Over the 20 years of its existence, NiZina grapes have become a classic hybrid form grown in many gardens in almost all climatic zones of our and neighboring countries. The variety, bred at the end of the last millennium, fell in love with winegrowers both for the excellent taste and marketability of berries, and for its simplicity in care, for its adaptability to various conditions.
Grape NiZina is the first grape variety bred by amateur enthusiast V.N.Krainov, who lived in Novocherkassk. Viktor Nikolaevich was called a private breeder. Indeed, he did not work in any serious laboratories, but created new grape forms in his personal garden. As the breeder himself said, he had been engaged in viticulture since the age of 15, taught by his father, who was also not an agronomist, but a retired officer. Since V. Krainov's summer cottage was located on the banks of the Tuzla River and was characterized by not very favorable climatic conditions, he tried to create varieties that are resistant to frost, morning dew and fog. In total, the breeder created 45 varieties, and almost all of them are still used today.
The grapes produced by the plants from V. Krainov's collection are characterized by epithets as solid, imposing, gigantic, and gigantic.
And the first variety that received a start in life was precisely the variety Nizina. That's right, with a capital Z in the middle of the word. The enthusiast himself, speaking on November 30, 2009 about the beginning of his work, said that he crossed only a few varieties, using various options, for example: Talisman + Tomaysky, Talisman + Autumn black and Talisman + Radiant raisins. He wrote: Already in 1998, some hybrid seedlings threw out inflorescences and bloomed, in August-September the first harvest of new forms of grapes was obtained, among which the almost legendary hybrid form of Nizina was distinguished.
NiZina quickly became a classic: people looked up to him, improved him, but the variety is still in service
At first NiZina was grown in the south of Russia. Then it was cultivated by gardeners of the middle lane and more northern regions. In 1999, the varieties Nina, Tuzlovsky giant, Pervozvanny were bred, and then the list of hybrids received by Krainov grew like an avalanche.
On the Internet, you can find several differing judgments about which varieties were the parents of this hybrid.
In this case, of course, you should get to the original source, and even during the life of V. Krainov, a website dedicated to his works functioned. There, it seems, it is clearly stated that NiZina is the fruit of hybridization of the varieties Kesha-1 and Kishmish radiant. Where do many opinions on this matter come from on the Internet? Yes, simply based on the fact that on the basis of this pair, Krainov has consistently bred several varieties! But it is not difficult to draw a small parallel. The same parents have children, both light and dark. The comparison, of course, is exaggerated, but it is approximately the same in the plant world: by differently crossing, you can achieve different results. Moreover, another breeder, V.V. Zagorulko from the city of Zaporozhye, as a result of selection based on the same pair, obtained the Lily of the Valley variety radically different from Nizina.
Lily of the valley descended from the same parents, but how different these varieties are not each other!
No sooner had the growers figured out which variety V. Krainov was better - NiZina or Nina who followed him, as the breeder confused them even more by releasing a hybrid form called NiZina 2. At the same time, from the description given on his website, it followed that even outwardly In appearance, NiZina 2 is very different from the variety NiZina: even the color of the berries is different, not to mention some other characteristics. Yes, later NiZina 2 received the name Ninel, but this fact added confusion.
So, back to the variety that started the history of V. Krainov's grapes, NiZina grapes. Or, rather, as the author himself wrote, a complex interspecific hybrid of a mid-late ripening period.
Bushes of the Nizina variety grow taller than average, and the growth is fast, and most of its shoots are fruitful. Their number refers to the total number as 60 - 80%. There is a strong branching of the shoots, and since one or two clusters of berries can be tied on each, the yield of the variety is characterized as very high. The bush can withstand a total load of up to 24 shoots, the fruiting is stable. The minimum crop weight from one bush with almost complete absence of care is 6 kg.
Nizine clusters grow in such a way that they do not interfere with each other, and the yields of this grape variety are characterized as stable
The bush can grow both on its own roots (that is, grown from cuttings of NiZina grapes), and in a grafted culture: the percentage of successful vaccinations in skillful hands is close to 100, the variety has high compatibility with most rootstocks. Shoots ripen sufficiently during the growing season. Leaves of the usual shape. NiZina begins to produce crops in the second or third year after planting; depending on climatic conditions, the period from the beginning of the growing season to the full ripening of the berries is from 4 to 4.5 months. Thus, the variety is not early, rather, it should be considered medium late: harvesting in the south begins at the end of August, and in conditions of the middle zone and to the north - closer to mid-September.
NiZina is characterized as a frost-resistant variety: it can withstand temperatures down to -23 aboutS. True, now you will not surprise anyone with this indicator: there are even more record figures. But the fact that in most regions it requires only light shelter for the winter period is an undoubted advantage.
The resistance to grape diseases and most pests in the variety is described by many as unique: it is reported that spraying is only preventive in nature, and diseases of powdery mildew, gray rot or mildew are extremely rare on Nizin. However, professionals give an estimate of 3.5 for resistance to fungal diseases.
For some reason, hornets, wasps and bees dislike the variety. There are not so many varieties that are not affected by these insects, which is another undoubted advantage of it over many other varieties.
The grapes bloom at the usual time: around mid-June. The flowers are bisexual, so the berry set is high. The bunches are beautiful and large. And if their average weight is 0.7 kg, cases of their growth up to 2 kg, and of individual specimens - up to 3 kg are described. The density of the bunch is medium, the shape is from cylindrical in the main part to a regular cone at the bottom. As a rule, the bunches are tied in such a way that they do not interfere with each other's growth, each bunch contains up to 40 berries. The bunches have a good presentation, are transportable and, if properly stored, can lie until the New Year. The taste improves slightly during storage.
Berries from large to very large: average size 30 x 22 mm, average weight 11 g. Shape - from round to regular oval.
The peculiarity of the variety is that the berries turn red long before the onset of consumer ripeness: about two weeks before picking, they seem to be ready. But then the color slowly changes, becoming reddish-violet, up to pure violet, high intensity.
In the bright sun, the berries seem almost transparent. They are characterized as fleshy, very juicy. The peel is edible. The sugar content is 17–19%. Resistant to cracking. The acidity is 8-9 g / l. The number of seeds is from 0 to 3.
Having got acquainted with the grapes of the NiZina variety, we will try to give it a generalizing characteristic. Of course, there are no grapes without flaws, but they have much more advantages. Here are the main ones:
Relative disadvantages of the variety:
In general, the fact that NiZina grapes enjoy a steady popularity indicates that this is a very successful hybrid.
From the point of view of planting and cultivation, NiZina is an ordinary classic covering grape, so its agricultural technology does not have any significant features. NiZina reproduces well by cuttings, so you can grow its seedling yourself at home. If there is already a frost-resistant young bush of a different variety, the Lowland can be grafted into this bush with a cuttings: the grafting technique of grapes differs little from grafting fruit trees.
Like all grape varieties, NiZina prefers to grow in sunny places, sheltered from the influence of northern winds. Therefore, when choosing a place for landing, you should choose where there is any obstacle to the wind: a wall of a house or a blank fence. Tall shrubs (lilacs, jasmine, honeysuckle) also protect well from the wind, but still the side facing the southern sun should be open.
NiZina loves light soil, responds well to chernozems, but is able to grow in any places, except for very swampy ones. It does not require frequent and abundant watering, of course, except for the period of active berry growth. Does not like waterlogging: the groundwater level should be further than 2.5 m from the soil surface.
The best planting time in most regions is the end of April. In the south, grapes can be planted in October, but young plantings for the winter must be well covered. The planting technique is no different from other varieties, but one should take into account the great strength of growth, so the distance to neighboring bushes or other plantings should be at least 3 meters.
Even in the fall, for spring planting, it is necessary to dig up the entire area around the future bush with fertilizers (the feeding area as a result should be at least 5 m2) to fill the soil with nutrients for the next few years. The planting hole for spring planting is also dug in the fall. A pit for this variety is dug at least 70–80 cm in size in all dimensions. At the bottom, 20 cm of drainage must be placed, especially in the case of clay soils: crushed stone, pebbles, pieces of brick. A layer of soil mixed with fertilizers is poured onto the drainage (several buckets of compost or manure, half a bucket of wood ash, a pound of nitroammofoska), and above it is a layer that will directly contact the young roots: clean fertile soil, without fertilizers. Nizina is planted deeply, leaving only 2 buds above the ground.
In arid regions, a vertical pipe should be placed in the planting hole so that the seedling can be watered directly into the root zone for the first 2-3 years. When planting, the roots should be well spread, covered with soil, tamped well and watered. Mulching the soil around the seedling is mandatory: it prevents the soil from drying out and prevents weeds from growing.
In the planting pit, not only drainage is desirable, but also a pipe for subsequent irrigation
During the cultivation process, it is necessary to periodically water and feed the grapes. After 2-3 years, in early spring every year, 1-2 buckets of compost should be poured into the grooves made along the periphery of the bush, and in early June 1-2 liter cans of ash should be poured, slightly embedding them in the soil. Before the beginning of flowering and immediately after the end, foliar dressing with solutions of complex fertilizers (by spraying on the leaves) is effective. When pouring berries, top dressing should contain only phosphorus and potassium.
If severe frosts are expected in the spring, you can delay the swelling of the buds for 1-2 weeks by spraying the grapes with a solution of ferrous sulfate, which will also help in the fight against pests and diseases.
The grapes require annual formative pruning to remove dried shoots and excess branches thickening the bush. In the spring, pruning is cosmetic, and the main pruning should be done before the bushes are sheltered for the winter. In addition, during the entire growing season, still weak, but clearly superfluous young shoots should be broken out. This operation helps to ensure that by the fall, only the necessary vines will remain on the bush. In total, up to 22-25 shoots can be left at Nizina. Unfortunately, it is often necessary to cut off the extra bunches as soon as they appear. Strong supports are required.
The variety is quite resistant to diseases, but for their prevention, it is advisable to carry out several sprays per season with fungicide solutions. In October - early November, the bushes must be covered for the winter. The variety is frost-hardy enough; there is no need to bury the vines even in the northern regions. It will be enough, after removing the grapes from the trellises, to cover it with spruce branches of coniferous trees.
The variety NiZina is intended for cultivation in vineyards throughout the greater territory of our country. Having high winter hardiness and low susceptibility to diseases, it also gives stable yields of very tasty berries. Caring for these grapes is easy, which makes it possible to recommend it to novice gardeners.
Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor.
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