plant it correctly, then no problems arise. If these requirements are not met, the peony will refuse to bloom, no matter how you care for it.
The peony is completely unsuitable for damp, swampy places where groundwater approaches closer than 1 m. The roots rot there, and the plant dies very quickly. The site must be ventilated and at the same time protected from the prevailing winds. Peony loves good lighting, only for hybrids it is possible to shade at noon hours. Forest peonies, such as Maryin root, grow well in partial shade.
Peonies succeed in a wide variety of soils, loamy, cultivated, well-drained, rich in nutrients are considered the best. On light soil, the plants give a lot of rather thin stems and small leaves, bloom poorly, age quickly and lose their decorative effect. It is recommended to add clay, humus or compost and a little peat to such soil.
On clay, peonies have strong stems, powerful leaves, large, brightly colored flowers, but plants develop more slowly. This land also has to be improved by adding sand, humus (compost) and peat. Peony also does not like peaty soils. Usually peat has an acidic reaction, but it needs a reaction of the environment close to neutral (pH 6.5-7). If the pH is below 6, the soil is deoxidized by adding bone or dolomite flour, ash (200 g / m 2).
There is always a temptation to get a large, mature shrub, albeit an old one, because it seems that if you plant it in good soil, it will grow beautifully. But this is the most common mistake!
In fact, in this case, the plant feeds on old reserves, new roots do not develop (and our main task is to achieve the formation of new roots!). Quite quickly, the bush will be exhausted, it will lose its attractiveness.
In low areas, peonies should be grown on raised ridges, while drainage is required with a thickness of at least 20 cm.
Peonies are not planted next to buildings, it is necessary to retreat at least 2 m, because the proximity to the structure leads to overheating and dryness of the soil. Peonies are not planted under trees - they will deprive them of moisture, as well as nutrients.
A good strong bush can only be grown from a young plant. A standard division has 2-3 buds and the same number of adventitious roots, shortened to about 10-12 cm.
That is, the aboveground and underground parts must be balanced, this is the key to intensive growth and complete renewal of the root system. Sections are treated with brilliant green, charcoal, maxim. For prophylaxis, planting material is disinfected in water at a temperature of 40 degrees for 20 minutes.
Peonies are considered non-capricious in care. But, nevertheless, certain activities must be carried out so that the plant develops well and pleases with large beautiful buds.
Peonies love moisture! Most of all they need it when the buds are forming. From April to June, when it is hot in summer, watering is necessary once every ten days, at the rate of two buckets per 1 square meter.
Due to this watering schedule, the plant forms healthy renewal buds. During the flowering of the perennial, and after this time, it is necessary to water less often, but the volume of water must be increased. 40 liters are added per 1 square meter.
The soil in circles near the trunks, during the period when the branches appeared, was always loose. It is necessary to loosen the soil, being careful. It is desirable, away from the rhizome, and not too deep. It is important not to touch the roots.
During the first year after planting peonies, it is not burdensome to care for them. You don't need to fertilize. At this time, there is an active development of the rhizome, which does not absorb mineral supplements very well.
Experienced growers advise using foliar dressing using a complex of fertilizers. "Baikal - M" or "Kemir" are well suited.
From April to May, foliage grows actively. During this period, it is advisable to spray the plants using Agricol. All actions are performed, as the instructions for the use of drugs read.
Fertilizers should be applied on the 15th of June. For these purposes, "Ideal" is suitable. For one bucket of water, you will need two tablespoons of the product. When the plant is two years old, top dressing is applied regularly. The foliage grows actively in May. Then, around the bush, compost (or humus) is introduced.
For root fertilizers, nitrogen-based dressings are used. For example, urea. It must be diluted in water. One bucket of water requires one tablespoon. When flower stalks are formed, it is necessary to add liquid organic matter (preferably mullein). Add one tablespoon of nitrophoska to 10 liters of solution.
For leaves and buds, the "Bud" preparation is suitable. They need to spray the buds and foliage. When the flowering period is over (the first days of August), the perennial must be watered using a solution of 1 tbsp. superphosphate + 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
There is no clear indication of what the temperature should be. Florists themselves choose those varieties that are adapted to a given climate.
If the variety is chosen correctly, the flower will adapt to the climate existing in the area, and will not be capricious. He will be able to perceive well the temperature regime.
Usually, having reached the age of three years, peonies delight with beautiful flowering. When the size of the buds is about a pea, peonies need to be pinned - pluck out the shoots on the sides. Leave one at a time on one stem. This will make it possible to extend the flowering period.
Most varieties of peonies have large inflorescences. The bushes are suffering. They find it difficult to support their weight. They lean towards the ground.
If it rains, they generally lie on the ground. To help the plant, it is necessary to install plastic or metal supports. Peduncles that have faded must be cut off at a height of 15 centimeters from the ground.
Important! When the flowers are cut, leave 50% of the stems. Otherwise, the peonies will weaken.